|CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA
Adopted by the Federal People's Assembly April 7, 1963
CONSIDERING THE HISTORICAL FACT that the working people of Yugoslavia, under the leadership of the Communist Party, overthrew the former class society based on exploitation, political oppression and national inequality by their struggle in the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution in order to found a community in which human labor and man will be delivered from exploitation and arbitrariness and each of the peoples of Yugoslavia and all of them together will find conditions for free and comprehensive development;
Aware that such changes have been brought about in the development of the material basis of the country and of socialist social relations as supersede the present Constitution;
Desirous of consolidating these achievements and of securing conditions for the further development of socialist and democratic relations and for comprehensive progress and freedom of the people by uniform constitutionality;
The Federal People's Assembly, as the supreme representative body of the working people and of all the peoples of Yugoslavia,
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA
The peoples of Yugoslavia, on the basis of the right of every people to self-determination, including the right to secession, on the basis of their common struggle and their will freely declared in the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution, and in accord with their historical aspirations, aware that the further consolidation of their brotherhood and unity is to their common interest, have united in a federal republic of free and equal peoples and nationalities and have founded a socialist federal community of working people, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in which, in the interests of each people and of all of them together, they are achieving and developing:
Socialist social relations and the protection of the socialist system of society;
National freedom and independence;
Brotherhood and unity among the peoples and solidarity among the working people;
Possibilities and freedom for the comprehensive development of the human personality and for close communion of the people in accord with their interests and aspirations to create an ever richer culture and civilization in socialist society;
Unity and coordination of efforts to develop the material basis of the social community and the prosperity of the people;
Association of their own aspirations with the progressive strivings of mankind;
Common foundations of an economic and political system in which common interests and equality are achieved among the people.
The working people and the peoples of Yugoslavia exercise their sovereign rights in the Federation when the Constitution determines this to be in the common interest and exercise all other relations in the socialist republics.
The socialist system in Yugoslavia is based on relations between people acting as free and equal producers and creators, whose work serves exclusively to satisfy their personal and common needs.
Accordingly, the inviolable foundation of the position and role of man lies in
Social ownership of the means of production, which precludes the restoration of any system of exploitation of one man by another, and which, by eliminating the separation of man from the means of production and other working conditions, provides the conditions necessary for management by the working people in production and in the distribution of the products of labor, and for social guidance of economic development;
Emancipation of work, which supersedes the historically conditioned inequality and dependence of people in work, which is assured by the abolition of wage-labor relations, by self-management of the working people, by comprehensive development of the productive forces, by the diminishing of the socially necessary labor time, by the development of science, culture, and technology, and by the continual expansion of education;
The right of man, both as an individual and as a member of the working collective, to enjoy the fruits of his work and of the material progress of the social community, in accordance with the principle, 'From each according to his abilities; to each according to his work,' along with the obligation of man to assure the development of the material foundations of his own and of socially organized work and to contribute to the satisfaction of other social needs;
Self-management by the working people in the working organization; free association of the working people, of working and other organizations and of social-political communities in order to satisfy common needs and interests; self-government in the commune and in the other social-political communities so as to assure the direct participation of the citizens in the determination of the course of social development, in the exercise of power and in the decisions on other social affairs;
The democratic political relations that enable man to achieve his interests, to realize his right of self-government and other rights and mutual relations, and to develop his personality by direct activity in social life, especially in the organs of self-government, in the social-political organizations and associations, which he himself creates and through which he influences the development of social consciousness and expands the conditions for his activity and for the attainment of his interests and rights;
Equality of rights, duties and responsibilities of the people in conformity with uniform constitutionality and legality;
Solidarity and cooperation of the working people and working organizations, their interest and their unrestricted initiative in developing production and other social and personal activities in behalf of man and his social community;
Economic and social security of man.
It is from this position of man that the social-economic and political system derives, and it is man and his role in society that it serves.
Any form of management of production and of other social activities [or] any form of distribution that distorts the social relations based on this position of man, whether in the form of bureaucratic arbitrariness and privileges based on monopoly position or in the form of private-ownership selfishness and particularism, is contrary to the individual and common interests of the working man and to the social-economic and political system determined by the Constitution.
The socially owned means of production, being the common, inalienable basis of socially organized work, serve to satisfy the personal and common needs and interests of the working people and to develop the material foundations of the social community and socialist social relations. The socially owned means of production are managed directly by the working people, who work with these means on their own behalf and on behalf of the social community and are responsible to each other and to the social community.
Since no one has the right of ownership over the socially owned means of production, the social-political community or the working organization or the working man may [not] appropriate in any form of ownership the product of socially organized work, nor manage and dispose of socially owned means of production and work, nor arbitrarily determine the terms of distribution.
Work is the only grounds for the appropriation of the product of socially organized work, and the foundation of management of social means.
The social product serves to restore and expand the material basis for socially organized work, and directly to satisfy the personal and common needs of the working people, in conformity with the principle of distribution according to work.
That part of the social product which is set aside for the renewal and expansion of the material basis of socially organized work provides the foundation for social- economic growth, which the working people realize in their working organizations, and through the mutual cooperation of these organizations, as well as in the social-political communities.
A uniform system of distribution shall assure that the working organizations will employ the funds for social-economic growth in proportion to their share in creating them, subject to their ability to make the most effective use of them within the framework of the social division of labor determined by the social plans.
In order to attain self-management and to realize the individual and common interests of the working people, in order to stimulate their initiative and create the most favorable conditions for the development of the productive forces, to equalize the working conditions, to achieve distribution according to work, and to develop socialist relations, the social community plans the development of the economy and the material foundations of other social activities. Planning is done in the working organizations by the working people as the bearers of production and of socially organized work, and by the social-political communities in the performance of their social-economic functions.
The social plan of Yugoslavia coordinates the basic relations in production and distribution. Within the framework of these relations and a unified economic system, the working people in the working organizations and social-political communities autonomously plan and develop the material bases for their activities.
In order to equalize the material conditions in social life and in the work of the working people, in order to achieve harmonious economic development as a whole, and in order to create the material basis for equality among the peoples of Yugoslavia, the social community, acting in the common interest, devotes special attention to the rapid development of the productive forces in those republics and areas with inadequate economic development, and to this end it provides the necessary funds and undertakes other measures.
Social ownership of the means of production is the foundation of personal ownership acquired by personal work, and serves to satisfy the personal needs and interests of man.
In order to develop socialist relations in agriculture and to promote agricultural production, conditions are assured for the development of production on the basis of socially owned means and socially organized work, and for association among farmers and their cooperation with the working organizations on a voluntary basis.
Having the constitutional right of ownership to arable land, the farmers have the right and obligation to utilize the land in order to promote agricultural production in their own interests and in the interests of the social community.
Every form of government, including political power, is created by the working class and by all the working people for themselves in order to organize society as a free community of producers, which is assured
By social self-government as the basis of the social-political system;
By decision of the citizens on all social matters, either directly or through delegates whom they elect to the representative bodies of the social-political communities and to other bodies of social self-government;
By the establishment and development of equal and democratic relations among the citizens, and by the attainment of human and civil freedoms and rights in accord with the strengthening of solidarity, the citizens' performance of their social duties, and the material and social development of the socialist community;
By the personal responsibility of all holders of public office, especially those with functions of power, and by the responsibility of the political-executive and administrative organs to the representative body of the social-political community and to the public;
By judicial supervision of constitutionality and legality; and by social supervision of the work of state organs, organs of social self-government, and organizations dealing with matters of public concern;
By the social and political activity of the socialist forces organized in social-political organizations.
The functions of power determined by the Constitution are vested in the representative bodies of the social-political communities as the territorial organs of social self-government. These representative bodies are constituted and removable delegations elected in the communes by all the citizens, and in the working communities by the working people.
With the exception of the functions of power and the general affairs of social self-government, which they discharge through the representative bodies and bodies accountable to them, the citizens decide on social affairs in their working and other autonomous organizations and by forms of direct determination; and they attain other common interests also in their social-political organizations and associations, which they found themselves.
In the socialist social relations and conditions of social self-government, the working people voluntarily unite in trade unions in order to cooperate as directly as possible in the development of socialist social relations and social self-government, to coordinate their personal and common interests with the general interests, to realize the principles of distribution according to work, and to adapt the worker for work and for management, as well as to take the initiative and undertake measures to protect their rights and interests and to improve their living and working conditions, to develop solidarity, to coordinate opinions and mutual relations, and to solve other questions of common interest.
The citizens are the source of initiative for social activities directly and through their social-political organizations and associations; they exercise supervision over the work of the organs of government and other holders of public office, they determine the norms for mutual relations and they lend their support to the state organs, the organs of social self-government, and organizations dealing with affairs of public concern.
In order to realize self-government and the other rights of the citizens, the public working of the state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations, and holders of public office shall be assured, and conditions shall be created so that the citizen may be fully informed and capable of discharging public affairs.
The principle of limitation of reelection and renomination to particular offices assures the removability of holders of government and of other public offices, in
order to allow the widest possible participation of citizens in the discharge of public functions, and to consolidate and develop democratic relations in society.
The Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia, founded during the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution as a voluntary democratic alliance of the citizens, is the broadest base of social-political activity and social self-government of the working people.
In the Socialist Alliance of the Working People of Yugoslavia the citizens
Discuss social-political questions from all provinces of social life, coordinate opinions and pass political resolutions dealing with the solution of these questions, the course of social development and the strengthening of self-government, the attainment of the rights and interests of man and citizen, and the promotion of socialist and democratic relations;
Give their opinions and judgments on the work of state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations, and holders of public office, and exercise social supervision over their work, especially to render their work public and themselves responsible for it;
Strive for the creation and protection of every form of social-political life stimulating socialist and democratic development; take the political initiative in every province of public life; and ensure the fullest possible realization of their voting and other rights;
Provide conditions for the comprehensive participation of youth and its organizations in social and political life;
Strive for human relations among people, for the development of socialist consciousness and for the norms of a socialist way of life, and for the elimination of manifestations that impede the development of socialist and democratic social relations or otherwise harm them.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, initiator and organizer of the People's Liberation War and Socialist Revolution, owing to the necessity of historical development, has become the leading organized force of the working class and working people in the development of socialism and in the attainment of solidarity among the working people and of the brotherhood and unity of the peoples.
Under the conditions of socialist democracy and social self-government, the League of Communists, with its guiding ideological and political work, is the prime mover of the political activity necessary to protect and to promote the achievements of the Socialist Revolution and socialist social relations, and especially to strengthen the socialist social and democratic consciousness of the people.
Whereas peaceful coexistence and active cooperation between states and peoples, irrespective of differences in their social systems is indispensable to peace and social progress in the world, Yugoslavia bases its international relations on the principles of respect of national sovereignty and equality, noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceable settlement of international disputes, and socialist internationalism. In its international relations Yugoslavia adheres to the principles of the United Nations Charter, fulfills its international commitments, and actively participates in the work of the international organizations to which it is affiliated.
In order to realize these principles, Yugoslavia strives
For the establishment and development of every form of international cooperation that helps to consolidate peace, to strengthen mutual respect and friendship between peoples and states, and to bring about their rapprochement; for the broadest and freest exchange of material and intellectual wealth, for the freedom of mutual information, and for the development of other relations that contribute to the realization of common economic, cultural and other interests of states, nations and people, and especially to the development of democratic and socialist relations in international cooperation, and general social progress;
For the repudiation of the use or threat of force in international relations; and for general and complete disarmament;
For the right of every people to determine freely and to develop its own social and political system by ways and means of its own free choosing;
For the right of peoples to self-determination and national independence and for their right to wage liberation struggle to attain these just aims;
For international support to peoples waging a just struggle for national independence and liberation from colonialism and national oppression;
For the development of such international cooperation as assures equality in economic relations in the world, sovereign exploitation of national resources and the creation of conditions conducive to the more rapid development of the underdeveloped countries.
In pledging itself to comprehensive political, economic and cultural cooperation with other peoples and states, Yugoslavia, as a socialist community of peoples, holds that this cooperation should contribute to the creation of new democratic forms of association between states, nations and people which will answer to the interests of peoples and social progress, and in this respect it is an open community.
The social-political relations and the forms determined by the Constitution are aimed at broadening the conditions for the further development of socialist society, the elimination of its contradictions, and for such social progress as, on the basis of the comprehensive development of the productive forces, high productivity of labor, an abundance of products, and comprehensive development of man as an emancipated being, will bring about the development of social relations in which the communist principle, 'From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs,' will be realized.
To this end all the state organs, organs of social self-government, organizations and citizens are enjoined, in all their activities
To expand and strengthen the material basis of society and the life of the individual by developing the productive forces, raising the productivity of labor, and continually promoting socialist social relations;
To create conditions in which the social-economic differences between intellectual and physical work will be eliminated and in which human work will become an ever fuller expression of creativity and of the human personality;
To expand and develop every form of social self-government and socialist democracy, especially in those fields in which the functions of political power predominate; to limit coercion and promote the conditions for its elimination; and to establish relations among people based on awareness of common interests and on the unrestricted activity of man;
To contribute to the realization of human freedoms and rights, to the humanization of the social environment and man's personality, to the strengthening of solidarity and humanity between people, and respect for man's dignity;
To develop comprehensive cooperation and rapprochement with all peoples in keeping with the progressive strivings of mankind to develop a free community of all the peoples in the world.
In expressing the basic principles of the socialist community and the principles for its progress, this section of the Constitution is also the basis for the interpretation of the Constitution and law and for the work of each and every [individual].