Colden clough wildlife survey charles Flynn

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Charles Flynn

January to November 2004


If you do not live in this part of the country, you may not know what the word clough means. It is typical of hilly districts in Yorkshire and north Lancashire and means a valley – usually one with steep sides. Likewise streams and brooks are typically called becks in this part of the country, but around Hebden Bridge some of them are simply known as waters.

Colden Clough is one of these steep sided valleys. It extends from Mytholm on the A646 near Hebden Bridge almost to the village of Colden, with the old town of Heptonstall on the eastern side. It is a large area of attractive semi-natural woodland with some areas of grass and heathland, and there are panoramic views from the paths running along the valley sides. A fast flowing stream called Colden Water runs through it and joins the River Calder at Mytholm. There are also some rocky crags on the valley sides, some of which are the result of quarrying in the past, and the present structure of the valley floor has been much influenced by human activity, particularly in the early years of the industrial revolution. A kiln, an old chimney, weirs and old millponds can still be seen.
Although it holds several plant species, which are indicators of ancient woodland, the present composition of the woods in Colden Clough is not entirely natural. Most native woodland in this part of the country would be made up of oak, birch and rowan and there are some extensive areas of this vegetation. However, beech and sycamore, neither of which are native to Yorkshire, dominate other parts of the clough.
The sycamore originates from the Balkans and was introduced into Britain in Tudor times. It has since become widely naturalised and it is particularly common in the northwest of England. This is because it was once planted to produce wood for making shuttles for use in the textile industry, and to shelter farmhouses and livestock from the elements.
Beech is only really native in the southeast of England, although it has become partially naturalised elsewhere. In Calderdale it was widely planted on hillsides at the end on the nineteenth century and most of the mature trees are now of about the same age.
The Scots Pines growing amongst the broadleaved trees are especially conspicuous in the winter. They are no more native here than the beech or sycamore and were probably planted, although some of them may well be self-sown.
It should not be assumed that non - native trees are wholly bad. In Colden Clough they add to the diversity of habitat and some of the other plants, birds and fungi would not be there without them. We will return to these species later.
Were it not for past and present human activity, most of the heath and grassland would have been colonised first by scrub and then by trees. Although these areas are relatively small, they have their own character and associated species. Likewise the old millponds now provide a marshy habitat that would not otherwise exist in Colden Clough, and the exposed rocks are used as nesting sites by some of the birds characteristic of the area.
Much of Colden Clough is fairly rugged (but very pretty) and the weather can be quite unpredictable. Some of the paths are steep and can often be muddy, so it is strongly recommended that visitors wear suitable boots or shoes and carry waterproofs. Especially in winter a trecking stick can also be useful. This said, there is a lot to be seen here and you can expect your visit to be enjoyable.



As has already been mentioned, there are many different habitats in Colden Clough. Let us now consider them individually.

Colden Water, a fast flowing beck, runs right through the bottom of the valley. Because the clough sides are so steep, there are only a few places where you can safely get close to it and it is best viewed from one of the footbridges.
Only near the top of the clough close to the clapper bridge is there enough flat land beside the stream to allow marsh to develop and it is only here that you will see Common Valerian. This is actually the plant from which the herbal medicine is made. The tall plants growing with it are Reed Canary Grass, which despite its name, is a native species. The seeds of one of its relatives are used in bird food and this is why they are all called canary grasses.
Otherwise most of the vegetation is on rocks in the stream or along its sides. It consists mainly of mosses and liverworts, which can generally only be properly identified using a magnifying glass or a microscope.
The stream is used by Herons, Dippers and Grey Wagtails. The Herons are usually seen in flight and you may be surprised to see how easily they descend through the trees and land in the water. The other two species are most likely to be seen from the bridges. The steep clough sides result in the footpaths being generally too far away for anyone to get a clear view of Colden Water. If you are lucky, you might see the Dippers feeding, but they are very fast flyers and you may just get a glimpse of a chestnut brown bird whizzing under the bridge and up the stream. To see them well, you’ll need patience.
The rocky outcrops are used as nesting sites by Jackdaws and probably a pair of Kestrels. The jackdaws are noisy and you are bound to notice them. The kestrels are more often seen hunting around the rocks or over more open ground.
Except for a few ferns, not much grows on these rocks, although in some places they are well covered in lichens. Like the mosses and liverworts these are difficult to identify. They usually need to be seen under a lens and sometimes they can only be identified to species by chemical analysis.
The woodland can be divided into four basic types. Oak-Birch-Rowan Woodland with Heather, Bilberry, Bramble, Bluebell, Wavy Hair-Grass, Creeping Soft-Grass and Broad Buckler Fern. The best example of this kind of woodland is immediately left of the main track (Colden Road) as you enter the clough from Church Lane. Unfortunately this is private property and not access land. However, there is a right of way from Glenn View, which cuts through one corner of this wood before coming out into the fields on the western side of the clough. Some of it can also be seen quite well from the main path.
There are particularly large Hard Fern plants here and they can easily be recognised, because they have two obviously different kinds of fronds: broader ones for photosynthesis and more slender ones to bear the spores.

In spring and summer you are also likely to hear the song of a Blackcap here as well as Willow Warblers and an occasional Chiffchaff.

On the other side of the clough below the rocks there is young Birch-Oak Woodland, which is florisically less interesting, but just as good for seeing birds. It is also a good place to find fungi. The Fly agaric, the classic toadstool with a white spotted red cap, is particularly common under birch here, as is the often enormous Orange Birch Bolete. The Birch Polypore (or razor strop) is found almost everywhere that birches grow.
Birch - Oak - Scots Pine Woodland is found mainly in the area known as Eaves Wood. The understorey consists mainly of Heather, Bilberry and Moss, but there are some interesting fungi in this part of the clough. These include the very distinctive Trumpet Chanterelle, which has veins rather than gills on the pale underside of the dark cap, and Amethyst Deceiver, which despite its striking colour, can easily be missed, if you are not intent on finding it.
Coal tits and Goldcrests live in this habitat, but they spend most of their time in the canopy and especially in the summer are more likely to be heard than seen.
Beech-Sycamore Woodland dominates much of the land in the bottom of the clough. It might seem paradoxical, but in this habitat near the clapper bridge, the ground layer produces the most impressive display of wild flowers anywhere in the clough. In the spring there is a riot of colour here. The Bluebells, Wood Anemones, Ramsons, Pink Purslanes, and Lesser Celandines, all flower at the same time. Although the Purslane is actually a North American alien, it does not suppress the native plants and should not be regarded as a pest.
The less colourful Dog’s Mercury is also found here. It may not be conspicuously attractive, but it is an ancient woodland indicator species.
If you are here in May, you are very likely to hear the song of the Wood Warbler coming from the sycamores in this part of the clough. This leaf warbler is ten times rarer than the Chiffchaff and a hundred times rarer than the Willow Warbler, but once located it is easier to watch than either of the other two. It sings its songs while perched on the lower branches of the trees or flying between them. Because it is preoccupied with staking out its territory and finding a mate, it will probably take very little notice of observers.
Among the fungi found under the beech are the White Chanterelle, the Wood Hedgehog, the Beech Milkcap and the Green Brittlecap.
Just south of the clapper bridge there are some old millponds, which have developed into marsh. These hold a special mix of plants found nowhere else in Colden Clough. Perhaps the most notable species here is the Eared Willow, which is at the southern limit of its British distribution in Calderdale. The generally much commoner Goat Willows are also present, but the Eared Willow is easily distinguished by its obviously wrinkled leaves. It gets its name from the persistent stipules, but it is not necessary to see these to identify the plant.
The rest of the plant community includes Marsh Marigold, Large Bitter-cress, Wood Stichwort, Great Willowherb, Water Figwort, Reedmace, Tufted Hair-Grass and Reed Sweet- Grass. These plants are generally best seen in spring or early summer. This is also one of the places in the clough where you are most likely to see dragonflies. The Large Red Damselfly (see photo) can be seen here in April and May, whereas the much bigger Common Hawker will not be on the wing until July. The Southern Hawker is much rarer in Calderdale, but it is not out of the question that it will be seen in Colden Clough.

Heathland is not a very extensive habitat in the clough. The best area is found just west of Foster Wood where the Pennine Way crosses Colden Water. Typical heathland plants here are Heather, Bilberry, Heath Bedstraw, Wavy Hair-Grass, Common Bent, Purple Moor-Grass and Soft Rush.

As well as these, some plants less typical of heathland (Rowan, Goat Willow, Yorkshire Fog and Broad Buckler Fern) can be seen in this area.

Heathland is also found as a more or less linear habitat beside the track which forks left from Colden Road. Cowberry grows here amongst the closely related Bilberry. It is an evergreen and most easily found in spring before the Bilberry is in leaf. It also differs from Bilberry in having white flowers and red berries.
If you look on the bank on the right of the track, you will see patches of Cowhorn Bog-Moss and Common Haircap. These are two mosses that are relatively easy to recognise. This will become apparent, if you take a look at the photographs.
The heathland is one of the best places to see insects, particularly bees and butterflies. The Mountain Bumblebee, an upland species with a bright orange abdomen, can be seen here in spring. The butterflies most likely to be seen are the Green-veined White, Orange-Tip, Peacock, Small Tortoiseshell, Meadow Brown and Small Heath. The Orange Tip is a springtime species and the Meadow Brown flies in late summer. The others may be seen from early or late spring to early autumn.
Most of the grassland in the clough is in enclosed fields and consequently not open to the public. The typical plant community, in the rather small areas where there is open access, is made up of Common Bent, Cocksfoot, Meadow Foxtail and Woodsage with some Bracken.
There is a right of way through the fields south of Foster and Bob Woods and east of Dill Scout’s Wood. The grass here is grazed by sheep and cattle and plant diversity is somewhat limited, although there are patches of Creeping Thistle and occasional Dandelions and Hawkbits. The fungi are more interesting. As well as at least two Waxcaps, Parrot Waxcap (Hygrocybe psittacina) and Hygrocybe stangulata (as yet no English name), there are some curious black Earthtongues just above Dill Scout’s Wood.
This is also the best place to see some of the birds. Skylarks and Meadow Pipits are birds of open country, so they will not be seen down in the clough. From here you can watch these as well as Curlews and Lapwings over adjacent farmland. Species such as swifts, swallows and birds of prey that are most often seen in flight, are also best observed from here, because there is an unobstructed view over the clough and surrounding area. Likewise, some of the winter birds, Fieldfare, Redwing, Brambling, Siskin and Redpoll are most likely to be seen from up here, or from the rocks on the other side of the valley.
Colden Clough is a haven for wildlife and there is almost always something interesting to see, but even if you are there on a day when not much is in flower and the birds are not very active, you can still enjoy the views and fresh air.



From any of the viewpoints along the sides of the clough two tall chimneys are clearly visible. These and some retaining walls are all that remains of the cotton mills that used to be here. These were originally driven by very large water wheels until they were converted to steam power.

The chimneys are now designated ancient monuments and cannot be demolished. The millponds near the river were once part of a series of weirs that extended all the way down the valley.

Hudson Mill Road is named after a corn mill that once stood there. It was subsequently used for fulling, but it was pulled down many years ago and the offices have been converted into a house. The area between the house and the road was previously used for growing fruit and vegetables and it is now over-grown with raspberries, which have probably gone wild since these gardens were abandoned.
Ted Hughes, the former Poet Laureate, lived in the big house on Lumb Lane. This is of particular cultural significance, because the house is still used as a writing centre.
Other less obvious signs of human activity, including places once used for burning charcoal, can also be found in the woods.



To See Birds and Flowers in Spring and Summer

From Bankfoot walk up Church Lane and continue along the track called Colden Road. Keep walking until you reach a narrower track going uphill on the left. Follow this track and you will eventually come out of the woods. There is farmland on the left and to right you will see an area of heathland with Colden Water in the valley bottom. Take one of the footpaths down to the clapper bridge and cross over it. Now follow the path into Foster Wood. There will be old millponds with a thicket of eared willow on your left. Keep going through the woods until the path meets Lumb Road. Walk up the hill and look out for a footpath which leads past the writing centre on the right. If you stay on this path,

you will eventually come back to Bankfoot

To Find Fungi in the Autumn

Starting at Bankfoot follow the footpath which begins just west of Colden Close and continue through Eaves Wood making excursions into areas of Beech and Pine for Hedgehog Fungi and Chanterelles. Continue to Lumb Lane and then walk down the hill. Walk along Hudson Mill Road and then take the way-marked footpath on your left. This takes you back up into the fields where you should find Waxcaps and Earthtongues.

You can now retrace your steps back to Hudson Mill Road, or return to Bankfoot via Rawtenstall Road, Glen View, Bank Terrace and Church Lane.



To produce a comprehensive list of all the species groups covered by this survey would require a team of specialist and would probably take several years. Only the vascular plants and birds can be regarded as thoroughly recorded.

There are 21 bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) on the plants list, but the actual number is probably about three times this. Likewise there are probably three times as many fungi and twice as many lichens as were identified during this survey. New species of fungi will often be found up to twenty years after the date when recording is started. Crustose lichens are very difficult to identify without the aid of a microscope and a suitable chemistry set, and I have not tried to include them.
As for the invertebrates, there are likely to be more than 200 species of beetles, a similar number of moths, and over 150 flies within the area known as Colden Clough. Only the butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers, none of which are well represented in the survey area, can be deemed to be more or less completely covered.
While more is now known about what species are to be found in Colden Clough than before the survey began, there is still a lot of work to be done to produce a definitive account of all the organisms that occur here.


(State of knowledge 10/10/04)
a - abundant f - frequent o - occasional l - local r – rare v – very l- locally

I - introduced ? status uncertain JN - J North 17/07/02 (WYE)

Bryophytes - Mosses and Liverworts
Atrichum undulatum Common Smoothcap ?
Dicranella heteromalla Silky Forklet-Moss f.
Dicranum majus Greater Fork-Moss ?

D. scoparium Broom Fork-Moss ?
Hypnum cupressiforme var. cupressiforme Cypress-leaved Plait-Moss f.

Hypnum cupressiforme var. filiforme ?
Mnium hornum Swan's neck Thyme-Moss f.
Orthodontium lineare Cape Thread-Moss ? I
Plagiothecium undulatum Waved Silk-Moss ?
Polytrichum commune Common Haircap o/f.
Rhynchostegium riparioides Long-Beaked Water Feather-Moss ?
Rhizomnium punctatum Dotted Thyme-Moss o
Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus Springy Turf-Moss f.
Sphagnum denticulatum Cow-horn Bog-Moss o

Conocephalum conicum Great Scented Liverwort o
Lepidozia reptans Creeping Fingerwort ?
Lophocolea cuspidata Bifid Crestwort ?
Marchantia polymorpha Common Liverwort ?

Pellia epiphylla Overleaf Pellia o/f
Scapania nemorea Grove Earwort ?

S. undulata Water Earwort o/f

Vascular Cryptogams: Ferns and Horsetails
Equisetum palustre Marsh Horsetail r

E. sylvaticum Wood Horsetail vr
Pteridium aquilinum Bracken la
Oreopteris limbosperma Lemon-scented Fern ? JN
Phyllitis scolopendrium Hartstongue vr
Athyrium filix femina Lady Fern f
Dryoptereis filix-mas Male Fern o/f

D. dilatata Broad Buckler Fern la
Blechnum spicant Hard Fern f


Gymnospermae - Conifers
Larix decidua European Larch r I
Pinus sylvestris Scots Pine o-lf


Angiospermae: Dycotyledons 1 - Trees and Bushes (including those in the rose family)
Salix aurita Eared Willow lf

S. caprea Goat Willow / Great Sallow o

S. cinerea Grey Willow / Grey Sallow f

S.fragilis Crack Willow r JN
Betula pendula Silver Birch f-la

B. pubescens Downy Birch la
Corylus avellana Hazel r
Fagus sylvatica Beech ld

Quercus petraea Durmast (Sessile) Oak a

Q. robur Common (Pedunculate) Oak f
Ulmus glabra Wych Elm r
Sorbus aria Common Whitebeam r JN

S. aucuparia Rowan o
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn o
Ribes uva-crispa Gooseberry o
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore lf I
Sambucus nigra Elder lf
Ilex aquilifolium Holly r

Symphoricarpos albus Snowberry o JN I

Angiospermae: Dycotyledons 2 - Herbs and Shrubs
Urtica dioica Nettle lf
Polygonum bistorta Bistort lf
Reynoutria japonica Japanese Knotweed lf I
Rumex acetosa Common Sorrel lf

R.acetosella Sheep's Sorrel r JN

R. obtusifolia Broad-leaved Dock o-lf

R.. sanguineus Wood Dock r.
Montia sibirica Pink Purslane o-lf I
Stellaria holostea Greater Stichwort lf

S. media Common Chickweed o

S. nemorum Wood Stichwort lf

S. uliginosa Bog Stichwort o
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear o
Sagina procumbens Procumbent Pearlwort r

Silene dioica Red Campion o
Caltha palustirs Marsh Marigold o-lf
Anemone nemorosa Wood Anemone o-lf
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup r

R. repens Creeping Buttercup lf

R. ficaria Lesser Celandine o-lf

R. scleratus Celery-leaved Buttercup r
Meconopsis cambrica Welsh Poppy o
Cardamine amara Large Bittercress o

C. flexuosa Wavy Bittercress o

C. hirsuta Hairy Bittercress r

C. pratensis Cuckooflower r JN
Hesperis matronalis Dame's Violet o I
Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Opposite-leaved Golden-Saxifrage f-la

Filipedula ulmaria Meadowsweet o-lf
Rubus fruticosa agg. Bramble / Blackberry la

R. idaeus Raspberry o
Ulex europaeus Common Gorse r-o
Lotus pedunculatus Greater Birdsfoot Trefoil r
Vicia pratensis Meadow Vetchling o

V.sativa Common Vetch o

V. sepium Bush Vetch r-o
Trifolium repens White Clover r
Geranium lucidum Shiny Cranesbill r

G. pratense Meadow Cranesbill r JN

G. robertianum Herb Robert o
Oxalis acetosella Wood Sorrel r
Impatiens glandulifera Indian (Himalayan) Balsam la I
Mercurialis perennis Dog's Mercury o
Chamaerion angustifolium Rosebay Willowherb o I
Epilobium hirsutum Great Willowherb o-lf

E. montanum Broad-leaved Willowherb o

E. palustre Marsh Willowherb o.
Hedera helix Ivy lf
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow Parsley o-lf
Myrrhis odorata Sweet Cicely o
Conopodium majus Pignut lf
Aegopodium podagraria Ground Elder r

Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica r JN
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed f
Calluna vulgaris Heather / Ling f-ld

Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry ld

V. vitis-idaea Cowberry lf
Rhododendron ponticum Rhododendron o-lf I
Pentaglossum sepervirens Green Alkanet r I
Myosotis syvatica Wood Forgetmenot o
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort o
Ajuga reptans Bugle o
Lamium album White Dead-Nettle o
Teucrium scorodonia Wood Sage o-lf
Galeopsis tetrahit Common Hemp Nettle r JN
Scrophularia auriculata Water Figwort o
Digitalis pupurea Foxglove o-f
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle lf
Valeriana officinalis Valerian o
Plantago lanceolata Ribwort Plantain lf

P. major Greater Plantain r
Calystegia sepium Hedge Bindweed o
Galium aparine Cleavers r

G. odoratum Woodruff r JN

G. saxatile Heath Bedstraw lf
Senecio jacobaea Common Ragwort o
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle o

C. palustre Marsh Thistle o-lf

C. vulgare Spear Thistle o-lf

Hypochaeris radicata Common Catsear o-vlf
Taraxacum officinalis agg. Common Dandelion o
Hieracium vulgatum Common Hawkweed r
Mycrlis muralis Wall Lettuce r

Angiospermae: Monocotyledons
Alisma plantago-aquatica Common Water-Plantain o
Allium ursinum Ramsons lf
Endymion non-scriptus Bluebell lf
Iris pseudacorus Yellow Iris l
Lemna minor Common Duckweed lf
Typha latifolia Reedmace l
Juncus effusus Soft Rush r
Luzula multiflora spp congesta Dense-headed Heath Woodrush r

L. sylvatica Great Woodrush la
Eriophorum angustifolium Common Cotton-Sedge r
Carex nigra Common Sedge r JN

C. pilulifera Pill Sedge r. JN

C. remota Remote Sedge r-o
Festuca arundinacea Tall Fescue r

F. gigantea Giant Fescue o-lf

F. ovina Sheep's Fescue f

F. rubra Red Fescue o-lf
Lolium perenne Perennial Rye-Grass o-lf
Poa annua Annual Meadow-Grass o

P. pratensis Smooth Meadow-Grass lf

P. trivialis Rough Meadow-Grass lf
Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot f
Cynosurus cristatus Crested Dogstail o
Melica uniflora Wood Melick r.
Glyceria fluitans Floating Sweet-Grass o-lf

G. maxima Reed Sweet-Grass o-lf
Deschampsia cespitosa Tufted Hair-Grass lf

D. flexuosa Wavy Hair-Grass a
Anthoxanthum odoratum Sweet Vernal-Grass f
Arhenatherum elatius Tall Oat-Grass o
Holcus lanatus Yorkshire Fog f

H. mollis Creeping Soft-Grass f-ld
Agrostis capillaris Common Bent f
Phleum pratense Timothy r
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail r
Milium effusum Wood Millet o
Phalaris arundinacia Reed Canary-Grass r
Molinia coerulea Purple Moor-Grass lf


Abbreviations: Y- seen all year round, S - summer only, W - winter only, B- breeding,
B? – may breed, * do not expect to see or hear this species on every visit even when it is here.


Grey Heron Ardea cinerea Y

Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus Y
Peregrine Falco peregrinus *
Kestrel F. tinunculus B?
Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus Y B
Swift Apus apus S B
Green Woodpecker Picus viridis Y B
Great-spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopus major Y B
Skylark Alauda arvensis S B

Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis S B

Grey Wagtail Montacilla cinerea Y B
Wren Troglodytes troglodytes Y B
Dipper Cinclus cinclus Y B
Dunnock Prunela modularis Y B
Blackbird Turdus merula Y B

Song Thrush T. philomelos Y B

Redwing T. iliacus W

Fieldfare T. pilaris W

Mistle Thrush T. viscivorus Y B
Robin Erithacus rebecula Y B
Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla S B
Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix S B

Willow Warbler Ph. trochilus S B

Chiffchaff Ph. collybita S B?
Goldcrest Regulus regulus Y B
Great Tit Parus major Y B

Blue Tit P. caeruleus Y B

Coal Tit P. ater Y B
Treecreeper Certhis familiaris Y B
Jay Garrulus glandarius Y B
Magpie Pica pica Y B
Jackdaw Corvus monedula Y B

Carrion Crow C. corone Y B

Rook C. frugilegus Y
Starling Sturnus vulgaris Y B
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs Y B
Brambling F. montifringilla W *
Greenfinch Carduelis chloris Y B

Siskin C. spinus W *

Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula Y B? *



Wild Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus Y B *

Grey Squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Y B
Wood Mouse Apodemus sylvaticus Y B *
Bank Vole Clethrionomys glareolus Y B *

Red Fox Vulpes vulpes Y B *

Note: it can be assumed that the Common Shrew Sorex araneus is present here, but no evidence was found during this survey.

Insects etc

Abbreviations: -
a -abundant, f - frequent, o - occasional, r - rare, lf - locally frequent. ? status unknown


Large Red Damselfly Pyrrhosoma nymphula o

Common Hawker Aeshna juncea o

Common Green Grasshopper Omocestris viridulus lf

Green-veined White Pieris napi lf
Orange Tip Anthocaris cardamines o
Peacock Inachis io o-f
Small Tortoiseshell Aglais urticae o-f
Meadow Brown Maniola jurtina lf
Common Carpet Epirrhoe alternata ?
Buff-tailed Bumblebee Bomus terrestris f

Mountain Bumblebee B. monticola o

Common Carder Bee B. pascuorum o-f

“Willow Beetle” Trichocellus cognatus lf


gall mite Eriophyes laevis galls on alder leaves
gall midge Iteomyia capreae galls on willow leaves
gall fly Chirosa betuleti galls on buckler fern

Gall-Wasp Neuroterus quercusbaccarum galls on oak catkins

Gall-Wasp “ “ galls on oak leaves

Gall-Wasp Andricus fecundator galls on oak buds




Abbreviations: f - frequent, lf - locally frequent, o - occasional, r - rare.



Boletus badius Bay Bolete o
Leccinum versipelle Orange Birch Bolete o-f
Paxillus involutus Brown Roll Rim f
Rickenella fibula Orange Mosscap r
Russula aeruginea Green Brittlecap lf

R. atropurpurea Purple Brittlecap o

R. cyanoxantha Charcoal Burner lf

R. ochroleuca Common Yellow Brittlecap f

R. rosea Rosy Brittlecap o
Lactarius blennius Beech Milkcap lf

L. quietus Oak Milkcap lf
Hygocybe psittacina Parrot Waxcap r

H. strangulata r
Collybia confluens Clustered Toughshank o

C. dryophila Russet Toughshank o

C. maculata Spotted Toughshank o-f
Mycena filopes Iodine Bonnet o

M. galericulata Common Bonnet f

M. galopus var. nigra Black Milking Bonnet o

M. leptocephala Nitrous Bonnet o

Entoloma hirtipes o E. lazulina o-f
Laccaria amethystina Amethyst Deceiver lf

L. lacata The Deceiver f

L. pupureobadia o
Hypholoma fasiculare Sulphur Tuft lf
Amanita fulva Tawny Grisette f

A. muscaria Fly Agaric f

A. rubescens Blusher o-f
Scleroderma citrinum Common Earthball f

S. verracosum Scaly Earthball o
Hydnum repandum Wood Hedgehog lf
Helvella crispa White Chanterelle lf
Cantharellus tabaeformis Trumpet Chanterelle lf
Piptoporus betulinus Birch Polypore (Razor Strop) f

Ganoderma applanatum Artist's Bracket o
Trametes versicolor Turkeytail o
Geoglossum cookeianum Earthtongue lf

Xylaria hypoxylon Candle Snuff Fungus r


Lichens ( note: crustose species were not identified )

Baeomyces rufus lf
Cladonia coniocraea lf C. fimbriata

C. floekeana lf

C. squamosa
Evernia prunastri Oak Moss lf
Hypogymnia tubulosa o

Parmelia caperata lf

P. tenella o

P. perlata o

P. saxatilis Crottle f

P. sulcata f


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