In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41~45, choose the most suitable one from the list A~G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET 1. （10 points）
Passage 1（Sample One）
Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. 41） ____________________. Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.
42） ____________________. Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know nothing.
43） ____________________. There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.
44）_____________________. Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.
45）____________________. About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings.
[A] The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known.
[B] Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate.
[C] The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, or formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air.
[D] The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world.
[E] The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the starfishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks.
[F] When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams, into lakes or the sea and there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved.
[G] Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.
From her vantage point she watched the main doors swing open and the first arrivals pour in. Those who had been at the head of the line paused momentarily on entry, looked around curiously, then quickly moved forward as others behind pressed in. within moments the central public area of the big branch bank was filled with a chattering, noisy crowd. The building, relatively quiet less than a minute earlier, had become a Babel. Edwina saw a tall heavyset black man wave some dollar bills and declare loudly, “I want to put my money in the bank.”
It seemed as if the report about everyone having come to open an account had been accurate after all.
Edwina could see the big man leaning back expansively, still holding his dollar bills. His voice cut across the noise of other conversations and she heard him proclaim, “I’m in no hurry. There’s something I’d like you to explain.”
Two other desks were quickly manned by other clerks. With equal speed, long wide lines of people formed in front of them.
Normally, three members of staff were ample to handle new account business, but obviously were inadequate now. Edwina could see Tottenhoe on the far side of the bank and called him on the intercom. She instructed, “Use more desks for new accounts and take all the staff you can spare to man them.”
Tottenhoe grumbled in reply, “You realize we can’t possibly process all these people today, and however many we do will tie us up completely.”
“I’ve an idea,” Edwina said, “that’s what someone has in mind. Just hurry the processing all you can.”
First, an application form called for details of residence, employment, social security, and family matters. A specimen signature was obtained. Then proof of identity was needed. After that, the new accounts clerk would take all documents to an officer of the bank for approval and initialing. Finally, a savings passbook was made out or a temporary checkbook issued.
Therefore the most new accounts that any bank employee could open in an hour were five, so the three clerks presently working might handle a total of ninety in one business day, if they kept going at top speed, which was unlikely.
Still the noise within the bank increased. It had become an uproar.
A further problem was that the growing mass of arrivals in the central public area of the bank was preventing access to tellers’ counters by other customers. Edwina could see a few of them outside, regarding the milling scene with consternation. While she watched, several gave up and walked away.
Inside the bank some of the newcomers were engaging tellers in conversation and the tellers, having nothing else to do because of the melee, chatted back. Two assistant managers had gone to the central floor area and were trying to regulate the flood of people so as to clear some space at counters. They were having small success.
She decided it was time for her own intervention.
Edwina left the platform and a railed-off staff area and, with difficulty, made her way through the milling crowd to the main front door.
[A] Yet she knew however much they hurried it would still take ten to fifteen minutes to open any single new account. It always did. The paperwork required that time.
[B] But still no hostility was evident. Everyone in the now jam-packed bank who was spoken to by members of the staff answered politely and with a smile. It seemed, Edwina thought, as if all who were here had been briefed to be on best behavior.
[C] A security guard directed him, “Over there for new accounts.” The guard pointed to a desk where a clerk –– a young girl –– sat waiting. She appeared nervous. The big man walked toward her, smiled reassuringly, and sat down. Immediately a press of others moved into a ragged line behind him, waiting for their turn.
[D] Even leaning close to the intercom, it was hard to hear above the noise.
[E] Even tripling the present complement of clerks would permit very few more than two hundred and fifty accounts to be opened in a day, yet already, in the first few minutes of business, the bank was crammed with at least four hundred people, with still more flooding in, and the line outside, which Edwina rose to check, appeared as long as ever.
[F] Obviously someone had alerted the press in advance, which explained the presence of the TV camera crew outside. Edwina wondered who had done it.
Inca society was strictly organized, from the emperor and royal family down to the peasants. The emperor was thought to be descended from the sun god, Inti, and he therefore ruled with divine authority. All power rested in his hands. Only the influence of custom and the fear of revolt checked the emperor’s power. 41） ____________________. The emperor chose his most important administrators from among his sons.
Just below the emperor came the aristocracy, which included descendants and relations of all the emperors. 42） ____________________. The nobles of conquered peoples also became part of the governing aristocracy and were considered Inca by adoption.
For administrative purposes the empire was divided into regions known as the “four suyus （quarters） of the world”, with Cuzco at its center. The Incas called their empire “Land of the Four Quarters”. One suyu, the Antisuyu, stretched to the east of Cuzco and contained deep, forest-covered valleys that gradually descended into the jungles of the Amazon basin. Indian groups in this region, many of whom were only partially pacified, contined to launch attacks against the Incas. Cuntisuyu included all the land west of Cuzco, including the coastal regions of Peru from Chan Chan to Arequipa. Collasuyu was the largest of the quarters. Located south of Cuzco, it took in Lake Titicaca and regions of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Chincasuyu contained the remaining land to the north of Cuzco.
A blood relative of the emperor served as governor of each quarter. The Incas further divided each quarter into progressively smaller units, with officials of descending rank overseeing the activities of these units. 43） ____________________. Another official, ideally a leader of a large village, ruled over a smaller area containing about 1,000 peasants. At the level below, ten foremen each supervised a total of 100 peasants. At the lowest organizational level, an official oversaw a group of ten peasants. For every 10,000 people, there were 1,331 officials.
Inca state affairs were complex and tightly controlled. Whole native populations were at times uprooted and resettled in other communities. Often groups were relocated to areas where they were needed for agricultural or mining activities. Sometimes relocations were politically motivated. 44） ____________________. Furthermore, these relocations facilitated the spread of Inca ideas and culture and promoted unity in the empire.
In order to deal efficiently with such matters, government officers kept strict accounts of all the people, gold, land, crops, and projects of the empire. Since the Incas had no system of writing, they kept records by means of a quipu –– a series of short, knotted strings hung at intervals from a long top string. By varying the colors and kinds of string used and the spacing of the strings and knots, the Incas could record populations, troops, and tribute, as well as information about their legends and achievements. The quipu was a complex memory aid rather than a literal record, and only a trained quipucamayo, or memory expert, could create or interpret it. An oral comment accompanied each quipu and allowed the quipucamayo to make sense of its meaning. 45） ____________________. Modern scholars still have not deciphered the codes used in the creation of quipus.
[A] Serving under each governor were ten district governors, each of whom ruled over a district containing about 10,000 peasants.
[B] Following the Spanish conquest and the introduction of records written in Spanish, the Incas lost the ability to read quipus.
[C] Noticeable economic thriving was frequently found, in the records of the local governments, after relocations.
[D] The emperor had one official wife, but he had many royal concubines and his children by these wives often numbered in the hundreds.
[E] Placing Quechua-speaking populations in newly conquered areas impaired the ability of local groups to unite against the Incas.
[F] Relations between relatives of the emperor, governors and officials often posed headaches for the supreme ruler himself, who was interwoven tightly and deeply among them.
[G] These pure-blooded Incas held the most important government, religious and military posts.
Until about two million years ago Africa’s vegetation had always been controlled by the interactions of climate; geology, soil, and groundwater conditions; and the activities of animals. The addition of humans to the latter group, however, has increasingly rendered unreal the concept of a fully developed “natural” vegetation –– i.e., one approximating the ideal of a vegetational climax. 41） ____________________. Early attempts at mapping and classifying Africa’s vegetation stressed this relationship: sometimes the names of plant zones were derived directly from climates. In this discussion the idea of zones is retained only in a broad descriptive sense.
42） ____________________. In addition, over time more floral regions of varying shape and size have been recognized. Many schemes have arisen successively, all of which have had to take views on two important aspects: the general scale of treatment to be adopted, and the degree to which human modification is to be comprehended or discounted.
43） ____________________. Quite the opposite assumption is now frequently advanced. An intimate combination of many species –– in complex associations and related to localized soils, slopes, and drainage –– has been detailed in many studies of the African tropics. In a few square miles there may be a visible succession from swamp with papyrus, the grass of which the ancient Egyptians made paper and from which the word “paper” originated, through swampy grassland and broad-leaved woodland and grass to a patch of forest on richer hillside soil, and finally to juicy fleshy plants on a nearly naked rock summit.
44） ____________________. Correspondingly, classifications have differed greatly in their principles for naming, grouping, and describing formations: some have chosen terms such as forest, woodland, thorn-bush, thicket, and shrub for much of the same broad tracts that others have grouped as wooded savanna （treeless grassy plain） and steppe （grassy plain with few trees）. This is best seen in the nomenclature, naming of plants, adopted by two of the most comprehensive and authoritative maps of Africa’s vegetation that have been published: R.W.J. Keay’s Vegetation Map of Africa South of the Tropic of Cancer and its more widely based successor, The Vegetation Map of Africa, compiled by Frank White. In the Keay map the herb layer and the coverage of woody vegetation; the White map, however, discarded these two categories as specific classifications. Yet any rapid absence of savanna as in its popular and more general sense is doubtful.
45） ____________________. However, some 100 specific types of vegetation identified on the source map have been compressed into 14 broader classifications.
[A] As more has become known of the many thousands of African plant species and their complex ecology, naming, classification, and mapping have also become more particular, stressing what was actually present rather than postulating about climatic potential.
[B] In regions of higher rainfall, such as eastern Africa, savanna vegetation is maintained by periodic fires. Consuming dry grass at the end of the rainy season, the fires burn back the forest vegetation, check the invasion of trees and shrubs, and stimulate new grass growth.
[C] Once, as with the scientific treatment of African soils, a much greater uniformity was attributed to the vegetation than would have been generally accepted in the same period for treatments of the lands of western Europe or the United States.
[D] The vegetational map of Africa and general vegetation groupings used here follow the White map and its extensive annotations.
[E] African vegetation zones are closely linked to climatic zones, with the same zones occurring both north and south of the equator in broadly similar patterns. As with climatic zones, differences in the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation constitute the most important influence on the development of vegetation.
[F] Nevertheless, in broad terms, climate remains the dominant control over vegetation. Zonal belts of precipitation, reflection latitude and contrasting exposure to the Atlantic and Indian oceans and their currents, give some reality to related belts of vegetation.
[G] The span of human occupation in Africa is believed to exceed that of any other continent. All the resultant activities have tended, on balance, to reduce tree cover and increase grassland; but there has been considerable dispute among scholars concerning the natural versus human-caused development of most African grasslands at the regional level.
The making of weathervanes （devices fixed on the top of buildings to show directions of the wind） is an ancient skill, going back to early Egyptian times. Today the craft is still very much alive in the workshop that Graham Smith has set up. He is one of the few people in the country who make hand-cut weathervanes. Graham’s designs are individually created and tailored to the specific requirements of his customers. “That way I can produce a unique personalized item,” he explains, “A lot of my customers are women buying presents for their husbands. They want a distinctive gift that represents the man’s business or leisure interests.”
It’s all a far cry from the traditional cock, the most common design for weathervanes.
It was not a cock but a witch on a broomstick that featured on the first weathervane Graham ever made. Friends admired his surprise present for his wife and began asking him to make vanes for them. “I realized that when it came to subjects that could be made into them, the possibilities were limitless,” he says.
That was five years ago and he has no regrets about his new direction. “My previous work didn’t have an artistic element to it, whereas this is exciting and creative,” he says. “I really enjoy the design side.”
Graham also keeps plenty of traditional designs in stock, since they prove as popular as the one-offs. “It seems that people are attracted to handcrafting,” Graham says. “They welcome the opportunity to acquire something a little bit different.”
“I have found my place in the market. People love the individuality and I get a lot of satisfaction from seeing a nondescript shape turn into something almost lifelike,” he says.
“And nowadays, with more and more people moving to the country, individuals want to put an exclusive finishing touch to their properties. It has been a boost to crafts like mines.”
American and Danish buyers in particular are showing interest. “Pricing,” he explains, “depends on the intricacy of the design.” His most recent request was for a curly-coated dog. Whatever the occasion, Graham can create a gift with a difference.
[A] Graham has become increasingly busy, supplying flat-packed weathervanes to clients worldwide.
[B] Graham decided to concentrate his efforts on a weathervane business. He had served an apprenticeship as a precision engineer and had worked in that trade for 15 years when he and his wife, Liz, agreed to swap roles –– she went out to work as an architectural assistant and he stayed at home to look after the children and build up the business.
[C] Last month, a local school was opened with his galleon ship weathervane hoisted above it.
[D] “For centuries, weathervanes have kept communities in touch with the elements, signaling those shifts in wind direction that bring about changes in the weather,” he explains.
[E] Graham has no plans for expansion, as he wants to keep the business as a rural craft.
[F] Graham has now perfected over 100 original designs. He works to very fine detail, always seeking approval for the design of the silhouette from the customer before proceeding with the hand-cutting.
Archaeological study covers an extremely long span of time and a great variety of subjects. The earliest subjects of archaeological study date from the origins of humanity. These include fossil remains believed to be of human ancestors who lived 3.5 million to 4.5 million years ago. The earliest archaeological sites include those in Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya; and elsewhere in East Africa. These sites contain evidence of the first appearance of bipedal （upright-walking）, apelike early humans. 41） ____________________.
The first physically modern humans, Homo sapiens, appeared in tropical Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago –– dates determined by molecular biologists and archaeologists working together. Dozens of archaeological sites throughout Asia and Europe show how people migrated from Africa and settled these two continents during the last Ice Age （100,000 to 15,000 years ago）. 42） ____________________.
Archaeologists have documented that the development of agriculture took place about 10,000 years ago. Early domestication –– the planting and harvesting of plants and the breeding and herding of animals –– is evident in such places as the ancient settlement in Jordan and in Mexico. Archaeology plays a major role in the study of early civilizations, such as those of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, who built the city of Ur, and the ancient Egyptians, who are famous for the pyramids near the city of Giza and the royal sepulchers （tombs） of the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. 43） ____________________.
Archaeological research spans the entire development of phenomena that are unique to humans. For instance, archaeology tells the story of when people learned to bury their dead and developed beliefs in an afterlife. Sites containing signs of the first simple but purposeful burials in graves date to as early as 40,000 years ago in Europe and Southwest Asia. By the time people lived in civilizations, burials and funeral ceremonies had become extremely important and elaborate rituals. 44） ____________________.
Archaeology also examines more recent historical periods. Some archaeologists work with historians to study American colonial life, for example. They have learned such diverse information as how the earliest colonial settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, traded glass beads for food with native Algonquian peoples; how the lives of slaves on plantations reflected their roots in Africa; and how the first major cities in the United States developed. 45） ____________________.
[A] For example, the Moche lords of Sipan in coastal Peru were buried in about ad 400 in fine cotton dress and with exquisite ornaments of bead, gold, and silver. Few burials rival their lavish sepulchers. Being able to trace the development of such rituals over thousands of years has added to our understanding of the development of human intellect and spirit.
[B] By 40,000 years ago people could be found hunting and gathering food across most of the regions of Africa. Populations in different regions employed various technological developments in adapting to their different environments and climates.
[C] Archaeological studies have also provided much information about the people who first arrived in the Americas over 12,000 years ago.
[D] The first fossil records of vascular plants –– that is, land plants with tissue that carries food –– appeared in the Silurian period. They were simple plants that had not developed separate stems and leaves.
[E] One site in Tanzania even reveals footprints of humans from 3.6 million years ago. Some sites also contain evidence of the earliest use of simple tools. Archaeologists have also recorded how primitive forms of humans spread out of Africa into Asia about 1.8 million years ago, then into Europe about 900,000 years ago.
[F] One research project involves the study of garbage in present-day cities across the United States. This garbage is the modern equivalent of the remains found in the archaeological record. In the future, archaeologists will continue to move into new realms of study.
[G] Other sites that represent great human achievement are as varied as the cliff dwellings of the ancient Anasazi （a group of early Native Americans of North America） at Mesa Verde, Colorado; the Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the Andes Mountains of Peru; and the mysterious, massive stone portrait heads of remote Easter Island in the Pacific.
Key: 3. DGAEB 4. FACGD 5. BFEDA 6. ECGAF
Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order for Questions 41-45; you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-E to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
［A］“I just don’t know how to motivate them to do a better job. We’re in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we’ll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It’s hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn’t－it’s boring, routine paperwork, and there isn’t much you can do about it.
［B］“Finally, I can’t say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they know it’s not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.
［C］“I’ve got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat, They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.
［D］“Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that’s not fair－too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.
［E］“The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.
［F］“So I just don’t know What to do. I’ve been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work.”
［G］A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation-how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.
G→41. →42. →43. →44. →45. →F
Directions: You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading （41-45）. There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are two kinds. One is the familiar “tombstone” that lists where you went to school and where you’ve worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the “functional” resume－descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.
It’s handy to have a “tombstone” for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those unrequested “tombstone” lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead.
What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read－a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.
41.Put yourself first:
In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.
42.Sell what you can do, not who you are:
Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work.
Toot your own horn!
Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch-if only you show it.
43.Be specific, be concrete, and be brief!
Remember that “brevity is the best policy.”
44.Turn bad news into good:
Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.
If you’ve returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph （summary of background） in place of a chronology of experience. Don’t apologize for working at being a mother; it’s the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don’t mention education.
The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don’t worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments （leadership skills, budget management skills, child development skills etc.） Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you’ve ready to show it to a stranger （friends are usually too kind） for a reaction. When you’ve satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right.
Isn’t that the kind of person you’d want working for you?
［A］A woman who lost her job as a teacher’s aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote:“Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher’s aide she would rehire if government funds became available.”
［B］One resume I received included the following:“invited by my superior to straighten out our organization’s accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion.” Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward-all in 34 words.
［C］For example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills.
［D］An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement“Ready to learn though not so well educated”.
［E］One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background.
［F］A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She’d agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn’t in her resume. She answered, “It wasn’t important.” What she was really saying of course was “I’m not important.”
Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph （41-45）. The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
［A］What to do as a student?
［B］Various definitions of plagiarism
［C］Ideas should always be sourced
［D］Ignorance can be forgiven
［E］Plagiarism is equivalent to theft
［F］The consequences of plagiarism
Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person’s ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one’s ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is “the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another.”
The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities, the punishment may range from failure in a particular course to expulsion from the university. In the literary world, where writers are protected from plagiarism by international copyright laws, the penalty may range from a small fine to imprisonment and a ruined career. Protection of scholars and writers, through the copyright laws and through the social pressures of the academic and literary communities, is a relatively recent concept. Such social pressures and copyright laws require writers to give scrupulous attention to documentation of their sources.
Students, as inexperienced scholars themselves, must avoid various types of plagiarism by being self-critical in their use of other scholars' ideas and by giving appropriate credit for the source of borrowed ideas and words, otherwise dire consequences may occur. There are at least three classifications of plagiarism as it is revealed in students' inexactness in identifying sources properly. They are plagiarism by accident, by ignorance, and by intention.
Plagiarism by accident, or oversight, sometimes is the result of the writer's inability to decide or remember where the idea came from. He may have read it long ago, heard it in a lecture since forgotten, or acquired it second-hand or third-hand from discussions with colleagues. He may also have difficulty in deciding whether the idea is such common knowledge that no reference to the original source is needed. Although this type of plagiarism must be guarded against, it is the least serious and, if lessons learned, can be exempt from being severely punished.
Plagiarism through ignorance is simply a way of saying that inexperienced writers often do not know how or when to acknowledge their sources. The techniques for documentation --- note-taking, quoting, footnoting, listing bibliography--are easily learned and can prevent the writer from making unknowing mistakes or omissions in his references. Although "there is no copyright in news, or in ideas, only in the expression of them," the writer cannot plead ignorance when his sources for ideas are challenged.
The most serious kind of academic thievery is plagiarism by intention. The writer, limited by his laziness and dullness, copies the thoughts and language of others and claims them for his own. He not only steals, he tries to deceive the reader into believing the ideas are original. Such words as immoral, dishonest, offensive, and despicable are used to describe the practice of plagiarism by intention.
The opposite of plagiarism is acknowledgement. All mature and trustworthy writers make use of the ideas of others but they are careful to acknowledge their indebtedness to their sources. Students, as developing scholars, writers, teachers, and professional leaders, should recognize and assume their responsibility to document all sources from which language and thoughts are borrowed. Other members of the profession will not only respect the scholarship, they will admire the humility and honesty.