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Group Exercises Manual

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Chief, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Communication Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to copyright@fao.org
© FAO 2007
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ii

Foreword iii

Group Exercise No. 1 - Terminology 1

Group Exercise No. 2 - Categorisation 3

Group Exercise No. 3 – Pest Risk Analysis 17

Group Exercise No. 3.1 – Initiation, Categorisation and Entry 19

Group Exercise No. 3.2 – Probability of Establishment and Spread 29

Group Exercise No. 3.3 – Potential Economic Consequences 35

Group Exercise No. 3.4 – Pest Risk Assessment Conclusions 39

Group Exercise No. 3.5 – Pest Risk Assessment, Peer Review 43

Group Exercise No. 3.6 – Pest Risk Management 44

Group Exercise No. 3.7 – Stakeholder Consultation 47

Group Exercise No. 4 – Impacts 49

Group Exercise No. 5 – Mitigation Measures 51

Group Exercise No. 6 – Pest Risk Management 53

Group Exercise No. 7 – Risk Communication 55

Group Exercise No. 8 – Pest Risk Assessment Review 57


Funding for the development of these training materials was provided by the Standards and Trade Development Facility and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
The Secretariat of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is greatly indebted to the following individuals for their contributions in developing this manual and associated training materials:
Claire Wilson, Andrea Sissons, Louise Dumouchel, Lesley Cree (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canada), Alan MacLeod (Central Science Laboratory, United Kingdom), Mike Ormsby (New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, New Zealand), Gritta Schrader (Federal Biological Research Centre, Germany), Stacie Johnston (IPPC Secretariat), DDK Sharma (Ministry of Agriculture, India), Velia Arriagada (Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, Chile), and Ryan Hill (Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity).

Welcome to the IPPC introductory pest risk analysis (PRA) group exercise manual. This manual has been designed to provide practical guidance to biological scientists, plant pest risk assessors, plant pest risk analysts and phytosanitary policy makers working in the field of international phytosanitary affairs who want a basic introduction to PRA.
The exercises in this manual were designed to complement the classroom lectures given in the introduction to PRA course. These exercises are meant to be interactive and to provide participants with the chance to put into practice the skills and theory being taught in the lectures. By working through these group exercises, participants will gain experience in conducting PRAs and will understand the purpose of PRA and how PRA fits into the IPPC.
Upon completion of this course participants should be familiar with the structure and function of a PRA document and have conducted a number of trial PRAs as well as seen and discussed examples of many more. They should have the self confidence to complete PRAs and will know where to look for information to assist them and where to seek help when required.

NOTE: All exercises in this manual have been developed solely for the purpose of this course and are hypothetical. They do not reflect any real country, situation, commodity or pest.

Group Exercise No. 1 - Terminology

The purpose of this exercise is to acquire familiarity and understanding of phytosanitary terms and definitions which are used in ISPMs and for official phytosanitary purposes, in phytosanitary legislation and regulations and information exchange between NPPOs.

Description of exercise
Each participant will be provided with a unique, numbered definition that corresponds to one of the terms listed in the following Terminology Matching Table. The goal is to match the definitions on the participants’ cards with the corresponding IPPC terms listed in the table.
The table can only be completed by talking to the other participants to find out what definition they were given, gradually filling in the blanks while circulating through the group and exchanging information. The third column in the table with the heading “Participant’s name” is to be filled by adding the name of each person you have talked to beside the definition they provided you with.
Important remarks

  1. A total of 30 cards with a single definition will be distributed. The instructors will each have one, so they will need to be consulted as well.

  2. There are 30 blank spaces in the table to fill in.

  3. Each definition is numbered. Participants should write the number from the cards into their table next to the appropriate term, they do not need to write out the entire definition.

  4. The exercise is not a competition to see who will complete the table first. Students are to fill in as many blanks as they can in the time allotted, but should take the time to read the definitions of others and agree together on the selection of the corresponding term.

Terminology Matching Table






Endangered area


Pest free place of production

Plant products

Official control


Entry (of a consignment)

Pest risk management

Pest categorisation


Area of low pest prevalence


Regulated article

Pest risk analysis

Entry (of a pest)1

Pest free production site



PRA area


Pest risk assessment

Pest free area

Host range


Regulated non-quarantine pest



Quarantine pest

Phytosanitary measure


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