Country study on burkina faso biodiversity conducted by the permanent secretariat of the national council for the management of the environment and the national




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BURKINA FASO United Nations Global Environment

Unity - Progress - Justice Development Programme Facility



Country study oN BURKINA FASO BIODIVERSITY

CONDUCTED BY THE PERMANENT SECRETARIAT OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL COMMITTEE OF THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY UNDER THE AEGIS OF THE MINISTRY IN CHARGE OF ENVIRONMENT AND WATER

February 1999

COMPOSITION OF THE TEAM

Soumayila BANCE: Permanent Secretariat of the National Council for the Management of the Environment, Ministry in charge of Environment and water, Co-ordinator;

Prosper SAWADOGO : Permanent Secretary of the National Council for the Management of the Environment, Ministry in charge of Environment and water, Member ;

Lassané OUEDRAOGO: Water and Forestry Head Office, Ministry in charge of Environment and water, member;

Sylvie YAMEOGO/GAMENE: National Centre of Forestry Seeds, Ministry in charge of Environment and Water, member;

Didier BALMA: National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research, Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research, member;

Ouétan BOGNOUNOU: National Centre for Scientific and Technological Research, Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research, member;

Louis OUEDRAOGO : National Centre For Scientific and Technological Research, Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research, member;

Moussa OUEDRAOGO : National Centre For Scientific and Technological Research, Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education and Scientific Research, member;

Albert OUEDRAOGO : Department of Studies and Planning, Ministry of Agriculture, Member ;

Zowendé KOUDOUGOU : Department of Pastoral and Land Development, Ministry of Animal Resources, member ;

Jeanne Marie THIOMBIANO : Department of Pharmaceutical Services, Ministry of Health, member ;

Omar TRAORE : Department of Hydraulics, Ministry in charge of Environment and water, member ;

Frédéric N. OUATTARA: Department of National Meteorology, Ministry in charge of Transport and Tourism, member;

Isaaka ZERBO : Industrial Development Head Office, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Handicraft, member ;

Abdou R. SAWADOGO: Department of Studies and Planning, Ministry in charge of Infrastructures, Housing and Urbanisation, member;

Published by the Permanent Secretariat of the National Council for the Management of the Environment,

O1 P.O. Box 6486, OUAGADOUGOU 01, BURKINA FASO

Telephone: +(226) 31 24 64

Fax: +(226) 31 64 91



CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES 6

LIST OF MAPS 7

LIST OF TABLES 5

LIST OF MAPS 5

Acknowledgement 9

use of TERMS 10



These options are part of State policy, which is based on decentralisation, and devolution of power from the State to decentralised territorial communities, particularly in the area of “Land Management”. Among the specific options which have been approved, the following may be listed: 16

cHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 17



1.1 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 17

1.2 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 18

1.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 18

1.3.1 The Importance of biological diversity 18

1.3.2 The Importance of biological resources 20

1.4 COUNTRY STUDIES ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 20

1.4.1 international Context 20

1.4.2 national Context 21

1.4.3 data collection methodology 22

CHApter 2: a GENERAL SURVEY OF BURKINA FASO 23

2.1 HISTORY 23

2.2 GEOGRAPHIC SITUATION 23

Map 1: Geographical situation of Burkina Faso 23

2.3 ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS 24

2.4 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 26

2.4.1 CLIMATE 26

2.4.2 relief 27

2.4.3 surface geology 28

2.4.4 hydrography 28

2.4.5 phytogEography 29

2.4.6 vegetation 31

2.4.7 soils 33

2.4.8road Infrastructures 35

2.5 HUMAN ENVIRONMENT 36

2.5.1 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 36

2.5.2 ethnic groups 37

2.5.3 migrations 38

2.5.4 lAND TENURE SYSTEM 38

2.6 AGRICULTURAL REGIONS AND PRODUCTION SYSTEMS 40

40

2.6.1 the nothern region: the sahel 40

2.6.2 the central region 40

2.6.3 the north-western region 41

2.6.4 the eastern region 41

2.6.5 the western region 41

2.7INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED THE MANAGEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 42

2.7.1 State owned institutions 42

2.7.2 Non-governmental Organisations and Associations 45

2.7.3 Traditional institutions 45

2.7.4 sub-regioanal and international institutions concerned with or insterested in natural resources management Programmes and production systems 45

2.8.1 legal environmental Instruments in force 46

CHAPIer 3 : current status of biological DIVERSITy in BURKINA FASO 50

3.1 TAXONOMIC INVENTORY 50

3.1.1 animal kingdom (fauna) 50

3.1.2 plant kingdom (flora) 53

3.1.3 Taxonomic summary of the inventory of species 56



Appendix 2 compares the situation of the taxonomic inventory to the main phylum of biological diversity according to the five kingdoms of Margulius, L. et K. Schwart (1988). 56

3.2 DIVERSITY OF HABITATS AND ECOSYSTEMS 57

3.2.1 physical Characteristis of the habitat 57

3.2.2 ecosystems 57

3.3 NON-BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 80

3.3.1 tourist Sites 80

3.3.2 mineral resources 82

3.4 THREATS 82

3.4.1 general threats 82

3.4.2 specific thtreats 84

3.5 SITUATION ON STTINGUP EX-SITU CONSERVATION 85

3.5.1 collections 86



4.1 INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS. 93

4.1.1 TRADITIONAL ORGANISATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. 93

4.1.2 STATE LEGISLATION ON NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 94

CHAPTER 5: ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 96



VALUE IN MILLIONS 96

VALUE IN MILLIONS 96

US $ : 552 US $ 96

US $ : 321 US $ 96

BALANCE OF TRADE IN MILLIONS US $ : - 231 96

5.1 GENERAL SURVEY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 97

5.2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 98

98

5.2.1 BENEFITS OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES 99

BETTER CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL 117

DIVERSITY 117

6.1 CONFLICTS DUE TO NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 117

117



6.2 OTHER DIFFICULTIES 118

CHAPTER 7: DEVELOPED PROGRAMMES AND 119

PROSPECTS 119

7.1 PROGRAMMES AND RELATED COSTS 119

7.1.1 AGRICULTURE SUB-SECTOR. 120

7.1.2 ANIMAL BREEDING SUB-SECTOR. 121

7.1.3 ENVIRONMENT - FOREST - FAUNA - FISHING SUB-SECTOR 122

7.1.4SUMMARY OF ACTIONS FOR PRESERVING BENEFITS 124

7.1.5 EXPENDITURES RELATED TO CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE 124

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS AND OPTIONS 126

8.1 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 126

8.2 PROPOSED OPTIONS 127

8.2.1 ECOLOGY 128

8.2.2 HERBACEOUS AND LIGNEOUS FOREST SPECIES 128

8.2.3 AQUATIC PLANTS 129

8.2.4 CULTIVATED FOREST PLANTS 130

8.2.5 AGRICULTURE 130

8.2.6 PHYTOGENETIC RESOURCES 131

8.2.7 PHARMACOPEIA RESOURCES AND TRADITIONAL MEDICINE 132

8.2.8 DOMESTIC FAUNA 132

8.2.10 AQUATIC FAUNA 133

8.2.11 INSECTS 134

8.2.12 MICRO-ORGANISMS 134

8.2.13 THEMATIC MAPS 135

8.2.14 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM 135

8.2.15 SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS 135

8.2.16 PLANNING POLICIES AND STRATEGIES 136



Appendix 1 : List of authors of initial reports 137

Appendix 2. Taxonomic inventory of principal phyla of biological diversity 139

according to the five KINGDOMs of Margulius, L. and K. Schwart (1988) 139

Appendix 3 : Characteristics of noticeable humid zones of Burkina Faso 140

………….. 143

BIBLIOGRAPHY 144

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