Declared Plant Policy




Yüklə 50.75 Kb.
tarix22.04.2016
ölçüsü50.75 Kb.


Declared Plant Policy
Bellyache Bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia)
A tropical shrub that has been declared a Weed of National Significance in Australia because it is invasive in subtropical and tropical summer rainfall climates.


Management Plan for Bellyache Bush




Outcomes





  • No national trade in bellyache bush.




  • No establishment of bellyache bush in South Australia.



Objectives





  • Prevent any supply of bellyache bush via South Australia to other States or Territories where it is an invasive weed.




  • Prevent the introduction of bellyache bush to South Australia.


Implementation





  • Compliance action in the event of bellyache bush being found on sale in South Australia.




  • Destruction of any incursion found in the northern part of the Alinytjara Wilurara Natural Resources Management (NRM) region.


Regional Implementation
Refer to regional management plans for further details.


NRM Region

Actions

Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges

prohibit sale and movement

Alinytjara Wilurara

destroy infestations

Eyre Peninsula

prohibit sale and movement

Kangaroo Island

prohibit sale and movement

Northern and Yorke

prohibit sale and movement

South Australian Arid Lands

prohibit sale and movement

South Australian Murray-Darling Basin

prohibit sale and movement

South East

prohibit sale and movement


Declaration

To implement this policy, bellyache bush is declared under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 throughout the whole of the State of South Australia to prevent any further entry, sale or movement of the plant. The movement or transport of the plant on a public road by itself or as a contaminant, its entry to South Australia, or the sale by itself or as a contaminant are prohibited.

Bellyache bush is declared in category 2 under the Act for the purpose of setting maximum penalties and for other purposes. Any permit to allow its movement or sale can only be issued by the Chief Officer pursuant to section 188.
The following sections of the Act apply to bellyache bush throughout each of the NRM regions noted below:


Region

Sections of Act



AMLR

AW

EP

KI

NY

SAAL

SAMDB

SE

175(1) Prohibiting entry to area

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

175(2) Prohibiting movement on public roads

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(1) Prohibiting sale of the plant

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(2) Prohibiting sale of contaminated goods

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

180 Requiring notification of infestations

























182(1) Landowners to destroy the plant on their properties

























182(2) Landowners to control the plant on their properties

























185 Recovery of control costs on adjoining road reserves



























Review

This policy is to be reviewed by 2020, or in the event of a change in one or more regional management plans for bellyache bush or a change in its status as a Weed of National Significance.



Weed Risk
Invasiveness
Bellyache bush is a shrub that can grows from seeds and vegetatively from root suckers or broken stems. Its seed production is not high, as individual seeds are relatively large. This is an advantage in its establishment.
Most seed falls close to the parent plants. The pods can be dispersed by running water if they are shed into waterways. Seeds can also be transported as a contaminant of garden soil and in mud adhering to stock or vehicles. Dispersal of seeds by birds has been reported.
Impacts
It can form dense stands that reduce the regeneration of native plants including rangeland forage species. This is most severe along rivers. The fruits, containing the toxalbumin curcin and a purgative oil, are poisonous to stock and humans but other parts of the plant are less toxic.
Potential distribution
Bellyache bush grows in tropical, summer-rainfall climates. Infestations are found in disturbed rangelands, savannah or pasture. It may become deciduous in seasonally dry climates, regenerating from the stem or as root suckers in the next year. In its native range it grows on well-drained sands, sandy loams, loams and stony soils, in low elevation coastal areas.
It has sometimes been grown as a low-care garden plant in the tropics, and became naturalised there from garden escapes.
Predictive mapping indicates that the potential range of bellyache bush in Australia does not include any part of South Australia.
Feasibility of Containment
Control costs
Control of any bellyache bush incursion would be achieved by spot spraying or hand weeding, but would be expensive due to the remote area of the State where it would most likely occur.
Persistence
Bellyache bush is a woody plant that would persist once established by suckering and seedling regeneration. High seedling emergence can occur for at least four years after clearing of an infestation, but seed is not very long-lived in the soil, with only a small percentage remaining viable after 15 years.
Current distribution
Scattered in northern Australia from the Kimberley region of WA to just south of the Tropic of Capricorn in Queensland, but absent from South Australia.

State Level Risk Assessment

Assessment using the Biosecurity SA Weed Risk Management System gave the following comparative weed risk and feasibility of containment scores by land use:




Land use


Weed Risk

Feasibility of control

Response at State Level


Grazing - southern

negligible

0


very high

0


monitor

Grazing - rangeland

low

16


very high

0


monitor

Native vegetation

negligible

4


very high

0


monitor


Considerations

Bellyache bush is native to South America from Brazil to the Caribbean, but now has a pantropical distribution. It was grown in tropical Australia as an ornamental and spread from gardens into bush and pasture. Insects are being developed by CSIRO as biocontrol agents against it.


Various Jatropha species have been used as herbal medicines as aphrodisiacs for centuries and this use has caused many deaths overseas.
Risk assessment indicates monitoring as a management action at State level; since the species is absent from South Australia, this is implemented by preventing entry of bellyache bush to the State. As it is a Weed of National Significance, sale and movement of bellyache bush is prohibited in South Australia. In the Alinytjara Wilurara region the species is targeted for destruction in the event of an incursion occurring across the border from Western Australia or Northern Territory.
Synonymy
Jatropha gossypiifolia L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1006 (1753).
Nomenclatural synonyms:

Adenoropium gossypiifolium (L.) Pohl, Pl. Bras. Icon. Descr. 1: 16 (1826).

Manihot gossypiifolia (L.) Crantz, Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167 (1766).
Taxonomic synonym:

Jatropha elegans (Pohl) Klotsch, Bot. Voy. Herald 3: 102 (1853).

Other common names include cotton-leaf physic nut, red physic nut, purging nut, red fig-nut flower, wild cassava, black physic nut, danmar menah, faux manioc and pinhão roxo. It has sometimes been confused with the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis).




Hon Ian Hunter MLC

Minister for Sustainability, Environment and Conservation
Date: 3 January 2015



of 4



Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azrefs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə