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WAKey20030523

{in blurb under Z. arboreus (being added), mention that Pilsbry’s (1946: 477) reports of Z. nitidus from Seattle and Astoria, apparently not based on specimens, need confirmation [and consider including Frest or Roth’s refutation of Branson’s report from Klamath]}

{correct taxonomy in key from syst list}

{remove spp lists at couplets}

{add comments from files since 17 Apr 2003


DONE WASnKeyPhotos.xls 23 May

Dear Bill and Paul.doc 31 Oct



DONE Leonard20030523RE WA key.txt 28 Oct

DONE Leonard20030605 RE key.htm 28 Oct

DONE Survey Manage Mollusk Field Guides.txt 23 Sep

DONE GuyTakesPhotos.txt 2 Jul {also save to different file at CMNH}

WPLResponseTAPComments on Washington Gastropod Photos.doc 23 May

Fw PHkey comments.txt 23 May {extracted through 14a}

DONE Pa_vs_Pf.doc 23 May

DONE TAPComments on Washington Gastropod Photos.doc 23 May

DONE Cepaea nemoralis.htm 9 May

DONE RE 2 more Cochlicopa Ancotrema.htm 9 May

DONE RE poor man's montage.htm 5 May

DONE add to key.doc 4 May

DONE Re Acknowledgments.htm 21 Apr

DONE Fwd Re Acknowledgments.htm 17 Apr}
Identification Guide to Land Snails and Slugs of Western Washington
30 Nov. 2003 Draft
by Timothy A. Pearce, Casey Richart, William P. Leonard, and Paul A. Hohenlohe
1a Shell well developed, coiled, large enough to accommodate the withdrawn body of the animal; these are the shelled snails 2

1b Shell lacking, or if present then too small to accommodate the withdrawn body of the animal; these are the slugs and semi-slugs 37

{Hemphillia burringtoni, Hemphillia glandulosa, Hemphillia dromedarius, Hemphillia malonei, Prophysaon dubium, Prophysaon coeruleum, Prophysaon vanattae, Prophysaon obscurum, Prophysaon andersoni, Prophysaon foliolatum, Arion intermedius, Arion ater, A. ater rufus, Arion subfuscus, Arion distinctus, Arion fasciatus, Arion circumscriptus, Arion sylvaticus, Ariolimax columbianus, Limax maximus, Lehmannia valentiana, Deroceras reticulatum, Deroceras laeve, Deroceras panormitanum, Testacella haliotidea}
2a Shell wider than high (or about as wide as high); size variable 3

{Helix aspersa, Pristiloma lansingi, Euconulus fulvus, Cepaea nemoralis, Pristiloma arcticum , Punctum randolphi, Monadenia fidelis , Pristiloma stearnsi, Allogona townsendiana, Pristiloma pilsbryi, Cryptomastix devia , Vespericola columbianus, Cryptomastix germana, Paralaoma caputspinulae, Microphysula ingersolli, Planogyra clappi, Ancotrema sportella, Striatura pugetensis, Megomphix hemphilli, Vallonia pulchella, Ancotrema hybridum, Pristiloma johnsoni, Oxychilus draparnaldi, Haplotrema vancouverense, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus cellarius}

2b Shell height greater than 1.5 times shell diameter; shell height less than 15 mm 28

{Cochlicopa lubrica, Carychium occidentale, Vertigo modesta, Vertigo andrusiana, Vertigo columbiana, Succineidae, Columella simplex, Assiminea californica, Cecina manchurica, Myosotella myosotis}


3a Full-grown shell ≥ 4mm diameter; umbilicus usually open; all shells 4 to 8 mm diameter have an open umbilicus and at least 5.5 whorls 4

{Helix aspersa, Cepaea nemoralis, Monadenia fidelis, Allogona townsendiana, Vespericola columbianus, Cryptomastix devia, Cryptomastix germana, Microphysula ingersolli, Ancotrema sportella, Megomphix hemphilli, Ancotrema hybridum, Oxychilus draparnaudi, Haplotrema vancouverense, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus cellarius}

3b Full-grown shell < 4 mm in diameter (snails in this choice are full-grown at 3 to 6.5 whorls); umbilicus closed or open; shells 2.5 to 4 mm diameter have a closed umbilicus and at least 4 whorls 18

{PH: I suggest putting a parenthetical note after "closed umbilicus" refering to the note under 20b. I've also gotten perforate Pristiloma (either wascoense or chersinella) from the Mt Hood National Forest, and I bet they could be found north of the Columbia.; TAP: we’ll have to revise to accommodate umbilicate Pristiloma}

{Punctum randolphi, Striatura pugetensis, Paralaoma caputspinulae {servilis}, Planogyra clappi, Pristiloma johnsoni, Pristiloma arcticum, Vallonia pulchella, Pristiloma lansingi, Pristiloma pilsbryi, Euconulus fulvus, Pristiloma stearnsi}
4a(3) Shell lip in full-grown shells broadly reflected; last whorl descends … Polygyridae 5

{Allogona townsendiana, Vespericola columbianus, Cryptomastix devia, Cryptomastix germana}

4b Shell lip thin or thickened, but not reflected; last whorl may or may not descend 8

{Helix aspersa, Cepaea nemoralis, Monadenia fidelis, Microphysula ingersolli, Ancotrema sportella, Megomphix hemphilli, Ancotrema hybridum, Oxychilus draparnaudi, Haplotrema vancouverense, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus cellarius}


5a Full-grown shell ≥ 20 mm in diameter, without hairs on tan or brown shell; shell surface with microscopic spiral lines 6

{Allogona townsendiana, Cryptomastix devia}

5b Full-grown shell < 17 mm in diameter, shell usually covered with short, fine hairs, shell brown; shell surface without microscopic spiral lines; umbilicus about 10% or less of diameter and in full-grown shells partly covered by the broadly reflected lip 7

{Vespericola columbianus, Cryptomastix germana}


6a Full-grown shells (with a reflected lip) lacking a tooth-like structure in the aperture; whorls with prominent longitudinal striations; shell 24 to 35 mm diameter … Allogona townsendiana

Diameter 1.4 to 1.7 times height; with 5 to 6 whorls; umbilicus about 12% of diameter and partly covered by reflected lip; reflected lip is white; periostracum (outer covering on shell) is reddish-brown and usually at least partially eroded revealing whitish shell substance beneath; last whorl descends in full-grown shells; body cream colored; appears to be active above ground mainly in spring; known from Puget Sound lowlands and foothills of Olympic, Cascade and Coast ranges

6b Full-grown shell (with a reflected lip) having a prominent tooth-like barrier in the aperture; shells 20 to 23 mm diameter when fully grown … Cryptomastix devia

Diameter 1.4 to 1.7 times height, 5.5 to 6 whorls; diameter of umbilicus about 10% of shell diameter; umbilicus partly covered by reflected lip; reflected lip is white; shell dark brown; juvenile shells have short hairs, but the hairs are lost in more mature specimens; found in moist areas; obtuse spiral channel within umbilicus; lower lip relatively straight and horizontal and often thickened centrally to form a low basal tooth; known from Cascade Range and Puget Sound lowlands; locally abundant in Cowlitz and Nisqually River drainages but apparently rare elsewhere in Washington State; occurs from near sea level up to 1220 meters on South Cle Elum Ridge, Kittitas County; usually found in leaf thatch under sword ferns in mixed forest


7a Shell lacking a long, narrow tooth-like structure in the aperture; shell up to 17 mm diameter … Vespericola columbianus

Shell brown with 5 to 6 closely coiled whorls; body pale brown; parietal tooth-like barrier rarely present; (juvenile specimens less than 8.5 mm diameter that lack a reflected lip and an elongate tooth are difficult to identify to species by external characters; Cryptomastix germana has more whorls per unit diameter than Vespericola columbianus); known from all regions of western Washington from near sea-level to at least 1300 m elevation

7b Full-grown shells (with a reflected lip) bearing a long, narrow tooth-like barrier in the inner edge of the aperture; shell up to 8.5 mm diameter … Cryptomastix germana

Shell brown with 5 to 5.5 closely coiled whorls; shell strongly constricted behind lip; umbilicus completely or nearly completely closed by reflected lip; known from conifer forests in all regions of western Washington; most commonly found on or under woody debris and leaf litter; (juvenile specimens less than 8.5 mm diameter that lack a reflected lip and an elongate tooth are difficult to identify to species by external characters; Cryptomastix germana has more whorls per unit diameter than does Vespericola columbianus)

{PH: I have Vespericola columbianus from the northern Oregon Cascades -- possibly some could have teeth in southern WA? In differentiating these two, I rely more on size (which you mention) and also hair density. Hairs are much denser in Vespericola (12-30 per sq mm) versus Cryptomastix germana (<12 per sq mm). You could check this if you have any specimens, but to me this difference is visible in the field with naked eye or handlens.; TAP: yes, should make the change to allow rare teeth in Vespericola, check the hair density}

8a(4) Shell diameter less than 5 mm; shell whorls tightly coiled in apical view, the last whorl less than 1.8 times wider than the previous whorl; umbilicus 20 to 25% of shell diameter … Microphysula cookei

shell 3.6 to 4.4 mm diameter; weak spiral lines on shell

8b Shell diameter 6 to 40 mm diameter; shell coiling tightness variable 9


9a(8) Shell less flattened, diameter 1.1 to 1.6 times height; shell usually with color bands; full-grown shell > 24 mm; last part of last whorl descends 10

{Helix aspersa, Cepaea nemoralis, Monadenia fidelis}

9b Shell more flattened, diameter 1.8 to 2.5 times height; shell without color bands; full-grown shells < 32 mm; last part of last whorl may or may not descend 12

{Ancotrema sportella, Megomphix hemphilli, Ancotrema hybridum, Oxychilus draparnaudi, Haplotrema vancouverense, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus cellarius}


10a(9) Shell lip thickened but not broadly reflected in outer part of lip in full-grown shells, lip is partially reflected near umbilicus; umbilicus open, about 10% of shell diameter; shell dark brown with one or more bands or stripes along periphery (yellowish morph encountered occasionally); native species, generally found in more natural settings … Monadenia fidelis

Shell may exceed 35 mm diameter; diameter 1.3 to 1.5 times height; shell with 6.5 to 7 whorls; typically with a darker band along the periphery or with both darker or lighter bands (may include yellow bands); body reddish with black speckles; common in open during late spring; sometimes found in trees; this is the most conspicuous land snail in our area; eggs are opaque white, about 5 mm diameter; this snail may reach full size in 3 years in captivity; known from all regions of western Washington from near sea-level up to 1220 m elevation; in winter, has been found hibernating under moss (above ground) in crotches of maple trees as well as buried under leaf litter at the bases of bigleaf maple trees; appears to be active on the surface mainly in spring

10b Shell lip reflected in full-grown shells; umbilicus closed by reflected lip in full-grown shells; shell with a yellowish or tan background, with or without color bands; introduced from Europe, generally found in more disturbed settings 11
11a(10) Shell less than 25 mm diameter; color bands on shell continuous but not always present, 0 to 5 bands; shell more depressed, diameter about 1.3 times height; shell whorls more tightly coiled, width of last whorl in apical view less than 1.5 times width of previous whorl … Cepaea nemoralis

Native to northwestern Europe; occurs in urban and agricultural areas in the Puget Sound lowlands and Chehalis River watershed

11b Full-grown shell generally more than 30 mm diameter; color bands on shell always present and interrupted by yellow flecks or streaks, 3 bands; shell not depressed, shell diameter about 1.1 to 1.2 times shell height; shell whorls less tightly coiled, width of last whorl in apical view more than 1.5 times the width of the previous whorl … Helix aspersa

Native to northwestern Europe; spotty distribution around residential areas in the Puget Sound lowlands


12a(9) Shell greenish-yellow or olive (rarely chocolate brown), opaque or nearly so; full-grown shells 11 to 34 mm diameter; shell lip may be thickened or not; body of animal white (head and tentacles may appear gray); native species found in less disturbed situations; may be carnivorous or not 13

{Ancotrema sportella, Ancotrema hybridum, Haplotrema vancouverense, Megomphix hemphilli}

12b Shell brown or amber, nearly transparent; full-grown shells 6 to 16 mm diameter; shell lip never thickened; body of animal pale gray to black; species introduced from Europe, common around greenhouses and gardens; carnivorous, eating snails and other invertebrates … Oxychilus 16

{Oxychilus draparnaudi, Oxychilus alliarius, Oxychilus cellarius}


13a(12) Shell surface glossy, no trace of spiral lines, weak growth wrinkles present; shell lip edge not thickened in full-grown shells, upper lip not bent downward in full-grown shells; umbilical side of aperture termination in full-grown shells not expanding toward umbilicus; full-grown shells without a ventral constriction in the last whorl just before the lip; upper insertion of aperture higher on previous shell whorl; not known to eat other snails … Megomphix hemphilli

Shell translucent with a pale yellow-green tint; full-grown shell 13 to 20 mm; umbilicus wide, 20 to 35% of shell diameter; shell with 5.5 to 6 whorls; young shells have spiral lines on the parietal (inner) wall of the aperture; width of last whorl much more than twice the width of the penultimate whorl; body whitish; appears to be primarily fossorial in mixed forests where it is associated with bigleaf maple (Acer macrophylum) trees, under which it is found on soil under leaf litter or in rodent burrows; known from Olympia southward in foothills of the Cascade and Coast Ranges

13b Shell surface not glossy, spiral lines present, at least on the spire, growth wrinkles more prominent; shell lip edge in full-grown shells is thickened and upper edge of aperture is usually straightened or dips downward; umbilical side of aperture termination in full-grown shells expanding slightly toward umbilicus; full-grown shells often with a ventral constriction in the last whorl just before the lip; upper insertion of aperture a bit lower on previous shell whorl; snails are carnivorous, eating other snails, also known to eat plants … Haplotrematidae 14

{PH: 13a/b Two things I think are most useful in distinguishing Megmophix from Ancotrema/Haplotrema are rate of whorl expansion (lower in Megomphix) and aperture shape (aperture of Megomphix somewhat elongate horizontally and flattened on the base, versus aperture in Ancotrema/Haplotrema somewhat elongated diagonally downward). You could refer to the pictures for these characters.; TAP: sounds good – add those characters}


14a(13) Radial striations on shell microscopic and wrinkle-like, often irregular; upper lip of shell aperture is straightened and sometimes dips downward; full-grown shells 18.5 to 34 mm diameter … Haplotrema vancouverense

Shell with 5.25 to 5.5 whorls, umbilicus 22 to 25% of shell diameter; shell color olive with darker and lighter streaks, some specimens may be chocolate-brown; lip in full-grown shells is slightly thickened; shell smooth on dorsal surfaces and inside umbilicus; occurs in forested habitats throughout western Washington; a predator of other snails and slugs; commonly found under woody debris; from near sea level to 1220 m

14b Striations on shell with minute beaded sculpture of spiral lines cutting the tips of the regular radial growth ridges, at least on the spire (beaded sculpture easily seen within umbilicus); upper lip of shell aperture with a strong downward dip; full-grown shells 11 to 25 mm diameter … Ancotrema 15

{be sure photos show distinguishing characters}


15a(14) Beaded sculpture on entire shell surface composed of regular growth ridges cut by spiral lines; sculpture is strong on spire and on last whorl; full-grown shells 11 to 22 mm … Ancotrema sportella

Shell with 5 to 6.5 whorls; umbilicus 25 to 30% of shell diameter; color pale greenish-yellow; occurs in forested habitats throughout western Washington; a predator of other snails and slugs; commonly found under woody debris; from sea level to at least 1200 m

15b Beaded sculpture absent from last whorl, but present within umbilicus and usually on spire; sculpture on last whorl is reduced to low wrinkles with spiral striations microscopic or nearly absent; full-grown shells 15 to 27 mm diameter … Ancotrema hybridum

Shell with 6 to 6.5 whorls, umbilicus 25 to 28% of shell diameter; color pale greenish-yellow, sometimes darker; a predator of other snails and slugs; commonly found under woody debris; sometimes difficult to distinguish from Haplotrema vancouverense


16a(12) Full-grown shell 6 to 7 mm diameter, with 4 to 4.5 whorls, highly polished; animal very dark (black); living animal smells of garlic … Oxychilus alliarius

Umbilicus about 17 to 18% of shell diameter; introduced from Europe; widespread in residential areas in Puget Sound lowlands; commonly encountered under debris in urban areas

16b Full-grown shell 9 mm or greater in diameter, with 5 to 5.5 whorls; animal either very pale or very dark; not smelling of garlic 17
17a Full-grown shell about 9 mm diameter, with 5 whorls; last whorl expands more slowly, width of last shell whorl 1.6 to 2 times width of penultimate whorl; animal is pale gray … Oxychilus cellarius

Umbilicus about 17 to 25% of shell diameter; shell pale brownish or whitish; introduced from Europe

17b Full-grown shell 12 to 16 mm diameter, with 5 to 5.5 whorls; last whorl expands more rapidly, width of last shell whorl about 2.1 times width of penultimate whorl; animal is dark blue-black or blue-gray … Oxychilus draparnaudi

Umbilicus about 10 to 17% of shell diameter; bases of upper tentacles swollen; introduced from Europe


18a(3) Umbilicus of shell minute to completely closed; 3.8 to 6.5 whorls in full-grown shells; full-grown shells 2 to 3.8 mm in diameter 19

{Pristiloma lansingi, Euconulus fulvus, Pristiloma arcticum, Pristiloma stearnsi, Pristiloma pilsbryi, Pristiloma johnsoni}

18b Umbilicus wide, 23 to 33% of shell diameter; 3 to 4.25 whorls in full-grown shells; full-grown shells 1 to 2.4 mm in diameter 24

{Punctum randolphi, Vallonia pulchella, Paralaoma caputspinulae, Planogyra clappi, Striatura pugetensis}


19a(18) Shell flatter, diameter 2 to 2.4 times shell height; shell whitish; full-grown shells with 4 or fewer whorls; whorls increasing more rapidly, the last whorl 2.4 times width of previous whorl … Pristiloma johnsoni

Shell up to 2.5 mm diameter, 1.1 mm high, with about 4 whorls; spire nearly flat; umbilicus completely closed; animal white

19b Shell less flat, diameter 1.2 to 1.7 times shell height; shell brown; full-grown shells with 5 or more whorls; whorls more tightly coiled, last whorl less than 1.4 times width of previous whorl 20

{Euconulus fulvus, Pristiloma lansingi, Pristiloma arcticum, Pristiloma stearnsi, Pristiloma pilsbryi}


20a Upper lip of shell aperture joins previous whorl below the periphery of previous whorl (in lateral view); shell spire more conical, spire height (above final whorl) 40% or more of final whorl height; upper surface with very fine radial striae (use high power microscope), 90 to 105 striae per mm; umbilicus minute to closed; aperture more open … Euconulus fulvus

Periphery of shell about at middle of shell height when viewed laterally; found among leaf litter in a broad range of forest types (e.g., ponderosa pine in Kittitas County, bigleaf maple in Thurston County); ranges from near sea-level to approximately 915 m

20b Upper lip of shell aperture joins previous whorl well above the periphery of previous whorl (in lateral view); shell spire more depressed, less than 30% of final whorl height; upper surface either smooth, or if radial sculpture present, radial lines are fewer than 15 striae per mm; shell surface glossy; umbilicus completely closed; aperture narrow … Pristiloma 21

Found among fallen leaves. The record for Pristiloma wascoense, tentatively identified from the Olympic Mountains near Port Angeles by Branson (1997), needs confirmation. Pristiloma wascoense is about 2 mm in diameter, has a narrow umbilicus, and had been previously reported from Oregon in Wasco County and near Salem, Marion County.


21a Shell sculptured above with distinct impressed growth lines 22

21b Shell smooth throughout or with only very weak growth lines 23


22a(21) Growth lines on shell crowded, not very deep, 10 to 15 striae per mm; periphery of shell about at middle of shell height when viewed laterally; full-grown shells 3.4 to 3.8 mm diameter, with about 6.3 whorls … Pristiloma stearnsi

Shell up to 2.7 mm high, spire low-conic, not particularly flattened; the animal is grayish; in living specimens the internal organs may be visible through the transparent shell giving the upper part of the shell the appearance of having irregular black markings

22b Growth lines on shell more widely spaced, 6 to 8 per mm, deep and separated, giving the appearance of a corona of low tubercles at the edge of the whorls; periphery of shell above middle of shell height when viewed laterally; full-grown shells 2.6 to 3.4 mm diameter, with about 5.5 to 6.5 whorls … Pristiloma pilsbryi

Shell up to 1.7 mm high; spire low; known from Point Ellis, Long Beach, and Ellsworth River watershed (tributary of Naselle River), all in Pacific County, Washington.


23a(21) Shell usually with an irregularly denticulate rib within the outer margin of the lip; periphery of shell above the middle when viewed laterally … Pristiloma lansingi

Shell diameter greater than 2 times height, shell up to 2.6 mm diameter, 1.5 mm high, with 5.5 whorls; animal whitish; head gray, tentacles black; the lip rib usually forms by the second or third whorl (shell 1 to 2 mm diameter) and can sometimes be seen through the transparent shell as much as one half whorl away from the aperture edge, however the animal can resorb the rib and it is possible to find young specimens lacking the rib; the rib is short in young specimens; widespread in lowland forests; most commonly encountered in leaf litter of deciduous trees

23b Shell lip thin, lacking a rib; periphery of shell about at middle when viewed laterally … Pristiloma arcticum

Shell up to 2.6 mm diameter, 1.6 mm high, diameter less than 2 times height; with about 5 whorls; whorls gradually increasing; spire low conoid; known from Snoqualmie Pass (King and Kittitas Counties); found on leaf litter of deciduous trees, on the underside of woody debris, and in moist meadows at higher elevations (up to 1200 m) {I've seen it on Mt. Rainier, and didn't Bill and Casey collect it in SW WA when looking for P. pilsbryi?}


24a(18) Shell pale greenish-yellow to white; flattened, shell diameter 1.85 to 2 times height; whorls less tightly coiled, width of final whorl 1.5 to 1.7 times width of previous whorl 25

{Striatura pugetensis, Vallonia pulchella}

24b Shell brown to reddish-brown; less flattened, shell diameter 1.3 to 1.82 times height; whorls more tightly coiled, width of final whorl 1.1 to 1.3 times width of previous whorl 26

{Punctum randolphi, Paralaoma caputspinulae, Planogyra clappi}


25a Lip of full-grown shell is thickened, flared, and reflected; shell surface smooth, without regular striations; full-grown shell diameter 2.4 mm; more tightly coiled, width of the last whorl 1.5 times width of previous whorl … Vallonia pulchella

3.5 whorls; umbilicus about 27% of shell diameter; shell diameter 2 times shell height; shell translucent tan to white; with no surface sculpture except irregular very weak growth lines; introduced from Eastern United States, may be encountered in drier and more disturbed areas, including lawns and agricultural situations

25b Lip not thickened and not flaring; shell surface with minute regular radial striations; shell diameter 1.5 to 1.7 mm; more loosely coiled, width of the last whorl 1.7 times width of previous whorl … Striatura pugetensis

3 to 3.25 whorls; umbilicus about 33% of shell diameter; shell diameter 1.85 times shell height; shell pale greenish-yellow.


26a(24) Shell with radial ribs prominent and widely spaced, no smaller radial striae between ribs (although spiral striae are present); shell flattened, spire low, shell diameter 1.65 to 1.85 times shell height Planogyra clappi

Shell 2 mm diameter, 3.5 whorls; known from low elevations of Olympic and Coast ranges; found in leaf litter

26b Shell with fine growth lines or less prominent ribs, if ribs present, then finer radial striae are present between the larger ribs; shell taller, shell diameter 1.3 to 1. 7 times shell height 27
27a Shell minute, diameter 1.1 to 1.3 mm with 3.5 to 4.3 whorls; shell surface with very fine growth lines, not ribs, all about the same size; shell diameter 1.35 to 1.5 times height … Punctum randolphi

umbilicus 20 to 24% of shell diameter; juvenile Vertigo have a similar shape and color, but they can be separated because juvenile Vertigo have a larger initial whorl and a smaller umbilicus; common in lowland and montane forests up to approximately 910 m; usually found in leaf litter of deciduous trees

27b Shell less minute, diameter 1.5 to 2.0 mm with 4 to 4.3 whorls; shell surface with small, widely spaced riblets having usually five or more smaller radial striae in the interspaces between each pair of major riblets; shell diameter 1.6 to 1.7 times height … Paralaoma servilis

umbilicus 29% of shell diameter; foot whitish; head and tentacles darker, almost black; common in low and mid-elevation forests; found in leaf litter of deciduous trees and under woody debris; Punctum conspectum and Paralaoma caputspinulae are synonyms


28a Full-grown shell 5 mm or more in height 29

{Cochlicopa lubrica, Myosotella myosotis, Succineidae}

28b Full-grown shell 3.5 mm or less in height 31

{Vertigo columbiana, Columella simplex, Carychium occidentale, Vertigo andrusiana, Vertigo modesta, Cecina manchurica, Assiminea californica}


29a(28) Height of shell aperture about 33% of shell height, shell surface glossy; shell spindle shaped … Cochlicopa lubrica

Apex broadly rounded; lip edge internally thickened with a narrow continuous rib in full-grown specimens; to 5.5 mm high, 2.5 mm diameter, with 5.5 to 6 whorls; body color dark; may be encountered in areas inhabited by humans; sometimes placed in the genus Cionella

29b Height of shell aperture nearly half or more of shell height; shell not glossy; shell regularly tapering 30
30a(29) Shell aperture bearing teeth or lamellae; sparse hairs on shell spire; shell narrower, height about 2.25 times diameter; found in salt marshes … Myosotella myosotis

Shell up to about 8 mm high; chestnut-brown or yellowish-brown; found among Salicornia (pickleweed) and under debris; columella (inner edge of aperture) bears three folds (one is weakly developed)

30b Shell aperture lacks teeth or lamellae; shell without hairs; shell broader, height about 1.5 to 1.7 times diameter; often found in moist areas near freshwater, but usually not found in salt marshes … Succineidae

species uncertain but may include Catinella vermeta (Say, 1829), Oxyloma nuttallianum (I. Lea, 1841), Succinea rusticana Gould, 1846, and others; succineid shells have been found along Lake Union in Seattle and are likely in other parts of western Washington


31a(28) Aperture of full-grown shell with teeth or lamellae 32

{Vertigo columbiana, Carychium occidentale, Vertigo andrusiana, Vertigo modesta}

31b Shell aperture lacking teeth or lamellae at any stage 35

{Columella simplex, Cecina manchurica, Assiminea californica}


32a(31) Shell bearing one tooth-like lamella on the inner edge of the aperture (lamella continues through the shell’s interior and is visible in both juvenile and full-grown shells); shell translucent whitish, conic and regularly tapering; full-grown shells with a strongly reflected lip; head of animal with one pair of tentacles and eyes at base of tentacles … Carychium occidentale

5 to 5.3 whorls; to 2.4 mm high; common in lowlands and foothills of Olympic and Cascade Ranges; most commonly found either among deciduous leaf litter or on soil

32b Shell bearing 4 to 6 tooth-like barriers in the aperture; shell brown, translucent, oblong in shape; shell lip not reflected but may be slightly thickened in full-grown specimens; head of animal without tentacles … Vertigo 33

{Vertigo columbiana, Vertigo andrusiana, Vertigo modesta}


33a(32) Shell smaller, 1.9 to 2.1 mm tall; 4 teeth in aperture … Vertigo columbiana

columellar tooth not ascending inwardly; outer lip teeth not on a callus ridge; behind lip on outer surface no constriction between lip and crest; umbilicus minute; found in leaf litter, on the smooth bark of young bigleaf maples, and the underside of sword fern fronds; common throughout most of western Washington; found in deciduous leaf litter and red cedar litter; ranges from near sea level up to 1070 m {TAP: I think I saw one 2.5 mm tall, coll Richart & Leonard 6 Dec. 2003}

33b Shell larger, 2.3 to 2.7 mm tall; 4 to 6 teeth in the aperture (usually only 4 are well developed) 34
34a(33) Shell aperture bearing 4 to 6 teeth (usually 6); columellar tooth (on left side of aperture) ascends a little inwardly; outer lip teeth stand on a thin, light-colored callus ridge … Vertigo andrusiana

Shell 1.8 to 2.5 mm tall {how can it be 1.8 to 2.5 if 33b says 2.3 to 2.7 mm?}; 4.5 to 5.5 whorls; behind lip on outer surface has wide, shallow constriction between lip and crest; umbilicus is closed

34b Shell aperture bearing 4 teeth; columellar tooth not ascending inwardly; outer lip teeth not on a callus ridge … Vertigo modesta

Shell 2.3 to 2.7 mm tall; about 5.5 whorls; behind lip on outer surface no constriction between lip and crest; umbilicus is closed


{consider replacing above 33&34 with couplets from “WPLResponseTAPComments…”:

a. V. andrusiana: aperture with 5 to 6 teeth; aperture width greater than half shell width; lower right edge of aperture more angled, less vertical (in apertural view); shell stouter with penultimate whorl nearly same diameter as final whorl; shell usually smaller, 1.9 to 2.1 mm tall

a’. Others: aperture with 4 teeth; aperture width about half of shell width; lower right edge of aperture more vertical (in apertural view); shell generally less stout with penultimate whorl usually smaller in diameter than final whorl; shell usually larger, 2.3 to 2.7 mm tall … b
b. V. modesta: outer lip more rounded, teeth smaller, set closer to the lip edge, lower palatal tooth short, not extending inward as far; shell 2.3 to 2.7 mm tall

b’. V. andrusiana {I think he meant columbiana}: outer lip slightly flattened, teeth larger, set slightly inward from the lip edge, lower palatal tooth longer, extending inward; shell 1.8 to 2.5 mm tall {TAP: andrusiana also has the larger, more recessed teeth}

}
35a(31) Shell truncate with upper whorls broken off; shell more slender (height about 2.7 times width); found among oyster shells and under organic debris at higher levels in salt marshes … Cecina manchurica

aperture about 30% of shell height

35b Shell with early whorls intact; shell less slender (1.5 to 1.6 times width) 36

{Columella simplex, Assiminea californica}


36a(35) Shell cylindrical and oblong in shape, not conical; height of shell aperture less than a third of shell height; living animal lacks operculum (horny flap for closing the aperture); in leaf litter and on vegetation in woods, not found in salt marshes … Columella simplex

Shell smooth, glossy, translucent brown; shell 1.8 to 2.5 mm high, with 5.5 to 6.5 whorls; aperture 27 to 29% of shell height; foot whitish, head and upper tentacles darker gray; lower tentacles lacking; found in deciduous leaf litter and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) litter; ranges from near sea level up to 1070 m

Because juvenile Vertigo lack teeth, they look similar to Columella, but they can be separated. In Columella the whorl cross section is more circular so the periphery is about the middle of the whorl height, while in Vertigo, the whorl cross section is more compressed at the bottom so the periphery is above the middle of the whorl height. Furthermore, the growth wrinkles tend to be slightly more angled (with respect to the axis of coiling) in Columella than in Vertigo.

36b Shell regularly conical; height of shell aperture nearly half of shell height; living animal bears an operculum (a horny flap for closing the aperture); found under debris and vegetation at higher levels in salt marshes … Assiminea californica

shell up to about 3.5 mm high; aperture 47% of shell height; shell dark brown
37a(1) Animals with a small external shell; either having a conspicuous mantle pouch (containing the internal organs) with a partly exposed horny plate at the posterior end of the mantle, or lacking a mantle but having a small, loosely coiled shell at the posterior end of the body 38

{Hemphillia burringtoni, Hemphillia glandulosa, Hemphillia dromedarius, Hemphillia malonei, Testacella haliotidea}

37b Animals without external shell; no conspicuous pouch on back, internal organs within foot 42

{Prophysaon dubium, Prophysaon coeruleum, Prophysaon vanattae, Prophysaon obscurum, Prophysaon andersoni, Prophysaon foliolatum, Arion intermedius, Arion ater, A. ater rufus, Arion subfuscus, Arion distinctus, Arion fasciatus, Arion circumscriptus, Arion sylvaticus, Ariolimax columbianus, Limax maximus, Lehmannia valentiana, Deroceras reticulatum, Deroceras laeve, Deroceras panormitanum}


38a(37) Animal with a small, ear-shaped shell at posterior end of body; without conspicuously raised mantle hump; shell resembling that of an abalone, whorls of shell rapidly expanding; … Testacella haliotidea

Length up to 120 mm; body tapers anteriorly; body grayish-brown or pale yellow, with longitudinal, branching lateral grooves; largely subterranean; carnivorous, eating earthworms and other soil invertebrates; sole usually cream-colored or yellowish white; introduced from Europe; populations occur in urban areas in Vancouver, Washington and Vancouver, British Columbia.

38b Animal with a small, thin, partly exposed horny plate near posterior end of mantle hump; mantle hump conspicuously raised in a visceral pouch centrally located on body; internal organs in mantle pouch, not within foot; able to twitch violently if disturbed by thrashing tail (hence common name, jumping slugs); foot fringe wide; breathing hole in posterior half of right side of mantle … Hemphillia 39
39a(38) Mantle covered with conical papillae; length of tail < length of mantle when animal fully extended in movement; smaller slugs up to about 20 mm long; tail keel high (expanded upward) and laterally compressed; tail with pale mid-dorsal stripe; (caution should be exercised in these determinations as additional undescribed species are likely to occur) 40

39b Mantle mostly smooth; length of tail > length of mantle when animal fully extended in movement; larger slugs, full-grown slugs more than 30 mm long; tail keel not markedly raised; tail with or without pale mid-dorsal stripe 41


40a(39) Row of small dark spots present where body grooves meet the pedal groove above edge of sole; body grooves are somewhat pigmented on back half of body … Hemphillia burringtoni

Body up to 20 mm long; Pilsbry (1948: 741) and Branson (1972, 1975) reported that this species lacks papillae on mantle, but each of the numerous live specimens that we have examined had conical papillae on mantle; distribution apparently limited to northern part of the Olympic Peninsula; eggs not known but probably are similar to those of H. glandulosa; probably an annual species; most commonly found on or under woody debris and among leaf litter

40b Without dark spots where body grooves meet the pedal groove above edge of sole; body grooves may or may not be pigmented … Hemphillia glandulosa

Body 12 to 20 mm long; sides of foot light without markings, or with dark transverse lines; widespread but localized distribution in Puget Sound Region, including Puget Sound lowlands, southern Olympic Peninsula, and Cascade and Coast Ranges (specimens from the Willapa Hills apparently represent an undescribed species, T. Wilke, pers. comm.); the oval eggs may be up to 3 mm diameter; eggs are generally laid singly or in pairs in leaf litter, on or within woody debris, and moss mats; eggs have also been found up to 1 meter above-ground on moss-covered trunks of red alder, most commonly found on or under logs or other woody debris; probably an annual species {mention H. pantherina here?}


41a Slender; dark brown or gray body; lacking a pale mid-dorsal stripe on tail; caudal horn usually present … Hemphillia dromedarius

Slug up to 60 mm extended length while in movement; mantle and foot gray with cream-colored mottling on sides; sole buff-brown, yellow, or cream; tail laterally compressed with a distinct keel; probably takes two years to reach maturity; known from the Olympic and Cascade Ranges, and southern Vancouver Island at elevations between 20 and 1370 m; usually found on or under woody debris; eggs laid in fall in clusters similar to the habit of H. malonei

41b Robust; body variable in color; light-colored, pale mid-dorsal stripe present on tail; caudal horn absent … Hemphillia malonei

Up to 70 mm extended length while in movement; sole cream-colored to yellowish tan; in the Cascade Range, most specimens are tan/brown with dark brown spots on mantle, while in the Coast Ranges specimens may be yellow, or light brown with or without darker markings on the mantle; dorso-lateral ridges (composed of concentrations of bumps) are often present on the mantle; tail compressed laterally and with a keel; probably takes two years to reach maturity; occurs in moist coniferous and deciduous forest habitats from elevation near sea level to 1300 m; known from Puget Sound lowlands, southern Olympic Peninsula, and both the Coast and Cascade Ranges; Hemphillia malonei and H. dromedarius appear to have complementary ranges; most commonly found on or under woody debris, also on skunk cabbage leaves in spring


42a(37) Breathing hole in front half of right side of mantle (may be quite near middle); back usually not keeled; sole not longitudinally divided into three sections … Arionidae (in part) 43

42b Breathing hole in posterior half of right side of mantle; back usually keeled on posterior portion; sole may or may not be longitudinally divided into three sections 55


43a(42) No caudal pore; many specimens have a constriction on the tail (usually difficult to discern in P. vanattae) at which the animal is capable of self amputation if disturbed; if lateral pigment bands are present on the mantle, right band passes above the breathing hole; native species … Prophysaon 44

43b Pedal grooves meet posteriorly in a caudal mucous pit; if lateral bands are present on mantle, then the right band either encloses or passes above the breathing hole; introduced from Europe; usually not far from areas inhabited by humans … Arion 49


44a(43) Without a light colored dorsal stripe on tail; black lateral bands behind mantle present or absent; tail surface sculpture of longitudinal grooves or indistinct pattern but not reticulate mesh grooves; slugs up to 50 mm long; lateral mantle bands present or absent; sole pale to dark 45

{Prophysaon dubium, Prophysaon coeruleum, Prophysaon vanattae, Prophysaon obscurum}

44b Having a light colored mid-dorsal stripe on tail; without black lateral bands behind mantle; tail surface with finely reticulate grooves in a diamond mesh pattern, reticulations marked in gray; slugs up to 100 mm long; lateral mantle bands usually present; {sole very pale to white} 48

{Prophysaon andersoni, Prophysaon foliolatum}


45a(44) Longitudinal grooves on tail prominent and parallel; no longitudinal lateral stripes on body behind mantle; a line of abscission at about the posterior fourth of the body runs obliquely downward along the sides about 4 mm anterior of the posterior end of the foot 46

45b Longitudinal grooves on tail lacking or indistinct; with longitudinal lateral stripes on body behind mantle 47


46a(45) Mantle and tail covered with numerous cone-shaped papillae; usually with dark markings on mantle … Prophysaon dubium

Mature specimens 8 to 24 mm in extended length when alive; dorsal base color includes various shades of brown, reddish-brown, olive, and gray; mantle always mottled to some extent by areas of brown or gray pigment, which on some specimens merges to form broad, dark stripes; foot and to lesser extent the mantle, marked by light brown, orange, copper, and/or gold flecking; sole gray or cream; translucent eggs are deposited in small clusters (6 to 14 eggs); eggs measure approximately 1.3 x 1.2 mm diameter shortly after being laid and 2.1 x 1.5 mm 10 weeks later; known from mountain passes in Cascade Range to near sea level around Puget Sound; found in both conifer and mixed forests under woody debris and in bigleaf maple leaf litter; surface activity mainly in late fall and early winter after first frost; probably an annual species; diet includes fungi (spores and hyphae), vascular plants (roots and greens), lichens, and mold

46b Mantle lacking cone shaped papillae; without dark markings on mantle … Prophysaon coeruleum

Mature specimens 19 to 43 mm in extended length when alive; dorsal base color is gray with light blue flecking covering both the mantle and foot; sole is pale gray or white; foot margin narrow with a distinct border above {Bill, what fraction of the total body length is the part of the tail that can be autotomized?}; apparently quite rare with only three known populations in Washington: two in Cascade Range at 450 m elevation near Randall, Lewis County, another along a tributary of the Columbia River at 80 m elevation near Carrolls, Cowlitz County; surface activity mainly in early fall and late spring during relatively warm, wet weather; found in mature forests under woody debris; probably an annual species; diet includes fungi (spores and hyphae), vascular plants (roots and greens), lichens, and mold


47a(45) Mantle color variable, but not black; body with a conspicuous black band on each side of the body laterally behind mantle, enclosing a lighter wedge-shaped dorsal area, which encloses a wedge shaped darker median stripe (sometimes faint); sole usually cream colored … Prophysaon vanattae

25 to 50 mm long; color variable; whitish-buff, bluish-gray, or red on the back and gray-buff at the sides; mantle colored buff or red with two curved lateral black bands (sometimes obsolete) above breathing hole, and scattered black markings; most specimens do not show the oblique constriction on the tail; head may extend to some distance past mantle; mantle is long; Pilsbry (1948:699, fig. 380e) described a specimen of this species that has black mottling on the entire body and lacks the lateral side bands; common in many forest habitats from the east slope of the crest of Cascade Range and west; occurs at elevations ranging from near sea-level to at least 1220 m; most commonly found on or under woody debris; also common on skunk cabbage leaves in spring and on shrubs up to 1 m above ground

47b Mantle black; body gray, very dark above, with or without obscure dark lateral bands on tail; sole dark gray … Prophysaon obscurum

Up to 50 mm long; typically olive colored; found along southern end of Olympic Mountains and east slope of Cascades; possibly a color variant of Prophysaon vanattae {Bill, what fraction of the total body length is the part of the tail that can be autotomized?}


48a(44) Smaller, 30 to 62 mm long; mantle without a narrow yellow border; lateral mantle bands, when present, are solid; strong internal shell; tail constriction may be marked by a gray line on the sole … Prophysaon andersoni

Part of tail that can be amputated about 20 to 25% total body length; tail tapers gradually so posterior half of body in top view has convex sides; dark blotches or broad stripes usually present on each side of mantle; mantle texture rougher, more strongly granular than in P. foliolatum. {Bill, prev choice says sole pale to white – I couldn’t find mention in Pilsbry 1948 of sole color for P. andersoni – can you verify sole color? Bill not seen andersoni; I asked Paul}{Forsyth 2003 [Forsyth, R.G. 2003. Key to slugs of British Columbia. Botanical Electronic News, (320): 1-7] reports foot fringe usually without dark vertical bars (but sometimes faint)}

48b Larger, 50 to more than 100 mm long; mantle often with a narrow, bright yellow border; lateral mantle bands always present, and broken or irregular; internal shell delicate, membranous; tail constriction usually not marked by a gray line on the sole … Prophysaon foliolatum

Part of tail that can be amputated about 25 to 33% total body length; tail tapers acutely so posterior half of body in top view has slightly concave sides; sole very pale to white; pale dorsal median line behind mantle sometimes lacking; dark blotches or broad stripes usually present on each side of mantle; mantle texture smoother, of finer tubercles than in P. andersoni; mucus usually clear, yellowish if animal disturbed, not very sticky; probably a bi-annual species; juveniles commonly found under peeling bark on hardwood logs; adults are adept climbers, found up to 3 meters above ground on snags; common in Puget Sound lowlands, and Olympic, Coast, and Cascade Ranges; ranges from near sea-level to approximately 915 m {Forsyth 2003 reports foot fringe usually with dark vertical bars (but sometimes very faint)}


49a(42) When animal contracts, dorsal tubercles are cone shaped with transparent tips giving a hedgehog appearance; over pedal groove at anterior is usually a horizontal row of dark dots; if lateral mantle bands are present, then the right band encloses the breathing hole … Arion intermedius

No dark vertical lines on foot fringe; usually less than 25 mm long; body gray to yellow-gray; sole yellowish, head and tentacles grayish; mucus may be clear or lemon yellow; native to northwestern Europe; found chiefly in lowlands in woods and near greenhouses; chiefly fungivorous; eggs opaque white, one to two dozen per cluster, about 2 to 3 mm diameter, oval

49b Tubercles not cone shaped and without transparent tips when animal contracts; without dots at pedal groove at anterior end; if lateral mantle bands are present, the right band either encloses or passes above the breathing hole 50
50a(49) Foot fringe wide and bearing numerous dark vertical lines (sometimes confined to the posterior in A. subfuscus); lateral dark bands present or absent, when present, band encloses breathing hole; large slugs, often greater than 50 mm long 51

50b Foot fringe not conspicuously wide, and without dark, vertical lines; a lateral dark band always present on each side of the mantle and body; breathing hole within or below lateral mantle band; generally less than 50 mm long 52


51a(50) Large bulky animals 70 mm to more than 150 mm long; usually a solid color, black or reddish brown; tubercles on side and back coarse or elongated; mucus usually clear or white (occasionally may be yellowish or orange); full-grown slugs lack bands on mantle, but when bands are present, there are about 10 or more tubercles between bands counted just behind the mantle … Arion rufus

Contracts to hemisphere when not actively crawling, and if disturbed will often rock from side to side; in young specimens (about 25 mm long) the back is dark and the sides are lighter, the darkness extends downward as the slug grows; head and tentacles dark; when mantle bands are present (in young), the right band passes above the breathing hole; mucus sticky; in woods and gardens; omnivorous; serious pest; eggs opaque white becoming yellow brown as they develop, several dozen per cluster, 5 x 4 mm; color ranges from red-brown, through chocolate brown with or without orange on the foot fringe, to black; native in northwestern Europe; in western Washington, the chocolate ecotype is most common in urban areas, while the black ecotype is more common in forested habitats. A similar species in Europe, A. ater, tends to be black and more urban, and is separable from A. rufus only by dissection or molecular analysis. Although A. ater has apparently mistakenly been reported from North America, dissection has not confirmed its presence in the Pacific Northwest or in North America.

51b Length 50 to 80 mm; tubercles not conspicuously coarse or elongate; full-grown slugs usually with lateral bands (may be lacking); body mucus yellow or orange, at least when disturbed, sole mucus usually colorless; if bands present on mantle, then right band enclosing breathing hole; 12 or more tubercles between bands counted just behind mantle … Arion subfuscus

Color quite variable, typically orange-brown with lighter sides, sole yellowish white; native to northwestern Europe; occurs in forests and around human habitations; thought to be mainly fungivorous; eggs opaque white, up to several dozen per cluster, about 2.3 mm diameter


52a(50) Sole yellow to orange; foot mucus yellow or orange; without a pale dorsal line; contracted body nearly circular in cross section; lateral mantle band usually encloses breathing hole … Arion distinctus

Dorsal surface varies from dark brown to black; mantle bands black, close to mantle edges; slender, 30 to 40 mm long; native to northwestern Europe; very common in gardens and fields in lowlands in western Washington; herbivorous; eggs transparent, becoming yellow opaque, up to three dozen per cluster, 2.5 x 2 mm. The similar looking Arion hortensis Férussac, 1819 has also been introduced to North America and is separable from A. distinctus only by dissection or molecular analysis. Dissection has not confirmed the presence of A. hortensis in the Pacific Northwest.

52b Sole white to gray; foot mucus usually clear or pale yellow; tubercles behind mantle pale and raised to form a pale longitudinal ridge (may be faint or lost in some full-grown slugs); contracted body bell-shaped in cross section; lateral mantle band above breathing hole … (Arion fasciatus complex) 53
53a(52) Body sides with a yellow or orange band just ventral to black body bands (usually lacking in young individuals) … Arion fasciatus

40 to 50 mm long; sole white; ubiquitous (but rare in coniferous and oak forests); probably partly fungivorous; most common in northeastern North America, may be lacking in our area; eggs semi-translucent yellow to amber, one to three dozen per cluster, 3 x 2 mm; native to northwestern Europe

53b Body sides without yellow or orange bands. 54
54a(53) Back uniformly dark gray, mantle flecked with black spotting … Arion circumscriptus

Up to 40 mm long but usually about 20 mm; sole white; mucus clear, may be yellow-orange if animal is disturbed, not sticky; head not extended far beyond mantle; habitat and eggs as in A. fasciatus but also found in moister habitats; native to northwestern Europe; most common of A. fasciatus complex in Vancouver, B.C. area, and the only one of the complex confirmed in the southern Puget Sound area

54b Back medially dark gray and laterally brown … Arion sylvaticus

To less than 40 mm; sole pale yellowish white; slime clear; head not extended far beyond mantle; habitat, food, eggs as in A. fasciatus, but it tends to even moister habitats (e.g., bogs); native to northwestern Europe; reported from Vancouver, B.C., but less common than A. circumscriptus


55a(42) Body color olive-greenish to yellow, with or without black spots or blotches; caudal pore conspicuous, nearly filled with a plug of mucous tissue; sole not longitudinally divided … Ariolimax columbianus

Very large slugs, 185 to 260 mm long; foot margin wide with dark vertical lines; breathing hole conspicuous; usually restricted to forests and woodlands; the spotted form has been referred to as forma maculatus Cockerell, but it is not a true subspecies; eggs opaque white, about 10 x 8 mm; diet includes vascular plants, fungi, and lichens; found in most forest areas on ground and up to approximately 20 m above ground in trees; from near sea level to approximately 1370 m

55b Slugs not olive greenish to yellow; caudal mucus gland lacking; sole tripartite, having three longitudinal sections 56
56a(55) Mantle smooth, without concentric wrinkles; keel extending from end of tail forward to posterior part of mantle 56’

56b Mantle with concentric wrinkles reminiscent of a fingerprint; keel shorter, not reaching forward to mantle, usually restricted to posterior third of body 57


56'a(56) Breathing hole slightly behind middle of mantle; up to 50 mm long in motion; subterranean in habit; introduced from Europe … Boettgerilla pallens

Body slender and worm-like when extended; generally gray, becoming almost white along sides and in front of mantle; sole white or yellowish; sole tripartite (Wiktor 1989: 15); mucus clear; border of breathing hole paler than mantle; tail with prominent keel most visible when animal is contracted; no caudal pore; two grooves extend from the top of the breathing hole, one forward and one back, but the grooves are difficult to see in preserved specimens; native to the Caucasus Mountains in southeastern Europe; known from southern end of Vancouver Island, British Columbia; found in both residential areas and mixed-forest habitats

56'b Breathing hole in posterior third to fourth of right side of mantle; 14 to 23 mm long in motion; less subterranean; native species … Zacoleus sp.

Body slender and worm-like when extended; generally gray or light brown with a series of longitudinal raised ridges on tail and longitudinal and oblique un-pigmented grooves in tail and along sides of foot below mantle; with or without light blue flecking on mantle and body; sole yellowish-white; mucus clear; tail with a sharp keel when animals are contracted; no caudal pore; a small pore is present beneath a notch in the mantle slightly right of middle along the posterior edge; small shell may be visible through the mantle; similar to a dark Deroceras but without the concentric wrinkles on the mantle, and similar to Boettgerilla pallens, but the pneumostome positioned in the posterior third to fourth of the mantle; in Washington, known from southern and eastern Olympic Peninsula, southern Cascades, and Coast Ranges; found in both coniferous and deciduous forest habitats; most commonly encountered in autumn under rocks, on or under woody debris, and in deciduous leaf litter


57a(56) Tail tapering to a point when viewed laterally; with stripes or spots; nucleus of concentric wrinkles on mantle located on midline; posterior margin of mantle obtusely angular; full-grown slugs > 50 mm in length when in motion … Limacidae 58

57b Tail truncated when viewed laterally; usually lacking prominent stripes or spots; nucleus of concentric wrinkles on mantle located on right side above breathing hole; posterior margin of mantle rounded; full-grown slugs < 50 mm in length when in movement … Deroceras (formerly classified in genus Agriolimax) … Agriolimacidae 59


58a(57) 100 to 200 mm in length; body base color yellowish gray with conspicuous black spots; spots on mantle not arranged in two longitudinal stripes ... Limax maximus

Spots on the back usually oriented in three longitudinal bands; sole ash colored; mucus colorless, not very sticky; native to northwestern Europe, introduced into North America; usually found in gardens, parks, cellars, and also occurring on forest lands around campgrounds; omnivorous; live 2.5 to 3 years; eggs clear, about 5 mm diameter, up to several dozen per cluster; this species is noted for its aerial mating in which the pair copulates while suspended from a mucus string

58b 50 to 70 mm long in motion; grayish body with a broad, dark stripe on each side of the body; stripes on mantle … Lehmannia valentiana

Mucus colorless, watery, copious when disturbed; native to Iberian Peninsula in Europe; introduced around Puget Sound; usually found in or near greenhouses and plant nurseries

{Forsyth (2003) included Limacus flavus; should we?}
59a(57) Breathing hole with a pale border; mucus sticky, milky white when animal is irritated, otherwise clear; 35 to 50 mm long … Deroceras reticulatum

Color variable but usually whitish, cream or pale brown, usually with gray flecks on mantle and gray or blackish mottling on body; sole white or dirty yellow; body with long, low tubercles; mantle about 33% total length; introduced from Europe; found in greenhouses, gardens, fields; omnivorous but very damaging to crops, perhaps the most serious garden and crop pest worldwide; eggs transparent, 3 x 2.5 mm, up to several dozen per cluster; ranges from near sea level up to approximately 915 m

59b Breathing hole border either pale or not; mucus clear, never white, not very sticky; less than 35 mm long. 60
60a(59) Up to about 25 mm; color fairly uniform, dark brown, amber, or purplish-gray; sole dark; breathing hole border not paler than rest of mantle; mantle length about half of length from front of mantle to tail … Deroceras laeve

without spots or with only indistinct markings; covered with minute white flecks; neck is long, when crawling; some populations of this species are native to North America while others have been introduced from Europe; widely distributed in many habitats, but most common in wet sites such as edges of wetlands and along streams; most commonly found on or under woody debris; also common on skunk cabbage leaves in spring; eggs oval, transparent becoming yellowish, 1.5 x 1.8 mm; ranges from near sea level up to 1220 m

60b Length 28 to 32 mm; body dark brownish gray, mantle usually paler orange-brown; sole pale; breathing hole border usually paler than rest of mantle; mantle length about a third of length from front of mantle to tail … Deroceras panormitanum

back browner, with clearly defined spots; tip of tail compressed laterally; when crawling neck extends greatly; introduced from Europe; well established in Olympia and Tacoma; crawls very rapidly (previously known as D. caruanae) {Forsyth 2003 included D. hesperium, not separated in the key from D. laeve. What do we think of that? We should at least include a note}


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