|MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
HDS 121: ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN ZIMBABWE TO 1890s.
LECTURER: G.T. NCUBE
(OFFICE No. 42 )
This surveys the major economic and social developments in Zimbabwe’s pre-colonial history since the Early Iron Age. It examines the origins of early Shona states on the Zimbabwean plateau since the 10th century AD, and the socio-economic structure of the early and later Shona states. The latter part of the module discusses general changes on the Zimbabwean plateau in the first half of the 19th century brought about by Nguni conquests during the Mfecane and the encroachment of Europeans. It discusses the origins, socio-economic structure, politics and foreign policy of the Ndebele and Gaza-Nguni states. It also looks at the period of treaties and concessions with White settlers on the eve of occupation and conquest in the 1890s. The module ends with a discussion of BSA Company misrule of the Africans in the 1890s, as a background to the 1896-7 Ndebele and Shona risings.
i. Sources of Zimbabwean History, Historiography of the pre-1890 period
ii. Environment and population in pre-colonial Zimbabwe
iii. Outline of settlement of the Zimbabwean plateau region to AD 900
iv. Economy and Society in the EIA and LIA.
Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe
i. Mapungubwe – questions of viewpoint and evidence
ii. Great Zimbabwe – dating
iii. Economic origins of Great Zimbabwe
iv Social organization of Great Zimbabwe
v. The decline of gold production on the Zimbabwean plateau
vi The fall of Great Zimbabwe
Mutapa and Torwa states
i. Archaeology, traditions and history
ii. Torwa to c. 1685
iii. Origins of the Mutapa state
iv. Political structure of the Mutapa state
v. Economic structure of the Mutapa state
vi. The coming of the Portuguese to 1590
vii. The conquest of the Mutapa state and Eastern Shona region
4. The Changamire State and the Rozvi
i. Origins of the Changamire dynasty
ii. Dombo Changamire and the expansion of the Rozvi state
iii. The conquest of the South-west
iv. The fall of the Changamire Rozvi state
5. The later Mutapa state and the Prazos da Coroa
i. Mutapa historiography
ii. Mutapa succession
iii. The sequence of decline
iv. Definition and nature of the prazos
v. Expansion and periodization of the prazos
The Mfecane states to the 1870s
i. Background to the Nguni conquests
ii. The Ndebele state to the 1870s – external policies.
iii. Structure of the Ndebele state
iv. The Gaza Nguni state
Treaties and Partition, 1870-91
i. Crisis in the Ndebele state, 1868-78
ii. Treaties and Concessions, 1868-1886, Grobler, Moffatt, etc.
iii. Rhodes, Rudd and the Charter
iv. The BSAC and the Portuguese: Portuguese counter-moves
Occupation and Conquest, 1891-1895
i. Occupation by the BSAC and the Manyika frontier
ii. BSAC-Ndebele relations, 1891-3
iii. The Anglo-Ndebele war, 1894
iv. The fall of the Gaza state, 1895
Origins of the First Chimurenga, 1890-1896
i. Colonial rule and the Shona, 1890-1894
ii. Colonial rule and the Ndebele, 1894-1896
iii. Colonial rule and the Shona, 1894-1896
The First Chimurenga, 1896-1897
i. Events in the south-west, March-October 1896
ii. Events in the centre, June 1896-October 1897
iii. Consequences of the Chimurenga
iv. Conclusions: Overall view of resistance
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Isaacman, A. F., Mozambique: the Africanization of a European institution: the Zambezi prazos, 1750-1902 (University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1972)
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