Earliest fossil occurrences in the western Palearctic of modern bird families that comprise today both non-migrating species or populations and ld temperate-tropical migrating species or populations. Higher taxon




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S1. Earliest fossil occurrences in the western Palearctic of modern bird families that comprise today both non-migrating species or populations and LD temperate-tropical migrating species or populations.


Higher taxon

Family

European first occurrence

Northern Africa and Middle East contemporaneous or earlier first occurrence

References

Age data and country

Average minimum age (Ma) *

Age data and country

Average minimum age (Ma) *

Non-passerines

Phalacrocoracidae

Early Oligocene: MP23 and MP30, France

30

Early Oligocene: 31 Ma, Egypt

31

1-5

Ardeidae

Early Oligocene: MP23-24, Czechia; and Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

29

Early Oligocene: 31 Ma, Egypt

31

4-6

Ciconiidae

Early Miocene: MN2a, France

19

Late Eocene: ca 35 Ma, and Early Oligocene, Egypt

35

4, 5, 7

Threskiornithidae

Middle Eocene: MP11, Germany

48

 

 

8

Phoenicopteridae

Early Oligocene: early Rupelian, France

32

 

 

8

Accipitridae

Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

25

Early Oligocene: 33 Ma, Egypt

33

4-6

Pandionidae

Early Oligocene: Rupelian, Germany

29

Early Oligocene: 31 Ma, Egypt

31

4, 5, 9, 10

Falconidae

Late Eocene, France

35

 

 

6

Anatidae

Early Oligocene: early Rupelian, Belgium, and MP30, France

32

 

 

1, 2, 11

Phasianidae

Early Oligocene: MP25, 28, 29, France

28

 

 

1, 2, 6

Gruidae

Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

25

Early Oligocene: 31 Ma, Egypt

31

4-6

Rallidae

Early Eocene: early Ypresian, Denmark; early Oligocene, Germany and Belgium; Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

54

 

 

6, 11, 12

Otididae

Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

25

 

 

6

Charadriidae

Early Miocene: MN4b, Czechia, and MN5, France

16

 

 

13

Scolopacidae

Early Oligocene: Rupelian, France

30

 

 

1-3

Recurvirostridae

Late Eocene: MP18, France

36

 

 

6

Burhinidae

Middle Pleistocene: Azerbaijan, France, Spain

0.1

 

 

14, 15

Phalaropodidae

Early Pleistocene: MQ1b, Czechia

1

 

 

13

Glareolidae

Early Miocene: MN4b, Czechia

16

 

 

13

Laridae

Early Oligocene: MP25, France

28

 

 

1, 2

Pteroclidae

Late Oligocene: MP28, France

25

 

 

6

Columbidae

Early Miocene: MN2a, France

19

 

 

13

Cuculidae

Eocene or Oligocene: between MP16 and MP28, France

25

 

 

6

Strigidae

Early Miocene: MN3, France

18

 

 

13

Caprimulgidae

Middle Eocene: MP16, France

38

 

 

6

Apodidae

Middle Eocene: MP10/11, France; and MP11, Germany

48

 

 

6

Coraciidae

Early Miocene: MN4b, Czechia

16

 

 

13

Meropidae

Middle Miocene: MN7, Croatia

14

 

 

13

Upupidae

Early Miocene: MN3, Czechia

18

 

 

13

Picidae

Late Miocene: MN11-12, Ukraine

7

 

 

13

Passerines

Alaudidae

Early Miocene: MN5, France

15

 

 

16

Hirundinidae

Early Pliocene: MN15, Hungary

3

 

 

13

Motacillidae

Early Miocene: MN2a, France

19

 

 

17

Turdidae

Late Miocene: MN13, Hungary

5

 

 

13

Sylviidae

Late Miocene: MN9, Hungary

9

 

 

13

Muscicapidae

Late Pliocene: MN17 Bulgaria, MN18 Spain, France

2

 

 

13

Oriolidae

Late Pleistocene, Europe

ca 0.1

Early Pleistocene, Middle East

ca 1

14, 15, 18

Laniidae

Early Miocene: MN2a, France

19

 

 

17

Fringillidae

Early Miocene: MN2a, France

19

 

 

19

Emberizidae

Late Pliocene: MN17, MN18, Bulgaria

2

 

 

13

First occurrences in Europe, and on the other hand northern Africa and the Middle East, are provided here separately, to show the higher latitude earliest records (Europe).


*Minimal ages provided derive from the earliest certain age of a record, given the intervals corresponding to epochs, stages or MN/MP zones. Ages are conform to the Geologic Timescale 2004 of Gradstein et al. [ref. 20]. Temporal placement of MN and MP biozones follows the ref. [13].
More general syntheses were used as background references for the fossil records, localities and ages [refs. 6, 8, 13, 19, 21-24].
Cumulated numbers of appearances derived from above:

Before 34 Ma: 7 non-passerine families; 0 passerine family

33-28 Ma: 10 non-passerine families; 0 passerine family

27-23 Ma: 3 non-passerine families; 0 passerine family

22-14 Ma: 7 non-passerine families; 4 passerine families

13-1 Ma: 2 non-passerine families; 6 passerine families

After 1 Ma: 2 non-passerine families; 0 passerine family

out of the 30 non-passerine and 10 passerine families


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2. Mourer-Chauviré C, Berthet D, Hugueney M (2004) The late Oligocene birds of the Créchy Quarry (Allier, France), with a description of two new genera (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Phalacrocoracidae, and Anseriformes: Anseranatidae). Senckenb lethaea 84: 303-315

3. Roux T (2002) Deux fossiles d’oiseaux de l’Oligocène inférieur du Luberon. Courrier scientifique du Parc naturel régional du Luberon 6: 38-57

4. Rasmussen DT, Olson SL, Simons EL (1987) Fossil birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation, Fayum Province, Egypt. Smithson Contrib Paleobiol 62: 1-20

5. Seiffert ER (2006) Revised age estimates for the later Paleogene mammal faunas of Egypt and Oman. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 5000-5005

6. Mourer-Chauviré C (2006) The avifauna of the Eocene and Oligocene phosphorites du Quercy (France): an updated list. Strata Ser 1, 13: 135-149

7. Miller ER, Rasmussen DT, Simons EL (1997) Fossil storks (Ciconiidae) from the late Eocene and early Miocene of Egypt. Ostrich 68: 23-26

8. Mayr G (2005) The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biol Rev 80: 515-542

9. Schindler T, Mayr G (2004) Der erste Vogelrest der Alzey-Formation (Rupelium, Oligozän) des Mainzer Beckens (SW-Deutschland) - ein Greifvogel (Accipitridae). Mainzer naturwiss Archiv 42: 21-26

10. Mayr G (2006) An osprey (Aves: Accipitridae: Pandioninae) from the early Oligocene of Germany. Senckenb lethaea 86: 93-96

11. Mayr G, Smith R (2001) Ducks, rails, and limicoline waders (Aves: Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes) from the lowermost Oligocene of Belgium. Geobios 34: 547-561

12. Lindow BEK, Dyke GJ (2006) Bird evolution in the Eocene: climate change in Europe and a Danish fossil fauna. Biol Rev 81: 483-499

13. Mlíkovský J (2002) Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press, Praha

14. Tyrberg T (1998) Pleistocene Birds of the Palearctic: a Catalogue. The Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, USA

15. Tyrberg T (2007) Pleistocene Birds of the Palearctic <http://web.telia.com/~u11502098/pleistocene.html>, cached copy at <http://www.webcitation.org/5NzvVu5Ib> [online, 10 April 2007]

16. Ballmann P (1972) Les oiseaux miocènes de Vieux-Collonges (Rhône). Docum Lab Géol Fac Sci Lyon 50: 93-101

17. Milne-Edwards A (1869-1871) Recherches anatomiques et paléontologiques pour servir à l’histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France, II. E. Martinet, Paris

18. Louchart A (2002) Les oiseaux du Pléistocène de Corse, et de quelques localités sardes - écologie, évolution, biogéographie et extinctions. Docum Lab Géol Fac Sci Lyon 155: 1-287

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20. Gradstein FM, Ogg JG, Smith AG, Agterberg FP, Bleeker W, Cooper RA, Davydov V, Gibbard P, Hinnov L, House MR, Lourens L, Luterbacher HP, McArthur J, Melchin MJ, Robb LJ, Shergold J, Villeneuve M, Wardlaw BR, Ali J, Brinkhuis H, Hilgen FJ, Hooker J, Howarth RJ, Knoll AH, Laskar J, Monechi S, Powell J, Plumb KA, Raffi I, Röhl U, Sanfilippo A, Schmitz B, Shackleton NJ, Shields GA, Strauss H, Van Dam J, Veizer J, van Kolfschoten Th, Wilson D (2004) A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge Univ Press, New York


21. Olson SL (1985) The fossil record of birds. In: Farner DS, King JR, Parkes KC (eds) Avian Biology. Academic Press, New York, pp 79-238

22. Unwin DM (1993) Aves. In: Benton MJ (ed) The Fossil Record. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 717-737

23. Bochenski Z (1997) List of european fossil bird species. Acta Zool Cracov 40: 293-333

24. Mourer-Chauviré C (2004) Review: Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe. Auk 121: 623-627






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