Only approved containers and portable tanks must be used for storing and handling flammable and combustible liquids. No more than 25 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids must be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet.
No more than three storage cabinets may be located in a single storage area.
Inside storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids must be of fire-resistive construction, have self-closing fire doors at all openings, 4 inch (10.16 centimeter) sills or depressed floors, a ventilation system that provides at least six air changes within the room per hour, and electrical wiring and equipment approved for Class 1, Division 1 locations. Storage in containers outside buildings must not exceed 1,100 gallons (4,169 liters) in any one pile or area. The storage area must be graded to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures, or must be surrounded by a curb or dike. Storage areas must be located at least 20 feet from any building and must be free from weeds, debris, and other combustible materials not necessary to the storage.
Flammable liquids must be kept in closed containers when not actually in use.
Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking must be posted in service and refueling areas.
Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists
Exposure to toxic gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists at a concentration above those specified in the Threshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants for 1970 of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), must be avoided.
Administrative or engineering controls must be implemented whenever feasible to comply with TLVs.
When engineering and administrative controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance,
protective equipment or other protective measures must be used to keep the exposure of
employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use must comply with OSHA Standard 1926.103.
Hazardous conditions or practices not covered in an OSHA standard may be covered under Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which states: “Each employer must furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.”
Employers must not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools, including tools that may be furnished by employees or employers. All hand tools must be properly maintained.
Wrenches must not be used when jaws are sprung to the point that slippage occurs. Impact tools must be kept free of mushroomed heads. The wooden handles of tools must be kept free of splinters or cracks and must be kept tight in the tool.
Electric power operated tools must either be approved double-insulated, or be properly grounded.
Employers must develop, implement, and maintain at the workplace a written hazard communication program for their workplaces. Employers must inform their employees of the availability of the program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets required.
The employer must ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked with the identity of the hazardous chemical(s) contained therein; and must show hazard warnings appropriate for employee protection.
Chemical manufacturers and importers must obtain or develop a material safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers must have a material safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical they use.
Employers must provide employees with information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new hazard is introduced into their work area. Employers must also provide employees with information on any operations in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present, and the location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and material safety data sheets. Employers who produce, use, or store hazardous chemicals at multi-employer workplaces must additionally ensure that their hazard communication program includes the methods the employer will use to provide other employer(s) with a copy of the material safety data sheet for hazardous chemicals other employer(s) employees may be exposed to while working; the methods the employer will use to inform other employer(s) of any precautionary measures for the protection of employees; and the methods the employer will use to inform the other employer(s) of the labeling system used in the workplace.
Hazardous Waste Operations
Employers must develop a written safety and health program for employees involved in hazardous waste operations. At a minimum, the program must include a comprehensive workplan, standard operating procedures, a site specific safety and health plan (which need not repeat the standard operating procedures), the training program, and the medical surveillance program. A site control program also must be developed and must include, at a minimum, a map, work zones, buddy systems, site communications—including alerting means for emergencies—standard operating procedures or safe work practices, and identification of the nearest medical assistance.
Training must be provided for all site employees, their supervisors, and management who are exposed to health or safety hazards.47
Head protective equipment (helmets) must be worn in areas where there is a possible danger of head injuries from impact, flying or falling objects, or electrical shock and burns. Helmets for protection against impact and penetration of falling and flying objects must meet the requirements of ANSI Z89.1-1969. Helmets for protection against electrical shock and burns must meet the requirements of ANSI