All abrasive wheel bench and stand grinders must be provided with safety guards that cover the spindle ends, nut and flange projections, and are strong enough to withstand the effects of a bursting wheel. An adjustable work rest of rigid construction must be used on floor and bench-mounted grinders, with the work rest kept adjusted to a clearance not to exceed 1/8 inch (0.3175 centimeter) between the work rest and the surface of the wheel.
All abrasive wheels must be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or other defects.
Access to Medical and Exposure Records
Each employer must permit employees, their designated representatives, and OSHA direct access to employer-maintained exposure and medical records. The standard limits access only to those employees who are, have been (including former employees), or will be exposed to toxic substances or harmful physical agents. Each employer must preserve and maintain accurate medical and exposure records for each employee. Exposure records and data analyses based on them are to be kept for 30 years. Medical records are to be kept for at least the duration of employment plus 30 years. Background data for exposure records such as laboratory reports and work sheets need to be kept for only 1 year.
Records of employees who have worked for less than 1 year need not be retained after employment, but the employer must provide these records to the employee upon termination of employment. First-aid records of one-time treatment need not be retained for any specified period.
Accident Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements
Each employer must maintain, in each location, a log and summary of all recordable injuries and illnesses (resulting in a fatality, hospitalization, lost workdays, medical treatment, job transfer or termination, or loss of consciousness) for that location, and enter each recordable event no later than 6 working days after receiving the information. Where the complete log and summary records are maintained at a place other than the establishment, a copy of the log that reflects the injury and illnesses experience of the establishment must be complete and current to date within 45 calendar days and must be available at the original site. In addition to the log of occupational injuries and illnesses, each employer must have available for inspection at each establishment within 6 working days after notification of a recordable case, a supplementary record for each occupational injury or illness for that establishment.
Each employer must post an annual summary of occupational injuries and illnesses for each establishment, compiled from the collected OSHA 200 Log, which includes the year’s totals, calendar year covered, company name, establishment name and address, certification signature, title, and date. An OSHA 200 Log must be used in presenting the summary. The summary must be posted by February 1 of each year and must remain in place until March 1 of the same year. The log and summary, the supplementary record, and the annual summary must be retained in each establishment for 5 years following the end of the year to which they relate. Records must be made available, as authorized, upon request.
Within 8 hours after its occurrence, an employment accident that is fatal to one or more employees or that results in the over-night hospitalization of three or more employees must be reported by the employer, either orally or in writing, to the nearest OSHA area director.
Aerial lifts, powered or manual, include, but are not limited to, the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to jobsites above ground: extensible boom platforms, articulating boom platforms, and vertical towers.
When operating aerial lifts, employers must ensure employees are:
Trained and authorized
Setting brakes and using outriggers
Not exceeding boom and basket load limits,
Wearing personal fall protection and attaching the lanyard to the boom or basket, when required
Not using devices such as ladders, stilts, or step stools to raise the employee above the basket.
In addition, manufacturers or the equivalent must certify, in writing, that any modifications made to aerial lifts are safe by design and for the specific application.
Pneumatic power tools must be secured to the hose in a positive manner to prevent accidental disconnection. Safety clips or retainers must be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled. The manufacturer’s safe operating pressure for all fittings must not be exceeded. All hoses exceeding 1/2-inch (1.27-centimeter) inside diameter must have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.
Belt sanding machines must be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs onto a pulley. The unused run of the sanding belt must be guarded against accidental contact.
Compressed air used for cleaning purposes must be reduced to less than 30 pounds per square inch (psi) and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment. This requirement does not apply to concrete form, mill scale, and similar cleaning operations.
Valve protection caps must be in place and secured when compressed gas cylinders are transported, moved, or stored. Cylinder valves must be closed when work is finished and when cylinders are empty or are moved. Compressed gas cylinders must be secured in an upright position at all times, except if necessary for short periods of time when cylinders are actually being hoisted or carried. Cylinders must be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operations so that sparks, hot slag, or flame will not reach them.
When this is impractical, fire-resistant shields must be provided. Cylinders must be placed where they cannot become part of an electrical circuit. Oxygen and fuel gas regulators must be in proper working order while in use.