Crises of the Cold War and Détente 1960–1980 How close to war was the world in the 1960s? The U2 Crisis 1960




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Crises of the Cold War and Détente 1960–1980
How close to war was the world in the 1960s?
The U2 Crisis 1960: Purpose of U2, the responses of the USA and the USSR to the crisis; effect on the Paris Summit and the peace process.
Berlin Wall: Causes, events and consequences and Kennedy’s response.
Nuclear deterrent: Progress with nuclear disarmament
Space race in the 1960s: Events and consequences
The Cuban Missile Crisis,1962: Effect of Castro’s seizure of power. Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs. Khrushchev and the missile crisis of 1962. Kennedy’s response. Danger to the world; the results of the crisis, the effect on Kennedy and Khrushchev.
Czechoslovakia 1968: Dubcek and the Prague Spring. Why concerned the USSR and the Warsaw Pact and their response to it. Effects on East-West relations; the Brezhnev Doctrine.
Why did Détente develop and collapse in the 1970s?
Détente: Reasons for Détente motives of the USSR, USA, China and West Germany progress of Détente.

SALT I, 1972, Brezhnev-Nixon Summits; the Helsinki Agreement, 1975.


Soviet involvement in Afghanistan: Reasons for Soviet involvement. Reaction of President Carter and the USA to the war. The failure of SALT II; the Olympic boycotts;
Deployment of Soviet and US missiles in Europe.


U2 Spy plane crisis



Events

U2 spy planes trying to monitor USSR build of nuclear weapons. Soviets shot down American U2 spy plane over USSR in May 1960. USSR kept secret had captured pilot Gary Powers alive and photograph equipment and photos. USA initially lied and said it was a weather plane. USSR revealed had capture pilot and had to admit real purpose. Khrushchev demanded apology and end to spy flights. Eisenhower refused claiming US responsibility to protect itself by monitoring USSR build up of nuclear weapons.


Results

Khrushchev walks out of Paris summit (14 May 1960) where plans to discuss disarmament, Cuba, and Berlin. Khrushchev cancelled Eisenhower’s planned visit to Russia cancelled, Khrushchev demands US leaves West Berlin/ Americans came off badly – been caught lying- propaganda victory for USSR/ USA refusal to apologise showed how concerned by USSR nuclear arms development. Gary Powers found guilty of spying and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. Swapped with a Soviet spy after 17 months Cold War relations worsened


Berlin Wall
Causes

Growing tension (U2 crisis/ Kennedy finances anti-Communist forces in Laos and Vietnam)

Refugees (West Berlin enjoyed much higher living standards than East Berlin./ 1945 –1960 3 million people crossed the border – a propaganda point for the US – most were skilled workers)

Sabotage –The Russians claimed that America used West Berlin for spies and sabotage in east Germany.


Events

June 1961 at Vienna summit Khrushchev demanded West give up Berlin. President Kennedy refused

13 August 1961– East Germans erected a barbed wire wall overnight (later concrete / All East – West movement was stopped./ Wall fortified with barbed wire and guns./Western powers could do nothing.

Consequences Berlin now permanently divided. In first year 41 East Berliners shot trying to cross border including Peter Fechter August 1962. Publically west horrified and outraged, privately secretly relieved as eased tension, ended Berlin as place to fall out about. Kept two sides apart. USA to permanently support West Berlin Kennedy speech “Ich bin ein Berliner” USSR called wall Anti fascist protective barrier. Kennedy saw it as symbol of evil communism wanting to keep people in



Cuban Missile Crisis



Causes

Cuba – only 90 miles off coast of America. Revolution in 1959 deposed President Batista and replaced by Fidel Castro. Developed close relationship with USSR who supplied oil, machinery and money in return for suga Cuba nationalised American owned land, property and oil refineries. USA stopped trading with Cuba


Bay of Pigs – (April 1961) New US President Kennedy persuaded by CIA that Castro could be overthrown by Cuban rebels. Invasion at Bay of Pigs a disaster, no popular support. Kennedy humiliated. CIA began attempts to disrupt Cuban economy, setting fore to crops and even assassinate Castro.

Cuba turned to USSR for defence sent shipments of arms


14 October 1962: USA U2 spy planes photographs Soviet missile sites on Cuba range of 4000 could hit most US cities.
Events

Kennedy’s options, do nothing, invade, launch air strike, blockade.

Kennedy ordered a naval blockade and threatened invasion. Went on TV

For 10 days the world was on the brink of nuclear war, DEFCON 2. People spent money they didn’t have, stockpiled food. Khrushchev ordered ships to stop before reached blockade.

U2 spy plane shot down over Cuba

26 October Khrushchev sent letter offering to remove missiles if Kennedy called of blockade

27 October Khrushchev sent second letter offering to remove missiles if USA removed missiles from Turkey

Kennedy replied to first letter ignoring second (on advice of brother Bobby)

28 October Khrushchev went on radio agreeing to remove missiles from Cuba if USA not invade

Kennedy secretly agreed to remove missiles from Turkey


Results

Khrushchev seemed to have failed and backed down but Cuba remained Communist and missiles removed from Turkey

Kennedy became the hero of the Western world for standing up to USSR

Telephone hot line set up between Moscow and Washington.

(1963)

Nuclear test ban treaty signed banning testing in air, space and underwater



Czechoslovakia 1968 Prague Spring



Causes

Since 1948 Czechoslovakia had been controlled by USSR from Moscow. In 1967 students and writers began complaining about the lack of freedom, and the poor performance of the Czechoslovak economy and lack of consumer goods


January 1968 Alexander Dubcek - a reformer - took over as leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia . In April 1968, Dubcek's government announced an Action Plan for what it called a new model of socialism - it removed state controls over industry, allowed competition between different factories and allowed freedom of speech. Dubcek also wanted to increase trade USA and allow free travel abroad

Mindful of what happened in Hungary Dubcek stressed that Czechoslovakia would stay in the Warsaw Pact.


USSR Reaction

New President Brezhnev was unconvinced by Dubcek’s promises Worried by knock effect on other countries wanting freedom and also security of USSR itself

Other Warsaw Pact governments eg East Germany saw Czech demands as direct threat to themselves.

Hard line committed Communists in Czechoslovakia demanded Brezhnev take action


3 August 1968, at Warsaw Pact meeting President Brezhnev announced the Brezhnev Doctrine - the USSR would not allow any Eastern European country to reject Communism and would intervene (get involved) to stop them.

On 20 August 1968, 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia. Czechs wanted to avoid bloodshed like in Hungary, there was some violent protest petrol bombing and snipers but not on Hungarian scale

Most Czechs did not fight the Russians. Instead, they stood in front of the tanks, and put flowers in the soldiers' hair. Secret radio and television stations urged passive resistance Famous incident Jan Palach burned himself to death in protest. Eventually Soviets crushed all resistance
Results

Dubcek and three other leaders were arrested and sent to Moscow.

Brezhnev put in Gustav Husak, a supporter of Russia, as leader of the Czech Communist Party
Western powers watched USSR invasion with horror but not prepared to intervene and risk a war East Europe again shown to be Soviet Sphere of influence USA not get involved nor were likely too

Brezhnev Doctrine. USSR would intervene if any communist state appeared to be abandoning communism Hard line of new President not allow any disagreement with official policy any political reform or opposition.



Nuclear Arms Race 1960
Arms race from 1960 onwards based on deterrence. A country had to have so many nuclear weapons so that if another country attacked it first it would have enough left to fire back and cause terrible damage. This would mean no country would dare attack the other it was known as MAD - Mutual Assured Destruction.
Background
1945 USA drops Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan causing deaths of approximately 180,000 people, 1949 USSR tests its own Atomic Bomb. 1953 Britain develops an Atomic Bomb.

1955 – USA AND USSR develop Hydrogen bombs, many times more powerful than bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 1957 USSR and USA develop ICBM-Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. This is a rocket with own engine and fuel no pilot with nuclear warheads to fire from one continent USSR to another USA or vice versa 1959 USA develops Minuteman ICBM , ready to fire in 30 seconds


1960 USA develops Polaris, submarines capable of firing nuclear missiles from under the sea.
1960 USSR develops own submarines capable of firing nuclear missiles
1960 France develops own nuclear missile capability
Mid 60s onwards both USA and USSR develop anti ballistic missile systems. Missiles designed to shoot down the opposition’s nuclear missiles.
1967 China develops own nuclear missiles capability
1970 USA develops a multiple independently targetable re entry vehicle (MIRV) a ballistic missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit one of a group of targets. USSR follows with own version in 1973.
1978 USSR deployed SS20 medium range nuclear missiles in Eastern Europe. Provided ability to use in European battlefield situation. Feared Nato might use battlefield nuclear weapons to stop Warsaw pact conventional attack. Also provided second strike capability. NATO responded with medium range Pershing II and Cruise missiles sited in Britain, Belgium, Holland, West Germany and Italy.
Attempts at controlling Nuclear weapons

1963 USA and USSR sign test ban treaty agreeing not to test any more new weapons in atmosphere, underwater or in space


Attempts at controlling Nuclear weapons
1963 USA and USSR sign test ban treaty agreeing not to test any more new weapons in atmosphere, underwater or in space
1963 UN pass resolution banning nuclear weapons in space
1968 Non Proliferation Treaty – No more countries allowed to develop nuclear weapons other than countries which already had them USA, USSR, UK France China (India Pakistan Israel and North Korea refused to sign)
Salt 1

SALT - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in 1969. Final agreement reached in 1972 - To run for 5 years

Froze the amount of ICBMS, SLBMS and ABMs both sides could have but not MIRVs

Each side allowed spy satellites to check up on each other.


Salt 2

SALT II was the first nuclear arms treaty which assumed real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories of delivery vehicles on both sides.


The SALT II Treaty banned new missile programs (a new missile defined as one more than 5% better than any in currently deployed missiles) so both sides were forced to limit their new strategic missile types development. However, the United States preserved their most essential programs like Trident and cruise missiles.

Why was there Détente in the 1970s?


  • Soviet spending on arms in 1970 amounted to 20% of all government spending. People in Eastern Europe had low living standards so it was important to reduce defence spending. Industry in Eastern Europe and USSR was inefficient, they lagged behind in automation (use of robots to make products) computers and research and development. More trade was needed with the west.




  • USSR had quarrelled with China in the early 60s over future of communism, and were worried about being the “odd one out”. Mao, leader of China, felt USSR leaders only interested in spreading communism if made their own country stronger. China did not trust Khrushchev’s policy of peaceful co-existence Khrushchev believed only USA and USSR truly world powers.




  • USSR wanted to persuade the West to accept the post war situation in Eastern Europe.




  • USA suffering from rising inflation and poor economic output. USA had spent huge sums on the arms race and also the war in Vietnam .




  • American involvement in Vietnam War had produced a huge peace campaign. The protests continued campaigning for an end to military aggression abroad. USA wanted to become closer to China and USSR in hope of persuading them to stop supporting North Vietnam and drive a wedge between them.




  • USA President Nixon and Henry Kissinger Secretary of State (Foreign Minister) both wanted to improve diplomatic relations with USSR and China.




  • China wanted to modernise country especially in farming, industry, science, technology, and defence. China feared USSR who had nuclear superiority over them. Also shared border between USSR and China source of tension. 1969 Chinese troops killed 31 USSR border guards.


Détente in Action

1969 Nixon Doctrine. 1971 China allowed to join United Nations. 1971 USA table tennis team visited China return visit in 1972 (Ping Pong Diplomacy). 1972 President Nixon visited Moscow.



1972 East and West Germany signed an agreement to recognise each others borders . West Germany (FDR) dropped claim to represent all Germans. 1972 Salt 1 signed. 1975 Helsinki agreement. 1975 USA/USSR joint space mission Apollo-Soyuz. 1979 Salt 2 agreement signed but never came into effect
USSR invasion of Afghanistan
Pro Soviet Government of Afghanistan was unstable. Facing attacks by militant Muslim Mujahadin who were opposed to reforms of Prime Minister Amin. Control of Afghanistan would put pressure on the Middle East- oil lifeline to USA and Western Europe Russian control of Afghanistan would counter American and Chinese influence in area (both gave aid to Pakistan). Security of southern borders of USSR important to have friendly country there. Stop spread of militant strict Muslim ideas across Afghanistan and USSR.

USA response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
The UN were angered by the invasion but a Security Council motion calling for the Russian withdrawal was been stopped......by Russia.
America put a ban on the sale of grain to Russia,
Ended the SALT 2 talks taking place and boycotted the Olympic Games due to be held in Moscow in 1980.
USA knew that Russia had got itself into their own Vietnam and wanted war to last as long as possible
USA increased aid to Pakistan and told that USSR would use armed including nuclear force if necessary to stop invasion
USA and UK sent arms to Mujahadin including surface to air “stinger” missiles.
Space Race
Important as competition to see who was best but also space technologies (rockets) could be used in arms race. Early on USSR had lead in Space race but USA caught up due to larger financial resources. Kennedy had set NASA a task of landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s and achieving mastery of space.



October 1957

First artificial satellite – Sputnik



USSR

November 1957

First animal in orbit, the dog Laika

USSR

August 1959

First photograph of Earth from orbit

USSR

April 1961

First manned spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin)



USSR

May 1961

First American in space

USA

March 1962

First orbital solar observatory

USA

June 1963

First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)

USSR

Dec 1968

First human orbiting of Moon

USA

July 1969

First manned mission to the moon Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong first man on moon

USA

April 1971

USSR launched space station Salyut 1

USSR

Dec 1972

Apollo 17 last of 6 successful manned missions to the moon (Apollo 13 had to abandoned)

USA

May 1973

USA launched own space station Skylab

USA

July 1975

Joint USA/USSR space mission Apollo/Soyuz space mission

USA/USSR


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