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Background Paper:

Nationally Threatened Plant Species on Kangaroo Island Recovery Action Plan

2003-2008

Dept for Environment and Heritage

KI Natural Resources Management Board

Cite as:

Taylor, D.A. (2003). Nationally Threatened Plant Species on Kangaroo Island Recovery Action Plan. Report to the Threatened Species and Communities Section, Department for Environment and Heritage, Government of South Australia.



Further copies of this Background Paper are available from:

Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources

Kangaroo Island Regional Office

PO Box 39, Kingscote, South Australia, 5223



TABLE OF CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS i

LIST OF FIGURES iv

LIST OF TABLES vii

1. STATE POLICY AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK viii

1.1 South Australian Strategic Plan viii

1.2 No Species Loss: A Nature Conservation Strategy for South Australia 2007-2017 viii

1.3 Naturelinks viii

1.4 State Natural Resources Management Plan viii

1.5 Kangaroo Island Natural Resources Management Plan ix

1.6 Social and Economic Impacts x

2. SPECIES INFORMATION, DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATION 15

2.1. Species/Communities, Taxonomy and Status 15

2.2 Definitions 16

2.2.1. Determination of Sub-populations 16

2.2.2. Determination of Essential and Potential Habitat 16

2.2.3. Determination of Extent of Occurrence and Area of Occupancy 17

2.2.4. Determination of Important Populations and Sub-populations 17

2.3. Threatened Plant Species 18

2.3.1. Downy Starbush Asterolasia phebalioides 18

2.3.2. Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush Beyeria subtecta 21

2.3.3. Kangaroo Island Spider-Orchid Caladenia ovata 25

2.3.4. Twining Hand Flower Cheiranthera volubilis 29

2.3.5. De Mole River Correa Correa calycina var. halmaturorum 33

2.3.6. Osborn’s Eyebright Euphrasia collina ssp. osbornii 36

2.3.7. Kangaroo Island Phebalium Leionema equestre 39

2.3.8. Kangaroo Island Logania Logania insularis 44

2.3.9. Small-flowered Daisy-bush Olearia microdisca 47

2.3.10. Kangaroo Island Pomaderris Pomaderris halmaturina ssp. halmaturina 51

2.3.11. Ironestone Mulla Mulla Ptilotus beckerianus 56

2.3.12. Beyeria Bush-pea Pultenaea insularis 62

2.3.13. Splendid Bush-pea Pultenaea villifera var. glabrescens 65

2.3.14. MacGillivray Spyridium Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum 69

2.3.15. Spiral Sun Orchid Thelymitra matthewsii 73

3. THREATS AND IMPEDIMENTS TO RECOVERY 76

3.1. Direct Threats 76

3.1.1. Vegetation Clearance 76

3.1.2. Environmental Weeds 77

3.1.3. Grazing 84

3.1.4. Salinity 86

3.1.5. Trampling 86

3.1.6. Erosion 89

3.1.7. Phytophthora 89

3.2. Impediments to Recovery 93

3.2.1. Fragmentation 93

3.2.2. Degraded Potential Habitat 100

3.2.3. Inappropriate Disturbance Regimes 103

3.2.4. Inadequate Knowledge of Distribution and Abundance 104

3.2.5. Inadequate Knowledge of Ecology and Biology 107

3.2.6. Inadequate Knowledge and Understanding of Threatening Processes 107

3.2.7. Potential Pest Species 109

3.2.8. Involvement of Stakeholders 111

3.2.9. Availability of Resources 111

3.2.10. Co-ordination and Integration of Recovery Process 111

3.2.11. Climate Change 111

4. BENEFITS TO OTHER SPECIES/ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES 111

4.1 Flora 112

4.2 Fauna 112

5. OBJECTIVES, PERFORMANCE CRITERIA AND ACTIONS 113

5.1. Overall Recovery Strategy 113

5.2. Determination of Recovery Actions 114

5.2.1. Development of a threat matrix 114

5.2.2. Revision of threatened plant species status 114

5.2.3. Identification of species and sites on which to focus recovery actions 116

5.2.4. Identifying when actions should be undertaken 117

5.2.5. Scope of this recovery plan and opportunities for further actions 120

5.2.6. Identifying the role of stakeholders 120

5.3. Threat Abatement. 123

5.3.1. Availability of Resources 123

5.3.2. Co-ordination and Integration of Recovery Process 126

5.3.3. Inadequate Knowledge of Distribution and Abundance 129

5.3.4. Inadequate Knowledge and Understanding of Threats 134

5.3.5. Fragmentation 139

5.3.6. Inappropriate Disturbance Regimes 145

5.3.7. Degraded Potential Habitat 148

5.3.8. Involvement of Stakeholders 150

5.3.9. Inadequate Knowledge and Understanding of Ecology and Biology 152

5.3.10. Phytophthora 155

5.3.11. Potential Pest Species 159

5.3.12. Grazing 160

5.3.13. Environmental Weeds 163

5.3.14. Vegetation Clearance 169

5.3.15. Trampling 170

5.3.16. Salinity 172

5.3.17. Erosion 174

5.3.18. Climate Change 176

5.4. Management Practices 177

6. REFERENCES 180

Appendix A. Nationally, state and regionally threatened plant species recorded at sites of significance within priority 1 essential habitat (Davies 1996; Willoughby et al. 2001). 184

Appendix B. Plant communities falling within priority 1 essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island (Ball and Carruthers 1998; Willoughby et al. 2001). 185

Appendix C. A threat matrix for nationally threatened plant species


on Kangaroo Island. 185

Appendix D. Methodology for identifying priority essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 202

Appendix E. Classification of 15 threatened plant species status on Kangaroo Island using IUCN redlist criteria (IUCN 2000). 212



LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 2.1. The known distribution of Downy Starbush on Kangaroo Island. 20

Figure 2.2. The known distribution of the Kangaroo Island Turpentine Bush on Kangaroo Island. 24

Figure 2.3a. The known distribution of the Kangaroo Island Spider-Orchid in eastern Kangaroo Island. 26

Figure 2.3b. The known distribution of the Kangaroo Island Spider-Orchid in western Kangaroo Island. 28

Figure 2.4. The known distribution of the Twining Finger Flower on Kangaroo Island. 32

Figure 2.5. The known distribution of the De Mole River Correa on Kangaroo Island. 35

Figure 2.6. The known distribution of Osborn’s Eyebright on Kangaroo Island. 38

Figure 2.7a. The known distribution of Kangaroo Island Phebalium in eastern


Kangaroo Island. 42

Figure 2.7b. The known distribution of Kangaroo Island Phebalium in western Kangaroo Island. 43

Figure 2.8. The known distribution of Kangaroo Island Logania on Kangaroo Island. 46

Figure 2.9. The known distribution of Small-flowered Daisy-bush on Kangaroo Island. 50

Figure 2.10a. The known distribution of Kangaroo Island Pomaderris in eastern Kangaroo Island. 54

Figure 2.10b. The known distribution of Kangaroo Island Pomaderris in western Kangaroo Island. 55

Figure 2.11a. The known distribution of Ironstone Mulla Mulla in eastern Kangaroo Island. 60

Figure 2.11b. The known distribution of Ironstone Mulla Mulla in western Kangaroo Island. 61

Figure 2.12. The known distribution of Beyeria Bush-pea on Kangaroo Island. 64

Figure 2.13. The known distribution of Splendid Bush-pea on Kangaroo Island. 68

Figure 2.14. The known distribution of MacGillivray Spyridium on Kangaroo Island. 72

Figure 2.15. The known distribution of the Spiral Sun Orchid on Kangaroo Island. 75

Figure 3.1. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by small-scale vegetation clearance activities. 78

Figure 3.2. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by Bridal Creeper on Kangaroo Island. 80

Figure 3.3. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by Bridal Veil on Kangaroo Island. 81

Figure 3.4. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by Perennial Veldt Grass on Kangaroo Island. 82

Figure 3.5. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by Phalaris on Kangaroo Island. 83

Figure 3.6. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened by herbivore grazing on Kangaroo Island. 85

Figure 3.7. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species suspected to be under threat from increasing soil salinity on Kangaroo Island. 87

Figure 3.8. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be currently threatened to some degree by trampling on Kangaroo Island. 88

Figure 3.9. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species known to be under threat to some extent from erosion on Kangaroo Island. 91

Figure 3.10. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species currently containing either a confirmed or suspected Phytophthora spp. infestation. 92

Figure 3.11. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island containing less than 250 individual plants and considered potentially at risk from declining genetic viability. 95

Figure 3.12. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island occurring within vegetation fragments less than 100 ha in size or in vegetation strips with a width no greater than 30 m. 96

Figure 3.13. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species with a small area of occupancy (10 sq. km), small population size (<1000 plants) and which occur within a fragmented landscape. 99

Figure 3.14. Essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island occurring wholly or partially within the fragmented landscape of the Seddon, Haines and Dudley Plateaus or the Eastern Plains and therefore likely to be subjected to inappropriate fire regimes. 102

Figure 3.15. Records of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island not surveyed since January 1995. 106

Figure 3.16. Records of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island not adequately assessed to determine threatening processes since January 1995. 110

Figure 5.1. Priority 1 essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 118

Figure 5.2. Priority 1a to 1h essential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 119

Figure 5.3. Corridors connecting essential habitat of critically endangered and endangered sub-populations of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 144

Figure 5.4. Suspected sites of Phytophthora spp. infestation within 5 km of essential habitat of critically endangered and endangered nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 158

Figure 5.5. Environmental weed buffer zone of one kilometre around essential habitat of critically endangered and endangered nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 165

Figure D1. Decision tree to identify areas of priority essential habitat for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island. 206

Figure D2. Essential habitat of critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable and lower risk nationally listed plant species on Kangaroo Island 207

Figure D3 . Essential habitat of core and outlier sub-populations of critically endangered and endangered nationally listed plant species on Kangaroo Island 208

Figure D4. Area of overlap between essential habitat of critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable and/or lower risk nationally listed plant species on
Kangaroo Island 209

Figure D5. Priority 1a to 1h essential habitat for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island 211



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