No construction loads must be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads. No employee must be permitted to work under concrete buckets while buckets are being elevated or lowered into position. To the extent practical, elevated concrete buckets must be routed so that no employee or the fewest number of employees is exposed to the hazards associated with falling concrete buckets.
Formwork must be designed, fabricated, erected, supported, braced, and maintained so that it is capable of supporting—without failure— all vertical and lateral loads that may reasonably be anticipated to be applied to the formwork. Forms and shores (except those used for slabs on grade and slip forms) must not be removed until the employer determines that the concrete has gained sufficient strength to support its weight and superimposed loads. Such determination must be based on compliance with one of the following:
• Plans and specifications stipulate conditions for removal of forms and shores, and such conditions have been followed, or
• Concrete has been properly tested with an appropriate American Society for Testing
Materials (ASTM) standard test method designed to indicate the concrete compressive strength, and the test results indicate that the concrete has gained sufficient strength to support its weight and superimposed loads.
A limited access zone must be established whenever a masonry wall is being constructed.
The limited access zone must conform to the following:
• The limited access zone must be established prior to the start of construction of the wall.
• The limited access zone must be equal to the height of the wall to be constructed plus 4 feet, and must run the entire length of the wall.
• The limited access zone must be established on the side of the wall that will not have a scaffold.
• The limited access zone must be restricted to entry by employees actively engaged in
constructing the wall. No other employees must be permitted to enter the zone.
• The limited access zone must remain in place until the wall is adequately supported
to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse. When the height of a wall is more than 8 feet, the limited access zone must remain in place until the requirements of paragraph (b) of OSHA Standard 1926.706(a)(1) thru (5) have been met
All masonry walls more than 8 feet in height must be adequately braced to prevent overturning and to prevent collapse unless the wall is adequately supported so that it will not overturn or collapse. The bracing must remain in place until permanent supporting elements of the structure are in place.
All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces must be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of required protective and emergency equipment. The employer must comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet deep (1.2192 meters) such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.
Cranes and Derricks
The employer must comply with the manufacturer’s specifications and limitations. Rated load capacities, recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings or instructions must be conspicuously posted on all equipment.
Instructions or warnings must be visible from the operator’s station. Equipment must be inspected by a competent person before and during use. Any deficiencies corrected before further use.
Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the rotating superstructure must be properly barricaded to prevent employees from being struck or crushed by the crane.
Except where electrical distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work, or where insulating barriers not a part of or an attachment to the equipment or machinery have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines, no part of a crane or its load must be operated within 10 feet of a line rated 50 kilovolts (kV) or below; 10 feet plus 0.4 inches for each kV over 50 kV for lines rated over 50 kV, or twice the length of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet.
An annual inspection of the hoisting machinery must be made by a competent person. Records must be kept of the dates and results of each inspection. All crawler, truck, or locomotive cranes in use must meet the requirements as prescribed in the ANSI B30.5-1968, Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes
The use of a crane or derrick to hoist employees on a personnel platform is prohibited, except when the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite—such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform or scaffold—would be more hazardous or is not possible because of structural design or worksite conditions. Where a decision is reached that this is the case, then OSHA Standard 1926.550(g) must be reviewed and complied with.
Whenever materials are dropped more than 20 feet to any exterior point of a building, an enclosed chute must be used. When debris is dropped through holes in the floor without the use of chutes, the area where the material is dropped must be enclosed with barricades not less than 42 inches high and not less than 6 feet back from the projected edges of the opening above. Warning signs of the hazard of falling material must be posted at each level.