Convention on the conservation of european wildlife and natural habitats




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AND NATURAL HABITATS

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Berne 19.IX.1979

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STANDING COMMITTEE



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RECOMMENDATION N° 18 (1989)



OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE

ON THE PROTECTION OF INDIGENOUS CRAYFISH IN EUROPE



(Adopted by the Standing Committee on 8 December 1989)

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the convention,


Having regard to the aims of the convention to conserve wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats ;
Having regard to Recommendation (86) 10 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe concerning the Charter on Invertebrates ;
Recalling that three species of crayfish are listed in Appendix III to the convention (Astacus astacus, Austropotamobius pallipes and Austropotamobius torrentium) ;
Recalling that Article 7, paragraph 2, of the convention provides that any exploitation of wild fauna specified in Appendix III shall be regulated in order to keep the populations out of danger, taking into account the requirement of Article 2 ;
Recalling that Article 7, paragraph 3, of the convention provides that measures to be taken shall include the temporary or local prohibition of exploitation, as appropriate, in order to restore satisfactory population levels, and the regulation as appropriate of sale, keeping for sale or offering for sale of live and dead wild animals ;
Having regard to Recommendation (84) 14 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe concerning the introduction of non-native species ;
Recalling that Article 11, paragraph 2, of the convention provides that each Contracting Party undertakes so strictly control the introduction of non-native species ;
Having been informed that the astacologists of the International Association of Astacology, meeting in its seventh International Symposium in Lausanne (Switzerland) in August 1987, noted the following :
– the damaging effects to live crayfish markets following the drastic decline in Turkish crayfish production ;
– the marketing of new live crayfish species from many different places ;
– the total absence of guarantees that such crayfish do not carry communicate parasites and diseases ;
– the appearance of epidemics in European crayfish of aphanomycosis (the crayfish plague parasite), especially where it has not previously existed ;
– the accrued risks of transmission of parasites and diseases, especially aphanomycosis, from other crayfish populations to native crayfish ;
– the grave menace to native crayfish and sometimes amphibian populations from the introduction of undesirable exotic crayfish ; and
– the potential for exposing fish to diseases and parasites borne by crayfish ;
Aware that indigenous crayfish species of Europe require special conservation attention.
Recommends that Contracting Parties to the convention :
1. Take necessary and appropriate measures to protect their indigenous crayfish species ;
2. Encourage whenever needed the restoration of native crayfish stocks, mainly by the temporary or local prohibition of exploitation ;
3. Regulate that sale, keeping for sale, transport for sale or offering for sale of live crayfish ;
4. Ensure wherever practicable that live crayfish, used for restocking or reintroduction purposes, are parasite and disease free ;
5. Forbid the introduction of non-native crayfish into the wild. Where introduction in the wild has already taken place, all necessary steps should be taken in order to prohibit the release of non-native crayfish in areas where they may cause negative effects on the environment.
Appendix 5

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife

and Natural Habitats
Standing Committee
Recommendation No. 45 adopted on 24 March 1995 on controlling proliferation of Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean
The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under Article 14 of the Convention,
Having regard to the Convention's aims of conserving wild flora and fauna and their natural habitats and safeguarding endangered natural habitats;
Considering that under Article 11, paragraph 2 b, each Contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;
Noting that the tropical seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia has proliferated in the Mediterranean where the colonies extend along the northern coast from the Balearics to Sicily;
Noting that, in general, in the ecosystems typical of the Mediterranean that have been invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia a decline in biodiversity affecting both flora and fauna can be observed;
Taking note that, although all the repercussions of Caulerpa taxifolia's proliferation in Mediterranean littoral environments cannot yet be foreseen, the data gathered so far do not exclude a major threat to indigenous biodiversity, ecological balances and resources used by humankind;
Considering the need to adopt precautionary measures in accordance with Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which provides: "Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation",
Recommends that Contracting Parties bordering on the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea:
1. Control proliferation of Caulerpa taxifolia, in particular through systematic exploration of sites at risk along their coasts, especially in the vicinity of open moorings;
2. Eradicate Caulerpa taxifolia colonies wherever possible, ie where they form isolated patches of less than 100 to 200 square metres in area and then control subsequent regrowth, giving priority attention to protected areas;
3. Initiate coordinated action by countries affected or likely to be affected with a view to adopting a joint strategy;
4. Inform States not party to the Bern Convention, either directly or through the International Commission for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea, the Coordinating Unit of the Mediterranean Action Plan or the Secretariat of the Bucharest Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution of 21 April 1992, of any proliferation of Caulerpa taxifolia colonies in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.


Appendix 6

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife

and Natural Habitats
Standing Committee
Recommendation No. 61 (adopted on 5 December 1997) on the conservation of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala)
The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,
Having regard to the aims of the convention to conserve wild fauna and its natural habitats;
Recalling that Article 11, paragraph b, of the Convention requires parties to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;
Recalling that Article 1, paragraph 2, of the Convention requires Contracting Parties to give particular emphasis to the conservation of endangered and vulnerable species;
Noting that the species Oxyura leucocephala, listed in Appendix II of the Convention, is endangered;
Recognising the efforts of Contracting Parties in preserving the populations of this species;
Noting, however, that the main threat to the long-term survival of the species is its hybridisation with the American Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis;
Conscious of the critical importance of the continued expansion over Europe of the introduced Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis on the future of the native endangered Oxyura leucocephala;
Noting the large extent of populations of Oxyura jamaicensis in the United Kingdom, where this non-native species was first introduced in Europe;
Conscious that only a very firm control policy by the United Kingdom to halt and reverse the increase in population and range of the non-native Oxyura jamaicensis to a level that prevents spread to other countries can result in the long term survival of the endangered Oxyura leucocephala;
Desirous to avoid a further loss of biological biodiversity in the continent;

Aware of the obligations under the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Bonn Convention (and article 11 of the Birds Directive) to control and eradicate introduced species in order to prevent damage to threatened species;


Recalling Recommendation No. R (84) 14 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, which calls on the member States to prohibit the introduction of non-native species into the natural environment;
Recalling the report of the Group of Experts of the Council of Europe (de Klemm, 1995) on Introductions of non-native organisms into the natural environment;
Recalling Recommendation No. 48 of the Standing Committee, adopted on 26 January 1996, on the conservation of European globally threatened birds;
Recalling the International Action Plan for the White-headed Duck in Europe, prepared by BirdLife International and Wetlands International with the support of the European Commission;
Noting that eradication of Oxyura jamaicensis is just one instrument in the conservation of Oxyura leucocephala and that other conservation measures need to be taken;
Welcoming the important steps made by the United Kingdom government in undertaking research into the feasibility of control measures for North American Ruddy Duck in the United Kingdom;
Believing, therefore, that international coordination is essential for the conservation of the White-headed Duck;
Recommends that Contracting Parties to the convention or observer states, as appropriate, develop and implement without further delay national control programmes which could include eradication of the Ruddy Duck from all the countries in the Western Palaearctic.

Appendix 7




Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 78 (adopted on 3 December 1999) on the conservation of the Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in Italy
The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the convention,
Having regard to the aims of the Convention to conserve wild fauna and its natural habitats;
Recalling that Article 1, paragraph 2, of the Convention requires parties to give particular emphasis to the conservation of endangered and vulnerable species;
Recalling that Article 11, paragraph 2.b, of the Convention requires Contracting Parties to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;
Recalling that under Article 8.h of the Convention on Biological Diversity, each Party undertakes to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or indigenous species;
Recalling that Article III.4 of the Convention on Migratory Species provides that, with regard to the endangered migratory species listed in its Annex 1, to the extent feasible and appropriate, the Parties must endeavour to prevent, reduce or control "factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the species, including strictly controlling the introduction of, or controlling or eliminating, already introduced exotic species";
Recalling that Article 22.b of the EU Directive (92/43/EEC) on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora requires the Member States to "ensure that the deliberate introduction into the wild of any species which is not native to their territory is regulated so as not to prejudice natural habitats within their natural range or the wild native fauna and flora and, if they consider it necessary prohibit such introduction";
Recalling Recommendation No. R 14 (1984) of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, which calls on the member States to prohibit the introduction of non-native species into the natural environment;
Recalling Recommendation No. 57 (adopted on 5 December 1997) of the Standing Committee, on the introduction of organisms belonging to non-native species into the environment;
Recalling the report to the Council of Europe on the Introduction of non-native organisms into the natural environment (de Klemm, 1996);
Noting that the Sciurus vulgaris is listed in Appendix III of the Convention as protected fauna species;
Noting the severe damage that Sciurus vulgaris populations have suffered in Great Britain since the introduction of Sciurus carolinensis;
Noting that the main threat to the survival of Sciurus vulgaris on the European continent comes from competition with the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis;
Noting the threat to woodland biodiversity from bark-stripping by grey squirrels, which has eliminated smooth-barked native trees in some British woodlands;
Conscious of the critical importance of the possible expansion of the introduced Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis to the rest of Europe;
Noting that previous efforts to eradicate Sciurus carolimensis in Italy have not been successful due to administrative or legal barriers;
Conscious that only a very firm control policy by Italy to halt and reverse the increase in population and range of the non-native Sciurus carolinensis to a level that prevents spread to other countries can result in the long term survival of the endangered Sciurus vulgaris;
Desirous to avoid a further degradation of biological diversity in the continent;
Noting that eradication of Sciurus carolinensis in Italy is a fundamental instrument in the conservation of Sciurus vulgaris in the whole European continent,

Recommends that Italy develop and implement without further delay a national control programme to eradicate the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis and remove all legal and administrative obstacles that have hindered previous eradication efforts.



Appendix 8
COUNCIL OF EUROPE
COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS
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recommendation No. R (85) 14
of the committee of ministers to member states

on the introduction of the american cottontail rabbit (sylvilagus sp)

into europe
(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 23 September 1985

at the 388th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,

Having regard to the resolutions of the European Ministerial Conferences on the Environment;

Having regard to the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention);

Having regard to Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. R (84) 14 concerning the introduction of non-native species;

Having regard to the report of the European Committee for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (CDSN), Doc. SN VS (83) 6, concerning the ecological consequences of the introduction of the American eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) into Europe as well as to the report of the survey carried out in France by Council of Europe experts;

Congratulating the French Governement on having had a study made of the problem of introducing Sylvilagus floridanus into France and thus providing the first example of the application or Recommendation No. R (84) 14;

Aware that Sylvilagus floridanus had already been illegally introduced into the natural environment in several European states and that its survival has not been fully ensured;

Observing that diversity of indigenous wildlife is essential to maintaining the biological balance of ecosystems;

Noting that Sylvilagus floridanus will extensively occupy the biotopes (agricultural areas and woodlands) of lagomorphs indigenous to Europe, which will run counter to the principle of preserving the diversity of native fauna and maintaining an ecological balance;

Considering that the highly varied diet of Sylvilagus floridanus may result in the species causing considerable damage to crops;

Recalling that the dangers and consequences of introducing a non-native species are often incalculable and unforeseeable in both the short and the long term, even if careful research has been carried out beforehand;

Noting that the ectoparasites of the American cottontail rabbit may cause infections transmissible to other mammals, including human beings;

Noting that these parasites may cause tularaemia (in the United States, 70 % of human cases of this disease are due to contact with infected cottontails), Rocky Mountain spotted fever and plague;

Noting that the American cottontail may be a carrier of pseudo-tuberculosis, transmissible to other lagomorphs, notably the brown hare (Lepus capensis), which is particularly prone to this disease;

Noting that the American cottontail may be resistant to myxomatosis while being a carrier of the disease, and that it is therefore at an advantage in competing with the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus);

Noting that many endoparasites of the American cottontail may constitute a threat to European lagomorphs (rabbits and hares) and may cause fever and serious septicaemia in other mammals;

Believing that, as predation is one of the main natural causes of cottontail mortality, this might give rise to malevolence against some protection-worthy predators;

Considering that the introduction of several species of American cottontail into Europe will be a costly operation and that the money could be better spent on European co-ordinated research into the resistance of Oryctolagus cuniculus to myxomatosis;

Noting that the introduction of the American cottontail into the natural environment in Europe constitutes, for the above-mentioned reasons as well as for others, a threat to native wildlife, especially to lagomorphs;

Recalling that on 21 June 1984 the Committee of Ministers adopted the principle of prohibiting the introduction of non-native species into the natural environment;

Believing that the result of the extensive investigations carried out by the French authorities into the American cottontail do not warrant any departure from the above-mentioned principle in respect of that species;

Noting that the member states of the Council of Europe as well as national and international nature conservation organisations are opposed to schemes for introducing the American cottontail into Europe,
Recommends the governments of member states:

  to prohibit, without exception, the introduction into Europe of non-native Leporidae, particularly the American eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), and take all necessary measures to this effect;

  to eradicate these animals, either actively or passively, wherever they have already been introduced.

Appendix 9
Communiqué from the Workshop on the control of the North American Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)
The workshop, organised by the United Kingdom on 30th November 2000, aimed to co-ordinate action by Contracting Parties to further implement the recommendations of the White-headed duck action plan, requests that the 20th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Bern Convention takes note of the outcome of the workshop.
The workshop took note of the work being taken by range states of the White-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) to protect the species and its habitats. The workshop agreed that the North American Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is major threat to the conservation of the White-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala). It was agreed that to prevent the extinction of the White-headed duck action to control the numbers of feral and captive Ruddy duck in Europe needs to be taken in a co-ordinated manner by all range states.
The workshop recalled that Article 8.h of the Convention on Biological Diversity recommends that “each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and appropriate, prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species” and Article 11.2b of the Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats states that each Contracting Party undertakes “to strictly control the introduction of non-native species”.
The workshop agreed that Recommendations Nos 61 and 77 of the Bern Convention Standing Committee were supplemented by document T PVS/Birds (99) 9 and formed the basis for co-ordinated action both at the national and international level.
Contracting Parties and observer states agreed to inform the United Kingdom Government and the Secretariat of the Bern Convention of plans to implement national control programmes by 30th March 2001 and that there was a need to reconvene a meeting in Autumn 2001 to review action and to discuss future needs. States agreed that the United Kingdom Government will co-ordinate information and circulate a summary of action being implemented.
Contracting Parties and observer states recognised that this information will be of value to the UK Government in helping it to evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a national eradication programme of the Ruddy duck population.
Appendix 10



Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 77 (adopted on 3 December 1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrates
The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, in accordance with Article 14 of the Convention,
Having regard to the aim of the Convention to conserve wild fauna and its natural habitats;
Recalling that under Article 11, paragraph 2.b of the Convention, each Contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;
Recalling that under Article 8.h of the Convention on Biological Diversity, each Party undertakes to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or indigenous species;
Recalling that the Bonn Convention provides that, with regard to the endangered migratory species listed in its Annex 1, to the extent feasible and appropriate, the Parties must endeavour to prevent, reduce or control "factors that are endangering or are likely to further endanger the species, including strictly controlling the introduction of, or controlling or eliminating, already introduced exotic species";
Recalling Article 11 of the EU Directive (79/409/EEC) on the Conservation of Wild Birds, which states that "Member States shall see that any introduction of species of bird which do not occur naturally in the wild state in the European territory of the Member States does not prejudice the local flora and fauna";
Recalling that Article 22.b of the EU Directive (92/43/EEC) on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora requires the Member States to "ensure that the deliberate introduction into the wild of any species which is not native to their territory is regulated so as not to prejudice natural habitats within their natural range or the wild native fauna and flora and, if they consider it necessary prohibit such introduction";
Bearing in mind Recommendation No. R 14 (1984) of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to Member states concerning the introduction of non-native species;
Recalling Recommendation No. 57 (adopted on 5 December 1997) of the Standing Committee, on the introduction of organisms belonging to non-native species into the environment;
Taking into account that, in Recommendation No. 57, species native to a given territory means a species that has been observed in the form of a naturally occurring and self-sustaining population in historical times; "species" in the sense of this Recommendation refers both to species and to lower taxonomic categories, subspecies, varieties, etc. (thus, for instance, the release of a different non-native subspecies into a given territory should also be considered as an introduction);
Taking into account that, in Recommendation No. 57, "introduction" means deliberate or accidental release, into the environment of a given territory, of an organism belonging to a non-native taxa (species or lower taxa that has not been observed as a naturally occurring and self-sustaining population in this territory in historical times);
Recalling that Recommendation No. 57, recommends that Contracting Parties prohibit the deliberate introduction within their frontiers or in a part of their territory of organisms belonging to non-native species for the purpose of establishing populations of these species in the wild, except in particular circumstances where they have been granted prior authorisation by a regulatory authority, and only after an impact assessment and consultation with appropriate experts has taken place;
Recalling that the methods of eradication should be as selective, ethical and without cruelty as possible, consistent with the aim of permanently eliminating the invasive species;
Considering that feral animals of the domestic species (domestic cats, dogs, goats, etc.) and commensal non-native species (Rattus spp., Mus spp., etc.) can be some of the most aggressive and damaging alien species to the natural environment, especially on islands, and that in some circumstances the removal of feral and commensal non-native species is a management option;
Considering that the introduction of organisms belonging to non-native species may initiate a process (competition with native species, predation, transmission of pathogenic agents or parasites, hybridisation with native species, etc.) which can cause serious harm to biological diversity, ecological processes or economic activities and public life;
Considering that the species introduced into the territory of a State can easily spread to neighbouring States or entire regions and that the damage which may be caused to the environment of other States gives rise to the liability of that State;
Considering that , at the present state of knowledge, the impact of the eradication of invasive species on native flora and fauna, as well as on the functioning of local ecosystems is likely to be uncertain;
Considering that to be successful in eradicating non-native species a national action plan often requires acceptance by the local community,

Recommends that Contracting Parties:




  1. Regulate or even prohibit the deliberate introduction and trade in their territory of certain species of non-native terrestrial vertebrates;




  1. Monitor introduced populations of non-native terrestrial vertebrate species and assess the potential threat to biological diversity both within their territory and elsewhere. Those species listed in the Appendix to the recommendation are examples which have proved to be such a threat;




  1. Assess the feasibility of eradicating those populations representing a threat to biological diversity;




  1. Eradicate populations for which eradication is deemed feasible in Item 3. Monitor the effect of the eradication on native fauna and flora;




  1. Set up mechanisms for inter-State co-operation, notification and consultation in order to co-ordinate precautionary and control measures for invasive species;




  1. Seek the involvement and co-operation of all interested parties, including organisations and operators who were at the origin of the voluntary release, local and regional authorities, as well as the scientific communities;




  1. Upon understanding the key beliefs which are most directly linked to attitude, gain public acceptance, if appropriate, through launching of public awareness and education campaign informing the general public of the threat represented by introduced non-native species for the indigenous wildlife and its natural habitats;




  1. Communicate to the Secretariat, so that it may in turn inform the other Contracting Parties, of any relevant result achieved as well as any information available on the outcome of the measures adopted.

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Appendix to the Recommendation No. 77
EXAMPLES OF INVASIVE SPECIES

WHICH HAVE PROVED TO BE A THREAT TO THE BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY


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Mustela vison (American mink)
Ondatra zibethicus (Muskrat)
Myocastor coypus (Coypu)
Sciurus carolinensis (Grey squirrel)
Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy duck)
Cervus nippon (Sika deer)
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)
Nyctereutes procyonoides (Raccoon dog)
Castor canadensis (Canadian beaver)
Trachemys scripta (Red eared terrapin)
Rana catesbeiana (Bull frog)
Appendix 11

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 114 (2005) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 1st December 2005 on the control of the Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and other alien squirrels in Europe.
The Standing Committee of the Convention on the conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,
Having regard to the aims of the Convention to conserve wild fauna and its natural habitats;
Recalling Recommendation no. 78 (1999) of the Standing Committee on the conservation of the Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in Italy;
Recalling Recommendation no. 99 (2003) of the Standing Committee on the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species;
Noting that the Grey squirrel has established a population in the wild in the Ticino valley and surrounding areas;
Noting that the Grey squirrel is likely to further spread in the next decades over a large part of Europe, causing both economic damage to forests and also impacts to other native biological diversity, including damage to forest species and changes of biocenoses, and that its spread will probably lead to the extinction of many populations of the native Red squirrel,
Recommends that Contracting Parties:
1. encourage international and national institutions to support and fund further studies into the impacts to forests, Red squirrels and other biological diversity caused by the Grey squirrel and into efficient control measures;
2. request Parties to apply measures preventing introduction of alien squirrel species addressing relevant pathways such as trade and tourism; to be particularly attentive to detect new introductions in order to apply justified and species specific rapid interventions, such as eradication, especially in the very early stages of introduction;
Further recommends that Italy:
3. urge the authorities of the Ticino valley, in particularly the Ticino park, to start without delay an eradication programme on the Grey squirrel, following the guidelines developed by the Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica (INFS) and the Italian Ministry of Environment, so as to prevent its expansion to Switzerland and other neighbouring states.



Appendix 12

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee
Recommendation No. 91 (2002) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 5 December 2002, on Invasive Alien Species that threaten biological diversity in Islands and geographically and evolutionary isolated ecosystems

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, in accordance with Article 14 of the Convention,

Having regard to the aim of the Convention which is notably to ensure the conservation of wild flora and fauna, by giving particular attention to species, including migratory species, which are threatened with extinction and vulnerable;

Recalling that under Article 11, paragraph 2.b of the Convention, each Contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;

Bearing in mind Recommendation No. R (84) 14 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to Member states on the introduction of non-native species, adopted on 21 June 1984;

Recalling Recommendation No. 57 (1997) on the Introduction of Organisms belonging to Non-Native Species into the Environment, and the use it makes of terms such as “native species” and “introduction”, as well as to the species , subspecies or varieties to which Recommendation 57 refers to;

Recalling Recommendation No. 77 (1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrates;

Recalling that under Article 8.h of the Convention on Biological Diversity, each Party undertakes to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;

Recalling Decision VI/23 of the 6th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, on Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species, and the definitions used in that text;

Conscious of the high threat that invasive alien species cause to ecosystems, endemic species, and natural habitats in islands and in geographically or evolutionary isolated ecosystems (referred hereafter to as “islands and isolated ecosystems”);

Desirous that precautions taken against the spread of invasive alien species be implemented with particular attention in islands and isolated ecosystems;

Noting that no conservation efforts are to be devoted to the protection of alien species introduced in recent historic times;

Considering that, in the case of species introduced in ancient historic times, conservation for historic and cultural reasons may be acceptable if recovery of the original ecosystems is no longer feasible, their conservation does not conflict with or preclude the primary aim of conserving and recovering the native biodiversity (impact assessment before conservation);

Noting that for these species an expansion of the range may have negative effects on native species and habitats, and should not be encouraged;

Noting substantial progress on regulation, management and eradication of invasive alien species has been achieved in Europe in the last five years;

Referring to the measures proposed in the Draft “European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species”, (document T-­PVS(2002) 8),

Recommends that Contracting Parties:

1. Establish special mechanisms to prohibit intentional introduction of alien species into and between islands and isolated ecosystems, without prior authorisation from a competent authority. A risk analysis and in some cases environmental impact assessment should be carried out as a part of the evaluation process;

2. Take special precautionary measures to avoid unintentional introduction of alien species to islands and isolated ecosystems, in particular through tourism, trade, travel and transport;

3. Assess the need for stricter legislation to prevent unwanted introductions between distinct regions of the same state or islands of the same archipelago;

4. Carry out a detailed inventory of alien species in insular territories, estimating, among other topics, the following:


  • possible role of the alien species on native ecosystems, habitats or species,

  • impact of the alien species on public health or economic activities,

  • potential invasive character of the species with reference from other regions,

  • time and means of arrival,

  • reasons for introduction,

  • distribution and trends,

  • socio-economic and cultural value to people and other human-related aspects;

5:. Identify, on the basis of the above information, which invasive alien species are causing severe damage to island native ecosystems, habitats or species, define priority action, and draw-up and implement plans to eradicate or control species of highest concern ; promote containment measures for those invasive alien species that cannot be technically eradicated; draw-up a precise plan for eradication of target invasive species; monitor invasive alien species and update inventories;

6. Disseminate information through appropriate networks, and national and regional clearing-house mechanisms; promote capacity building on IAS and sharing of experiences on eradication and prevention;

7. Actitively support the use of native species or varieties in horticulture, afforestation, biological control, aquaculture, landscaping environmental management, erosion control, road construction and other cultural applications; consider in particular the use of incentives to increase availability of commercial stocks of native species for such purposes;

8. Collaborate with other states, bilaterally, multilaterally and through the framework of the Convention and other relevant fora, such as the IUCN ISSG islands initiative, on the issue of prevention, control and eradication of invasive alien species in islands and isolated ecosystems; inform regularly the Standing Committee on progress made on the implementation of this recommendation and of recommendations 57 (1997) and 77 (1999); promote regular exchange of information on progress or success of eradication operations;

9. Promote ecological restoration of areas adversely affected by invasive alien species in islands and isolated ecosystems, taking in consideration the need to maintain and restore ecological processes and the complex biological cycles of some species of conservation concern;

10. Promote education and public awareness on the problems that invasive alien species cause to native ecosystems, habitats and species and the need to take precautionary measures and eradication: approach relevant stakeholders in particular, horticultural, forestry, aquaculture, angling and hunter communities to look for their collaboration in the measures to avoid new introductions and in the eradication of invasive alien species; carry out specific education campaigns aimed at schools, relevant target groups and the general public; actively promote and publicise the benefits for biodiversity of preventing, controlling or eradicating IAS;

11. Promote scientific research on invasive alien species and on their role in ecological processes, improve existing databases, carry out long-term monitoring programmes;

Specific recommendations for the Macaronesian Region:

Recommends that the governments of Portugal and Spain:

12. Consider the creation of a specific framework for co-operation on Invasive Alien Species in the Macaronesian region, involving the Regional Governments of Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands;

13. Examine carefully the possibility to continue eradication of rabbits, rats and feral cats from small islands, islets and promote their containment, to avoid their impact on areas of special importance for Macaronesian endemics; examine carefully the need to reinforce actions of control and containment of plant species threatening endemic species listed in Appendix I of the convention or their natural habitats;

Recommends that Spain:

14. Take effective steps towards the eradication of the mufflon (Ovis ammon) from Tenerife and the Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from La Palma, given their high negative impact on endemic species listed in Appendix I of the Convention.



Appendix 13

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee
Recommendation No. 99 (2003) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 4 December 2003, on the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, in accordance with Article 14 of the Convention,

Having regard to the aim of the Convention which is notably to ensure the conservation of wild flora and fauna, by giving particular attention to species, including migratory species, which are threatened with extinction and vulnerable;

Recalling that under Article 11, paragraph 2.b of the Convention, each Contracting Party undertakes to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;

Bearing in mind Recommendation No. R (84) 14 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to Member states on the introduction of non-native species, adopted on 21 June 1984;

Recalling Recommendation No. 57 (1997) on the Introduction of Organisms belonging to Non-Native Species into the Environment, and the use it makes of terms such as “native species” and “introduction”, as well as to the species, subspecies or varieties to which Recommendation 57 refers to;

Recalling Recommendation No. 77 (1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrates;

Recalling that under Article 8.h of the Convention on Biological Diversity, each Party undertakes to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species;

Recalling Decision VI/23 of the 6th Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity, on Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species, and the definitions used in that text, as well as the conservation guidelines of the Africa-Eurasian Migratory Waterfowl Agreement;

Wishing to contribute to improve the control of the introduction of alien species, and the mitigation of the effects of invasive alien species on the native flora, fauna and natural habitats;

Noting that substantial progress on regulation, management and eradication of invasive alien species has been achieved in Europe in the last years;

Referring to the measures proposed in the “European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species”, [document T ­PVS(2003) 7];

Recommends that Contracting Parties:

1. draw up and implement national strategies on invasive alien species taking into account the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species mentioned above;

2. co-operate, as appropriate, with other Contracting Parties and Observer States in the prevention of introduction of invasive alien species, the mitigation of their impacts on native flora and fauna and natural habitats, and their eradication or containment where feasible and practical, inter alia by exchanging information, collaborating in European projects and paying particular attention to invasive alien species in trade and transboundary areas;

3. keep the Standing Committee informed of the measures taken to implement this recommendation;

Invites Observer States to take note of this recommendation and implement it as appropriate.



Appendix 14

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee
Recommendation No. 123 (2007) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 29 November 2007, on limiting the dispersal of the Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy and other Contracting Parties

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,


Noting that an eradication of the Ticino population of Grey squirrels would delay invasion of the Central Alps and Switzerland of several decades;

Recalling that its Recommendation No. 77 (1999) on the eradication of non-native terrestrial vertebrate asks Contracting Parties to “regulate or even prohibit the deliberate introduction and trade on their territory of certain species of non-native vertebrates”, including the Grey squirrel;

Noting that important trade of Grey squirrels in Italy is still legal;

Regretting that no eradication efforts have been implemented by Italy, as requested by its Recommendations No. 78 (1999) on the conservation of the Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in Italy and No. 114 (2005) on the control of the Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and other alien squirrels in Europe;

Noting that an eradication plan has been developed jointly by the INFS, the University of Varese and the University of Turin,

Recommends that Italy:

1. urge the Lombardia Region and the other competent local authorities to start without further delay the eradication program of the Grey squirrel in the Ticino Valley, so as to significantly delay invasion of Southern Alps;

Recommends that Contracting Parties:

2. ban trade and possession of the Grey squirrel;

3. eradicate new possible introduced populations of Grey squirrels;

Invites Observer states to apply as appropriate points 2 and 3 above.

Invites Contracting Parties, Observer States and organisations to inform the public why such eradication is essential for the conservation of the Red squirrel.





Appendix 15

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 124 (2007) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 29 November 2007, n progress in the eradication of the Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,

Recalling that hibridisation with Ruddy ducks is a major cause of concern for the long-term survival of the White-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala), a species protected by the Convention;

Recalling its Recommendation No. 61 (1997) on the conservation of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala);

Welcoming the very substantial eradication efforts carried out by the United Kingdom and other states;

Noting, however, that some states that have small or very small populations of Ruddy duck are failing to act,

Recommends relevant Parties:

1. carry extensive surveys to detect the presence of Ruddy-ducks in their territory;

2. eradicate as a matter of urgency all Ruddy duck found in their territory in the wild and control strictly them in captivity;

3. establish efficient alert mechanisms that may record new entries;

4. remove all legal barriers to carry out the operations above if there necessary.

5. enact legislation restricting the sale, keeping and release of Ruddy-ducks.





Appendix 16

Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats


Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 125 (2007) of the Standing Committee, adopted on 29 November 2007, on trade in invasive and potentially invasive alien species in Europe

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the Convention,

Recalling that Article 11 paragraph 2 of the Convention Parties requires Parties to strictly control the introduction of non-native species;

Conscious of the harm that invasive alien species may cause to native species and natural habitats protected under the Convention;

Recalling Recommendation No. 99 (2003) of the Standing Committee on the European Strategy on Invasive Alien Species (IAS) and other recommendations concerning trade-related pathways for the introduction of invasive alien species, such as Recommendation No. 77 (1999) and Recommendation No. 91 (2002);

Recalling Decision VI/23 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its annexed Guiding Principles for the prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species that threaten ecosystem, habitats or species;

Recalling ISMP n° 11 on Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests, adopted under the International Plant Protection Convention;

Noting that trade provides increased opportunities for potentially invasive alien species to be transported to new locations, both intentionally and unintentionally;

Wishing to reduce the introduction or expansion through trade-related pathways of invasive alien species in the territory of Contracting Parties;

Recalling the reports “Overview of Existing International / Regional Mechanisms to Ban or Restrict Trade in Potentially Invasive Alien Species” by Ms Clare Shine [document T-PVS/Inf (2006) 8], and “Assessment of Existing Lists of Invasive Alien Species for Europe, with particular focus on species Entering Europe through Trade and Proposed Responses” by Mr Piero Genovesi and Riccardo Scalera [document T-PVS/Inf (2007) 2];

Welcoming the work of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) and its Standards PM3/67 “Guidelines for the management of invasive alien plants or potentially invasive alien plants which are intended for import or have been intentionally imported” and PM5/3 “Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests”, existing animal health frameworks, the European Environment Agency’s programme Streamlining European 2010 Biodiversity Indicators (EEA/SEBI 2010), the European Union’s project Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (EU DAISIE), the NEOBIOTA work, and, for the Nordic and Baltic states, the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS) portal, and recalling the need to avoid duplication of work with existing activities in other fora,

Recommends that Contracting Parties, in cooperation with other Parties where appropriate:

1. carry out in-depth analysis of and research into trade-related pathways, examining imports and international movements of species and commodities, to:

  detect invasive and potentially invasive alien species that are intentionally moved in trade and strengthen measures to prevent unwanted introductions,

  assess the extent of unintentional introduction of potentially invasive alien species through trade-related pathways and take integrated measures based on the precautionary principle to minimise such introductions;

2. examine, in particular, international trade liberalisation measures and intra-Community free movement of goods to assess their contribution to the introduction and spread of potentially invasive alien species;

3. review national standards and regulatory frameworks, species lists for consultation by potential importers and data on invasive and potentially invasive alien species that are currently imported to improve, where necessary, existing procedures and information systems to strictly control trade in invasive alien species;

4. strengthen and extend risk analysis prior to decision-making on the import of alien species that are invasive or potentially invasive, using risk analysis methodology and procedures based on objective and scientific criteria (such as EPPO Standard PM5/3);

5. regulate as appropriate the intentional introduction, possession and trade in their territory of the invasive or potentially invasive alien species listed in Appendix 1 to this Recommendation, herein referred to as the “metalist”, applying the precautionary principle and where necessary, prohibiting the introduction, possession of and/or trade in those species that present an unacceptable risk (i.e. there is sufficient evidence of their negative impact on ecosystems, habitats or species from a risk analysis or other objective sources). For species included in the metalist, which is an indicative alert list, consider the following management measures:

  species classified as A category - alien species intentionally introduced as the commodity itself for release into the environment (such as game species, freshwater fishes, tree species of interest for forestry, biocontrol agents, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider a regional or national ban on trade in such species and/or apply internal measures,

  species classified as B category - alien species intentionally introduced as the commodity itself (such as ornamental plants, agricultural plants, pets, crayfish, etc.) in a containment facility or in a controlled environment (such as botanic gardens, greenhouses, agricultural land, zoos, animal-breeding establishments, fishfarms, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider regional or national regulation of trade and/or stringent regulation of containment facilities, or apply internal measures,

  species classified as C category - alien species unintentionally introduced as a contaminant of a specific commodity (such as Anoplophora chinensis introduced in Italy through import of bonsai; parasites of specific fish species, fruit flies, microcell disease Bonamia ostreae transported with oyster shipments, etc): if the species presents an unacceptable risk, consider applying specific treatments and measures across all relevant sectors (i.e. transport, agriculture, fishery, etc.) to prevent unwanted entry,

  species classified as D category - alien species unintentionally introduced with movements of people or of machinery (such as pests in wood packaging, hull fouling, ballast waters, contaminants in containers, hitchhikers on planes, etc.) : if the species presents an unacceptable risk, monitor pathways of introduction and consider regulation of related vectors across all relevant sectors (such as transport, agriculture, fisheries, etc.);

6. ensure that trade regulations are accompanied – when feasible and appropriate - by stringent management provisions (such as regulation of containment facilities; eradication of already established populations; enforcement of control/containment campaigns, awareness raising at Customs points, effective communication campaigns, etc.);

7. propose, in the framework of the Convention, amendments that would permit the updating of the metalist presented in Appendix 1 of this Recommendation, taking account of work carried out by other organisations or based on risk analysis or other evidence of a species having negative effects on  ecosystems, habitats or species, in order to build a comprehensive metalist of invasive alien species or potentially invasive alien species already present in Europe or expected to arrive in the next future, giving priority to species that are not yet widespread;

8. promote closer co-operation at the European and Mediterranean level to prevent introduction of invasive alien species through trade by exchanging information on trade, expanding species lists as appropriate and promoting coordinated risk assessment and other appropriate measures to control IAS movement and expansion.; in that context, support the development of international comprehensive registers of IAS, such as the Global Register of Invasive Species (GRIS) being developed by the World Conservation Union´s Invasive Species Specialist Group (IUCN ISSG);

9. improve national and European information systems on IAS, in particular with respect to trade pathways and early warning systems; in this context, consider establishing more stringent reporting mechanisms for IAS in the framework of the Convention and other appropriate mechanisms,

Further invites Observer states to apply the recommendation above.




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