Setting aside Decree Es parte
13. [(1)] In any case in which a decree is passed ex parte against a defendant he may apply to the Court by which the decree was passed for an order to set it aside; and if he satisfies the Court that the summons was not duly served, or that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from appearing when the suit was called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order setting aside the decree as against him upon such terms as to costs, payment into Court or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit:
Provided that where the decree is of such a nature that it cannot be set aside as against such defendant only it may be set aside as against all or any of the other defendants also:
[Provided further that no decree passed ex parte shall be set aside merely on the ground of any irregularity in the service of summons, if the Court is satisfied for reason to be accorded, that the defendant had knowledge of the date of hearing in sufficient time to appear on that date and answer the claim].
[(2) The provisions of section 5 of the Limitation Act 1908 (X of 1908), shall apply to applications under sub-rule (1)].
14. No decree shall be set aside on any such application as aforesaid unless notice thereof has been served on the opposite party.
EXAMINATIONS OF PARTIES BY THE COURT
1. At the first hearing of the suit the Court shall ascertain from each party or his pleader whether he admits or denies such allegations of fact as are made in the plaint or written statement (if any) of the opposite party, and as are not expressly or by necessary implication admitted or denied by the party against whom they are made. The Court shall record such admissions and denials.
2. At the first hearing of the suit or at any subsequent hearing, any party appearing in person or present in Court or any person able to answer any material questions relating to the suit by whom such party or his pleader is accompanied[shall]be examined orally by the Court; and the Court may, if it thinks fit, pu in the course of such examination questions suggested by either party.
3. The substance of the examination shall be reduced to writing by the Judge, and shall form part of the record.
4.- (1) Where the pleader of any party who appears by a pleader or any such person accompanying a pleader as is referred to in rule 2, refuses or is unable to answer any material question relating to the suit which the Court is of opinion that the party whom he represents ought to answer, and is likely to be able to answer if interrogated in person, the Court may postpone the hearing of the suit to a future day and direct that such party shall appear in person on such day.
(2) If such party fails without lawful excuse to appear in person on the day so appointed, the Court may pronounce judgment against him, or make such order in relation to the suit as it thinks fit.
DISCOVERY AND INSPECTION
1. In any suit the plaintiff or defendant by leave of the Court may deliver interrogatories in writing for the examination of the opposite-parties or any one or more of such parties, and such interrogatories when delivered shall have a note at the foot thereof stating which of such interrogatories each of such persons is required to answer: Provided that no party shall deliver more than one set of interrogatories to the same party without any order for that purpose: Provided also that interrogatories which do not relate to any matters in question in the suit shall be deemed irrelevant, notwithstanding that they might be admissible on the oral cross-examination of a witness.
2. On an application for leave to deliver interrogatories, the particular interrogatories proposed to be delivered shall be submitted to the Court. In deciding upon such application, the Court shall take into account any offer, which may be made by the party sought to be interrogated to deliver particulars or to make admissions or to produce documents relating to the matters in question, or any of them, and leave shall be given as to such only of the interrogatories submitted as the Court shall consider necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
3. In adjusting the costs of the suit inquiry shall at the instance of any party be made into the propriety of exhibiting such interrogatories and if it is the opinion of the taxing officer or of the Court, either with or without an application for inquiry, that such interrogatories have been exhibited unreasonably, vexatiously, or at improper length, the costs occasioned by the said interrogatories and the answers thereto shall be paid in any event by the party in fault.
4. Interrogatories shall be in Form No.2 in Appendix C with such variations as circumstances may require.
5. Where any party to a suit is a corporation or a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, empowered by law to sue or be sued, whether in its own name or in the name of any officer or other person, any opposite-party may apply for an order allowing him to deliver interrogatories to any member or officer of such corporation or body, and an order may be made accordingly.
6. Any objection to answering any interrogatory on the ground that it is scandalous or irrelevant or not exhibited bona fide for the purpose of the suit, or that the matters inquired into are not sufficiently material at that stage, or on any other ground, may be taken in the affidavit in answer.
7. Any interrogatories may be set aside on the ground that they have been exhibited unreasonably or vexatiously, or struck out on the ground that they are prolix, oppressive, unnecessary or scandalous; and any application for this purpose may be made within seven days after service of the interrogatories.
8. Interrogatories shall be answered by affidavit to be filed within ten days, or within such other time as the Court may allow.
9. An affidavit in answer to interrogatories shall be in Form No.3 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
10. No exception shall be taken to any affidavit in answer, but the sufficiency or otherwise of any such affidavit objected to as insufficient shall be determined by the Court.
11. Where any person interrogated omits to answer, or answers insufficiently, the party interrogating may apply to the Court for an order requiring him to answer or to answer further, as the case may be. And an order may be made requiring him to answer or answer further, either by affidavit or by viva voce examination, as the Court may direct.
12. Any party may, without filing any affidavit apply to the Court for an order directing any other party to any suit to make discovery on oath of the documents which are or have been in his possession or power, relating to any matter in question therein. On the hearing of such application the Court may either refuse or adjourn the same, if satisfied that such discovery is not necessary, or not necessary at that stage of the suit, or make such order, either generally or limited to certain classes of documents, as may, in its discretion, be brought fit: Provided that discovery shall not be ordered when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
13. The affidavit to be made by a party against whom such order as is mentioned in the last preceding rule has been made shall specify which (if any) of the documents therein mentioned he objects to produce, and it shall be in Form No.5 in Appendix C with such variations as circumstances may require.
14. It shall be lawful for the Court at any time during the pendency of any suit, to order the production by any party thereto, upon oath, of such of the documents in his possession or power, relating to any matter in question in such suit, as the Court shall think right; and the Court may deal with such documents, when produced, in such manner as shall appear just.
15. Every party to a suit shall be entitled at any time to give notice to any other party, in whose pleadings or affidavits reference is made to any document, to produce such document for the inspection of the party giving such notice, or of his pleader, and to permit him or them to take copies thereof; and any party not complying with such notice shall not afterwards be at liberty to put any such document in evidence on his behalf in such suit unless he shall satisfy the Court that such document relates only to his own title, he being a defendant to the suit, or that he had some other cause or excuse which the Court shall deem sufficient for not complying with such notice, in which the Court may allow the same to be put in evidence on such terms as to costs and otherwise as the Court shall think fit.
16. Notice to any party to produce any documents referred to in his pleading or affidavits shall be in Form No.7 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
17. The party to whom such notice is given shall, within ten days from the receipt of such notice, deliver to the party giving the same a notice stating a time within three days from the delivery thereof a which the documents, or such of them as he does not object to produce, may be inspected at the office of his pleader, or in the case of bankers' books or other books of account or books in constant use for the purposes of any trade or business, at their usual place of custody, and stating which (if any) of the documents he objects to produce, and on what ground. Such notice shall be in Form No.8 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
18.-(1) Where the party served with notice under rule 15 omits to give such notice of a time for inspection or objects to give inspection, or offers inspection elsewhere than at the office of his pleader, the Court may, on the application of the party desiring it make an order for inspection in such place and in such manner as it may think fit: Provided that the order shall not be made when and so far as the Court shall be of the opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
(2) Any application to inspect documents, except such as are referred to in the pleadings, particulars or affidavits of the party against whom the application is made or disclosed in his affidavit of documents, shall be founded upon an affidavit showing of what documents inspection is sought, that the party applying is entitled to inspect them and that they are in the possession or power of the other party. The Court shall not make such order for inspection of such documents when and so far as the Court shall be of opinion that it is not necessary either for disposing fairly of the suit or for saving costs.
19 - (1) Where inspection of any business books is applied for the Court may, if it thinks fit, instead of ordering inspection of the original books, order a copy of any entries therein to be furnished and verified by the affidavit of some person who has examined the copy with the original entries, and such affidavit shall state whether or not there are in the original book any and what erasures, interlineations or alterations; Provided that, notwithstanding that such copy has been supplied the Court may order inspection of the book from which the copy was made.
(2) Where on an application for an order for inspection privilege is claimed for any document it shall be lawful for the Court to inspect the document for the purpose of deciding as to the validity of the claim of privilege.
(3) The Court may, on the application of any party to a suit at any time, and whether an affidavit of documents shall or shall not have already been ordered or made, make an order requiring any other party to state by affidavit whether any one or more specific documents, to be specified in the application, is or are, or has or have at any time been in his possession or power, and, if not then in his possession, when he parted with the same and what has become thereof. Such application shall be made on an affidavit stated that in the belief of the deponent the party against whom the application is made has, or has at sometime had, in his possession or power the document or documents specified I the application, and that they relate to the matters in question in the suit, or to some of them.
20. Where the party from whom discovery of any kind or inspection is sought objects to the same, or any part thereof, the Court may, if satisfied that the right to the discovery or inspection sought depends on the determination of any issue or question in dispute in the suit, or that for any other reason it is desirable that any issue or question in dispute in the suit should be determined before deciding upon the right to the discovery or inspection, order that such issue or question be determined first, and reserve the question as to the discovery or inspection.
21. Where any party fails to comply with any order to answer interrogatories, or for discovery or inspection of documents he shall, if a plaintiff, be liable to have his suit dismissed for want of prosecution, and, if a defendant, to have his defend, if any, struck out, and to be placed in the same position as if he had not defended, and the party interrogating or seeking discovery or inspection may apply to the Court for an order to that effect and an order may be made accordingly.
22. Any party may, at the trial of a suit, use in evidence any one or more of the answers or any part of an answer of the opposite-party to interrogatories without putting in the others or the whole of such answer: Provided always that in such case the Court may look at the whole of the answers, and if it shall be of opinion that any others of them are so connected with those put in that the last-mentioned answers ought not to be used without them, it may direct them to be put in.
23. This order shall apply to minor plaintiffs and defendants, and to the next friends and guardians for the suit of persons under disability.
1. Any party to a suit may give notice, by his pleading or otherwise in writing, that he admits the truth of the whole or any part of the case of any other party.
2. Either party may call upon the other party to admit any document, saving all just exceptions; and in case of refusal or neglect to admit, after such notice, the costs of proving any such document shall be paid by the party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the suit may be, unless the Court otherwise directs; and no costs of proving any document shall be allowed unless such notice is given, except where the omission to give the notice is in the opinion of the Court a saving of expense.
3. A notice to admit documents shall be in Form No.9 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
4. Any party may, by notice in writing, at any time not later than nine days before the day fixed for the hearing, call on any other party to admit, for the purposes of the suit only, any specific fact or facts mentioned in such notice. And in case of refusal or neglect to admit the same within six days after service of such notice, or within such further time as may be allowed by the Court, the costs of proving such fact or facts shall be paid by the party so neglecting or refusing, whatever the result of the suit may be unless the Court otherwise directs: Provided that any admission made in pursuance of such notice is to be deemed to be made only for the purposes of the particular suit, and not as an admission to be used against the party on any other occasion or in favour of any person other than the party giving the notice: Provided also that the Court may at any time allow any party to amend or withdraw any admission so made on such terms as may be just.
5. A notice to admit facts shall be in Form No.10 in Appendix C and admissions of facts shall be in Form No.11 in Appendix C, with such variations as circumstances may require.
6. Any party may, at any stage of a suit, where admissions of fact have been made, either on the pleadings, or otherwise, apply to the Court for such judgment or order as upon such admissions he may be entitled to, without waiting for the determination of any other question between the parties: and the Court may upon such application make such order, or give such judgment as the Court may think just.
7. An affidavit of the pleader or his clerk, of the due signature of any admissions made in pursuance of any notice to admit documents of facts, shall be sufficient evidence of such admissions, if evidence thereof is required.
8. Notice to produce documents shall be in Form No.12 in Appendix C with such variations as circumstances may require. An affidavit of the pleader, or his clerk, of the service of any notice to produce, and of the time when it was served, with a copy of the notice to produce, shall in all cases be sufficient evidence of the service of the notice, and of the time when it was served
9. If a notice to admit or produce specifies documents which are not necessary the costs occasioned thereby shall be borne by the party giving such notice.
PRODUCTION, IMPOUNDING AND RETURN OF DOCUMENTS
1. - (1) The parties or their pleaders shall produce, at the first hearing of the suit, all the documentary evidence of every description in their possession or power, on which they intend to rely, and which has not already been filed in Court, and all documents which the Court has ordered to be produced.
(2) The Court shall receive the documents so produced: Provided that they are accompanied by an accurate list thereof prepared in such form as the High Court directs.
[(3) On production of documents under this rule, the Cour may call upon the parties to admit or deny the documents produced in the Court and record their admission or, as the case may be denial].
2. No documentary evidence in the possession or power of any party which should have been but has not been produced in accordance with the requirements of rule 1 shall be received at any subsequent stage of the proceedings unless good cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court for the non-production thereof; and the Court receiving any such evidence shall record the reasons for so doing.
3. The Court may at any stage of the suit reject any document which it considers irrelevant or otherwise inadmissible, recording the ground of such rejection.
4.-(1) Subject to the provisions of the next following sub-rule there shall be endorsed on every document which has been admitted in evidence in the suit the following particulars namely:-
a) the number and title of the suit,
b) the name of the person producing the document,
c) the date on which it was produced, and
d) a statement of its having been so admitted;
and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the judge.
(2) Where a document so admitted is an entry in a book, account or record, and a copy thereof has been substituted for the original under the next following rule, the particulars aforesaid shall be endorsed on the copy and the endorsement thereon shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
5-(1) Save in so far as is otherwise provided by the Banker's Books Evidence Act, 1891, where a document admitted in evidence in the suit is an entry in a letter-book or a shop-book or other account in current use, the party on whose behalf the book or account is produced may furnish a copy of the entry.
(2) Where such a document is an entry in a public record produced from a public office, or by a public officer, or an entry in a book or account belonging to a person other than a party on whose behalf the book or account is produced, the Court may require a copy of the entry to be furnished -
(a) where the record, book or account is produced on behalf of a party, then by that party, or
(b) where the record, book or account is produced in obedience to an order of the Court acting of its own motion, then by either or any party.
(3) Where a copy of an entry is furnished under the foregoing provisions of this rule, the Court shall, after causing the copy to be examined, compared and certified in manner mentioned in rule 17 of Order VII, mark the entry and cause he book, account or record in which it occurs to be returned to the person producing it.
6. Where a document relied on as evidence by either party is considered by the Court to be inadmissible in evidence, there shall be endorsed thereon the particulars mentioned in clauses (a), (b) and (c) of rule 4, sub-rule (1) together with a statement of its having been rejected, and the endorsement shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
7.-(1) Every document which has been admitted in evidence or a copy thereof where a copy has been substituted for the original under rule 5, shall form part of the record of the suit.
(2) Documents not admitted in evidence shall not form part of the record and shall be returned to the persons respectively producing them.
8. Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 5 or rule 7 of this Order or in rule 17 of Order VII, the Court may, if it sees sufficient cause, direct any document or book produced before it in any suit to be impounded and kept in the custody of an officer of the Court for such period and subject to such conditions as the Court thinks fit.
9.-(1) Any person, whether a party to the suit or not, desirous of receiving back any document produced by him in the suit and placed on the record shall, unless the document is impounded under rule 8, be entitled to receive back the same,-
(a) where the suit is one in which an appeal is not allowed, when the suit has been disposed of, and
(b) where the suit is one in which an appeal is allowed when the Court is satisfied that the time for preferring an appeal has elapsed and that no appeal has been preferred or, if an appeal has been preferred, when the appeal has been disposed of:
Provided that a document may be returned at any time earlier than that prescribed by this rule if the person applying therefor delivers to the proper officer a certified copy to the substituted for the original and undertakes to produce the original if required to do so:
Provided also that no document shall be returned which, by for ce of the decree, has become wholly void or useless.
(2) On the return of a document admitted in evidence, a receipt shall be given by the person receiving it.
10.-(1) The Court may of its own motion, and may in its discretion upon the application of any of the parties to a suit, send for, either from its own records or from any other Court, the record of any other suit or proceeding, and inspect the same.
(2) Every application made under this rule shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be supported by an affidavit showing how the record is material to the suit in which the application is made, and that the applicant cannot without unreasonable delay or expense obtain a duly authenticated copy of the record or of such portion thereof as the applicant requires, or that the production of the original is necessary for the purposes of justice.
(3) Nothing contained in this rule shall be deemed to enable the Court to use in evidence any document which under the law of evidence would be inadmissible in the suit.
10. The provisions herein contained, as to documents shall, so far as may be, apply to all other material objects producible as evidence.
SETTLEMENT OF ISSUES AND DETERMINATION OF SUIT ON
ISSUES OF LAW OR ON ISSUES AGREED UPON
1.-(1) Issues arise when a material proposition of fact or law is affirmed by the one party and denied by the other.
(2) Material propositions are those propositions of law or fact which a plaintiff must allege in order to show a right to sue or a defendant must allege in order to constitute his defence.
(3)Each material proposition affirmed by one party and denied by the other shall form the subject of a distinct issue.
(4) Issues are of two kinds : (a) issues of fact, (b) issues of law.
(5) At the first hearing of the suit the Court shall, after reading the plaint and the written statements, if any, and after such examination of the parties as may appear necessary, ascertain upon what material propositions of fact or of law the parties are at variance, and shall thereupon proceed to frame and record the issues on which the right decision of the case appears to depend.
(6) Nothing in this rule requires the Court to frame and record issues where the defendant at the first hearing of the suit makes no defence.
2. Where issues both of law and of fact arise in the same suit, and the Court is of opinion that the case or any part thereof may be disposed of on the issues of law only, it shall try those issues first, and for that purpose may, if it thinks fit, postpone the settlement of the issues of fact until after the issues of law have been determined.
3. The Court may frame the issues from all or any of the following materials-
(a) allegations made on oath by the parties, or by any persons present on their behalf, or made by the pleaders of such parties;
(b) allegations made in the pleadings or in answers to interrogatories delivered in the suit;
(c) the contents of documents produced by the either party.
4. Where the Court is of opinion that the issues cannot be correctly framed without the examination of some person not before the Court or without the inspection of some document not produced in the suit, it may adjourn the framing of the issues to a future day, and may (subject to any law for the time being in force) compel the attendance of any person or the production of any document by the person in whose possession or power it is by summons or other process.
5-(1) The Court may at any time before passing a decree amend the issues or frame additional issues on such terms as it thinks fit,. And all such amendments or additional issues as may be necessary for determining the matters in controversy between the parties shall be so made or framed.
(2) The Court may also, at any time before passing a decree, strike out any issues that appear to it to be wrongly framed or introduced.
6. Where the parties to a suit are agreed as to the question of fact or of law to be decided between them, they may state the same in the form of an issue, and enter, into an agreement in writing that, upon the finding of the Court in the affirmative or the negative of such issue-
(a) a sum of money specified in the agreement or to be ascertained by the Court, or in such manner as the Court may direct, shall be paid by one of the parties to the other of them, or that one of them be declared entitled to some right or subject to some liability specified in the agreement;
(b) some property specified in the agreement and in dispute in the suit shall be delivered by one of the parties to the other of them, or as that other may direct; or
(c) one or more of the parties shall do or abstain from doing some particular act specified in the agreement and relating to the matter in dispute.
7. Where the Court is satisfied, after making such inquiry as it deems proper -
(a) that the agreement was duly executed by the parties;
(b) that they have a substantial interest in the decision of such question as aforesaid, and
(c) that the same is fit to be tried and decided,
it shall proceed to record and try the issue and state its finding or decision thereon in the same manner as if the issue had been framed by the Court;
and shall, upon the finding or decision on such issue, pronounce judgement according to the terms of the agreement; and, upon the judgment so pronounced, a decree shall follow.