Only qualified and trained employees must be assigned to install, adjust, and operate laser equipment. Employees must wear proper (antilaser) eye protection when working in areas where there is a potential exposure to direct or reflected laser light greater than 0.005 watts (5 milliwatts).
Beam shutters or caps must be utilized, or the laser turned off, when laser transmission is not actually required. When the laser is left unattended for a substantial period of time—such as during lunch hour, overnight, or at change of shifts—the laser must be turned off.
Employees must not be exposed to light intensities in excess of the following:
Direct staring—1 microwatt per square centimeter
Incidental observing—1 milliwatt per square centimeter diffused reflected light—2-1/2 watts per square centimeter.
Employees must not be exposed to microwave power densities in excess of 10 milliwatts per square centimeter.
Each employer who has a workplace or operation covered by this standard must initially
determine if any employee may be exposed to lead at or above the action level of 30 micro-grams per cubic meter (30 mg/m 3 ) of air calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average.
The employer must assure that no employee is exposed to lead at concentrations greater than 50 micrograms per cubic meter (50 mg/m 3 ) of air averaged over an 8-hour period (the permissible exposure limit PEL). Whenever there has been a change of equipment, process, control, personnel, or a new task has been initiated that may result in exposure above the PEL, the employer must conduct additional monitoring.
Training must be provided in accordance with the Hazard Communication Standard and additional training must be provided for employees exposed at or above the action level.
Prior to the start of the job, each employer must establish and implement a written compliance program.
Where airborne concentrations of lead equal or exceed the action level at any time, an initial medical examination consisting of blood sampling and analysis must be made available for each employee prior to initial assignment to the area.
Lift-slab operations must be designed and planned by a registered professional engineer who has experience in lift-slab construction. Such plans and designs must be implemented by the employer and must include detailed instructions and sketches indicating the prescribed method of erection. Jacking equipment must be cable of supporting at least two and one-half times the load being lifted during jacking operations. Also, do not overload the jacking equipment. During erection, no employee, except those essential to the jacking operation, must be permitted in the building or structure while jacking operations are taking place unless the building or structure has been reinforced sufficiently to ensure its integrity.
Equipment must be designed and installed to prevent slippage; otherwise, the employer must institute other measures, such as locking or blocking devices, which will provide positive connection between the lifting rods and attachments and will prevent components from disengaging during lifting operations.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
Each system must have containers, valves, connectors, manifold valve assemblies, and regulators of an approved type. Every container and vaporizer must be provided with one or more approved safety relief valves or devices. Containers must be placed upright on firm foundations or otherwise firmly secured.
Portable heaters must be equipped with an approved automatic device to shut off the flow of gas in the event of flame failure. All cylinders must be equipped with an excess
flow valve to minimize the flow of gas in the event the fuel line becomes ruptured.
Storage of liquefied petroleum gas within buildings is prohibited. Storage locations must have at least one approved portable fire extinguisher rated not less than 20-B:C.
Medical Services and First Aid
The employer must ensure the availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of occupational health. When a medical facility is not reasonably accessible for the treatment of injured employees, a person trained to render first aid must be available at the worksite.
First-aid supplies approved by the consulting physician should be readily available.
The telephone numbers of the physicians, hospitals, or ambulances must be conspicuously posted.
Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment
All vehicles in use must be checked at the beginning of each shift to ensure that all parts, equipment, and accessories that affect safe operation are in proper operating condition and free from defects. All defects must be corrected before the vehicle is placed in service.
No employer must use any motor vehicle, earthmoving, or compacting equipment having an obstructed view to the rear unless:
• The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, or
• The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so.
Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof that are suspended or held aloft must be substantially blocked to prevent falling or shifting before employees are permitted to work under or between them.
Personal Protective Equipment
The employer is responsible for requiring the wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment in all operations where there is an exposure to hazardous conditions or where the need is indicated for using such equipment to reduce the hazard to the employees.
Employees working over or near water, where the danger of drowning exists, must be provided with U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets or buoyant work vests.
Only trained employees must be allowed to operate powder-actuated tools. All powder-actuated tools must be tested daily before use and all defects discovered before or during use must be corrected. Tools must not be loaded until immediately before use. Loaded tools must not be left unattended.