Date: 3/15/2006 gain report Number




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USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

GAIN Report

Template Version 2.09





Global Agriculture Information Network

Required Report - public distribution

Date: 3/15/2006

GAIN Report Number: TU6011

TU6011

Turkey

Stone Fruit

Annual Report

2006



Approved by:

Jim Higgiston, Agricultural Counselor

U.S. Embassy

Prepared by:

Yasemin Erkut, Administrative Assistant





Report Highlights:

Stone fruit production in 2005 has increased considerably due to favorable weather conditions. Similarly, exports for all stone fruits except cherries also increased. There is a growing interest in stone fruit farming from Turkish producers as problems with citrus industry increase.



Includes PSD Changes: Yes

Includes Trade Matrix: Yes

Annual Report

Ankara [TU1]

[TU]


Table of Contents

Executive Summary 3

Production 4

Cherry 4


Table 1: Fresh Cherries, PS&D 4

Apricots 5

Table 2: Fresh Apricots, PS&D 6

Peaches-Nectarines 6

Table 3: Fresh Peaches and Nectarines, PS&D 7

Plums 8


Table 4: Fresh Plums and Prunes, PS&D 8

Consumption 8

Cherries 8

Apricots 9

Peaches-Nectarines 9

Plum 9

Trade 9

Cherries 9

Table 1: Export Trade Matrix, Fresh Cherries 9

Apricots 11

Table 2: Export Trade Matrix, Fresh Apricots 11

Peaches and Nectarines 11

Table 3: Export Trade Matrix, Fresh Peaches and Nectarines 12

Plums 12


Table 4: Export Trade Matrix, Fresh Plums 13

Stocks 13

Marketing Policy 13



Executive Summary

Turkey’s climate has continued to support its growth as a major producer of fruits and vegetables. After deciduous and citrus fruits, stone fruits account for approximately 14 percent of overall fruit production in Turkey. Most stone fruit, except for apricots, are generally consumed domestically as fresh fruit.


Weather conditions in 2005 were very favorable for stone fruit production in Turkey. Due to good weather conditions the total production of all stone fruits increased in comparison to that of 2004. In 2004, the stone fruit orchards were damaged by a frost in early April. One of the major reasons for high production levels in 2005 is that there was no frost. In addition the good weather conditions contributed to the high yields, especially for apricots.
On the trade side, cherries and peaches continue to be the primary export products in 2005. Peach, cherry and apricot exports have increased dramatically over the past 3 years and exporters are looking to expand production to take advantage of this situation.
The increased production levels in 2005 were reflected in the increased export levels. All stone fruit exports, except cherry increased considerably. One of the side effects of the immense cherry harvest, however, was the small size of the fruits. The size of apricots and cherries were considerably smaller than what the export markets typically request. Besides the size issue, the quality of cherries was also poor. As a result, Turkish apricots and cherries could not compete well with those from Europe.
Most Turkish stone fruit producers are still using the old techniques and varieties. As a result, Turkish competitiveness in the European market is negatively affected. The producers’ lack of understanding of export markets and their reluctance to convert into new varieties are among of the major problems the stone fruit sector is facing in Turkey. These issues, in return, lead to lower exports than the total potential.
Turkish producers are showing an increasing interest in stone fruit farming, mainly due to the harsh conditions of the citrus market in the past years, including 2005. Especially cherry, apricot and plum are being preferred by Turkish farmers. Therefore, stone fruit production in the next 5 years is expected to increase in Turkey.

Production

Cherry

Cherry production in 2005 increased about 5 percent as expected given improved weather conditions from 2004. It is estimated that cherry production in Turkey was 400,000 MT in 2005. Even though there was a rebound in production from 2004 levels, 2005 cherry exports dropped to 36,000 MT. Percentage of increase in production, indeed, was the lowest of all stone fruits. The size of cherries, the price competitiveness, the low quality and the lack of new varieties were the major reasons for the decrease in exports.


Cherries are mainly grown in the Central Anatolia and Marmara regions. Due to unfavorable conditions in citrus farming and high export potential of cherries increasing number of producers are leaning towards cherry production. If a cherry orchard were established in 2006 it would take at least 3 years to harvest completely. Therefore, we expect to see this growth in production by 2010.
Industry contacts indicate that approximately 85 percent of sour cherry production is used in the processing sector, such as canned products, marmalades, frozen fruits and fruit juices. The rest is usually sold fresh on the domestic market. Processed cherries account for 15-20 percent of total sweet and sour cherry production.

Table 1: Fresh Cherries, PS&D



Fresh Cherries,(Sweet&Sour)





2004

Revised

2005

Estimate

2006

Forecast

UOM




USDA Official [Old]

Post Estimate[New]

USDA Official [Old]

Post Estimate[New]

USDA Official [Old]

Post Estimate[New]




Market Year Begin




01/2005




01/2006




01/2007

MM/YYYY

Area Planted

26000

26000

27000

27000

0

29000

(HA)

Area Harvested

0

0

0

0

0

0

(HA)

Bearing Trees

14500

13750

15000

14500

0

15000

(1000 TREES)

Non-Bearing Trees

0

5900

0

5800

0

5700

(1000 TREES)

Total Trees

14500

19650

15000

20300

0

20700

(1000 TREES)

Commercial Production

400000

383000

450000

400000

0

410000

(MT)

Non-Comm. Production

0

0

0

0

0

0

(MT)

TOTAL Production

400000

383000

450000

400000

0

410000

(MT)

TOTAL Imports

15

15

15

15

0

20

(MT)

TOTAL SUPPLY

400015

383015

450015

400015

0

410020

(MT)

Domestic Fresh Consump

360015

343015

400015

364015

0

370020

(MT)

Exports, Fresh Only

40000

40000

50000

36000

0

40000

(MT)

For Processing

0

0

0

0

0

0

(MT)

Withdrawal From Market

0

0

0

0

0

0

(MT)

TOTAL UTILIZATION

400015

383015

450015

400015

0

410020

(MT)

In order to increase exports, about one third of producers are registering under the EUREPGAP program. EUREPGAP is a program initiated by 5 retailers in the EU to set guidelines for the import of agricultural products. Its main focus is the production process. Major private Turkish exporters are leading the process to obtain EUREPGAP certification and are encouraging smaller producers to participate in the program. Producers registered under EUREPGAP receive training, get advice on spraying and conduct laboratory tests. Due to extensive work of the private sector, a large number of Turkish cherry producers were registered in 2005. This number is expected to grow in 2006 as well. Registration in EUREPGAP will likely increase Turkish stone fruit producers’ export opportunities to the EU countries.


Cherry production is not the highest in comparison to other stone fruits, but there are large producers and companies in cherry production and export sector. Currently organically grown cherries account for approximately one percent of total production. High demand for organic products both domestically and internationally may lead to increased number of organic cherry orchards in the future. There are also a very small number of producers who are trying to grow cherries in greenhouses. With the greenhouses, cherry orchards will not be affected too severely by harsh weather conditions. The private sector is taking the lead in greenhouse projects.

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