Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. Act no. V of 1908 [21st March 1908]

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1. Every suit shall as far as practicable be framed so as to afford ground for final decision upon the subjects in dispute and to prevent further litigation concerning them.

2. (1) Every suit shall include the whole of the claim which the plaintiff is entitled to make in respect of the cause of action; but a plaintiff may relinquish any portion of his claim in order to bring the suit within the jurisdiction of any Court.

(2) Where a plaintiff omits to sue in respect of, or intentionally relinquishes, any portion of his claim, he shall not afterwards sue in respect of the portion so omitted or relinquished claim.

(3) A person entitled to more than one relief in respect of the same cause of action may sue for all or any of such relief; but if no omits, except with the leave of the Court, to sue for all such relief, he shall not afterwards sue for any relief so omitted.

Explanation: For the purposes of this rule an obligation and a collateral security for its performance and successive claims arising under the same obligation shall be deemed respectively to constitute but one cause of action.


A lets a house to B at a yearly rent of Rs.1,200. The rent for the whole of the years 1905, 1906 and 1907 is due and unpaid. A sues B in 1908 only for the rent due for 1906. A shall not afterwards sue B for the rent due for 1905 or 1907.

3.- (1) Save as otherwise provided, a plaintiff may unite in the same suit several causes of action against the same defendant, or the same defendants jointly; and any plaintiffs having causes of action in which they are jointly interested against the same defendant or the same defendants jointly may unite such causes of action in the same suit.

(2) Where causes of action are united, the jurisdiction of the Court as regards the suit shall depend on the amount or value of the aggregate subject matters at the date of instituting the suit.

4.- No cause of action shall, unless with the leave of the Court, be joined with a suit for the recovery of immovable property, except-

(a) Claims for mesne profits or arrears of rent in respect of ~he property claimed or any part thereof;
(b) Claims for damages for breach of any contract under which the property or any part thereof is held; and
(c) Claims in which the relief sought is based on the same cause of action;

Provided that nothing in this rule shall be deemed to prevent any party in a suit for foreclosure o~ redemption from asking to be put into possession of the mortgaged property.

5. No claim by or against an executor, administrator or heir, as such, shall be joined with claims by or against him personally, unless the last mentioned claims are alleged to arise with reference to the estate in respect of which the Plaintiff or defendant sues or is sued as executor, administrator or heir, or are such a~ he was entitled to, or liable for, jointly with the deceased person whom he represent.

6. Where it appears to the Court that any causes of action joined in one suit cannot be conveniently tried or disposed of together, the Court may order separate trials or make such other order as may be expedient.

7. All objections on the ground of misjoinder of causes of action shall be taken at the earliest possible opportunity and, in all cases where issues arc settled, at or before such settlement, unless the ground of objection has subsequently arisen, and any such objection not so taken shall be deemed to have waived.


1. Any appearance, application or act in or to any Court, required or authorized by law to be made or done by a party in such Court, may, except where otherwise expressly provided by any law for the time being in force, be made or done by the party in person, or by his recognized agent, or by a pleader [appearing, applying or acting, as the case may be,] on his behalf:

Provided that any such appearance shall, if the Court so directs, be made by the party in person.

2. The recognized agent of parties by whom such appearances, applications and acts may be made or done are-

(a) persons holding powers-of-attorney, authorizing them to make and do ouch appearances, applications and acts on behalf of such parties ;

(b) persons carrying on trade or business for and in the names of parties not resident within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court within which limits the appearance, application or act is made or done, in matters connected with such trade or business only where no other agent is expressly authorized to make and do such appearances, applications and acts.

3.-(l) Processes served on the -recognized agent of a party shall be as effectual as if the same had been served on the in person, unless the Court otherwise directs.

(2) The provisions for the service of process on a party to a suit shall apply to the service of process on his recognized agent.

2[4-(l) No pleader shall act for any person in unless he has been appointed for the purpose by such a document in writing signed by such person or by his agent or by some other person duly authorized by power of attorney to make such appointment.

(2) Every such appointment shall be filed in Court arid shall be deemed to be in force until determined with the leave of the Court by a writing signed by the client or the pleader, as the case may be, and filed in Court or until the client or the pleader dies, or until all proceedings in the suit are ended so far as regards the client.

(3) For the purposes of sub-rule (2) an application for review of judgment, an application, tinder section 144 or section 152 of this Code, any appeal from any decree or order in the suit end any application or act for the purpose of obtaining copies of documents or return of documents produced or filed in the suit or of obtaining refund of monies paid into the Court in connection with the suit shall be deemed to be proceedings in the suit.

(4) The High Court may, by general order, direct that, where the person by whom a pleader is appointed is unable to write his name, his mark upon the document appointing the pleader shall be attested by such person and in such manner as may be specified by the order.

(5) No pleader who has been engaged for the purpose of pleading only shall plead on behalf of any party, unless he has filed in Court a memorandum of appearance signed by himself and stating-

(a) the names of the parties to the suit,

(b) the name of the party for whom he appears, and

(c) the name of the person by whom he is authorized to appear.

Provided that nothing in this sub-rule shall apply to any pleader engaged to plead on behalf of any party by any other pleader who has been duly appointed to act in Court on behalf of such party.

5. Any process served on the pleader of any party or left at the office or ordinary residence of such pleader, and whether the same is for the personal appearance of the party or not, shall be presumed to be duly communicated and made known to the party whom the pleader represents, and, unless the Court otherwise directs, shall be as effectual for all purposes as if the same had been given to or served on the party in person.

6.-(1) Besides the recognized agents described in rule 2 any person residing within the jurisdiction of the Court may be appointed an agent to accept service of process.

(2) Such appointment maybe special or general and shall be made by an instrument in writing signed by the principal, and such instrument or, if the appointment is general, a certified copy thereof shall be filed in Court.


1.-(l) Every suit shall be instituted by presenting a plaint to the Court or such officer as it appoints in this behalf.

(2) Every plaint shall comply with the rules contained Orders VI and VII, so far as they are applicable.

2. The Court shall cause the particulars of every suit to be entered in a book to be kept for the purpose and called the register of civil suits. Such entries shall be numbered in every year according to the order in which the plaints are admitted.


1.----(l) When a suit has been duly instituted a summons may Summons be issued to the defendant to appear and answer the claim on a day to tie therein specified Provided that no defendant has appeared

admitted the plaintiff's claim.

(2) A defendant to whom a summons has been issued under sub-rule (I) may appear-

(a) in person, or
(b) by a pleader duly instructed and able to answer all material questions relating to the suit, or
(c) by a pleader accompanied by some person able to answer all such questions.

(3) Every such summons shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as he appoints, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court.

2. Every summons shall be accompanied by a copy of the plaint or, if so permitted, by a concise statement.

3.-1 Where the Court sees reason to require the appearance of the defendant, the summons shall order him to appear in person in Court on the day therein specified.

(2) Where the Court sees reason to require the personal appearance of the Plaintiff on the same day, it shall make an order for such appearance.

4. No party shall be ordered to appear in person unless he resides-

(a) within the local limits of the Court's ordinary original jurisdiction, or
(b) without such limits but at a place less than fifty or (where there is railway or steamer communication or other established public conveyance for five-sixth of the distance between the place where he resides and the place where the Court is situate) less than two hundred miles distance from the Court-house.

5. The Court shall determine, at the time of issuing the summons, whether it shall be for the settlement of issues only, or for the final disposal of the suit ; and the summons shall contain a direction accordingly

Provided that, in every suit heard by a Court of Small Causes, the summons shall be for the final disposal of the suit.

6. The day for the appearance of the defendant shall be fixed with reference to the current business of the Court, the place of residence of the defendant and the time necessary for the service of the summons; and the day shall be so fixed as to allow the defendant sufficient time to enable him to appear and answer on such day.

7. The summons to appear and answer shall order the defendant to produce all documents in his possession or power upon which he intends to rely in support of his case.

8. Where the summons is for the final disposal of t shall also direct the defendant to produce, on the day his appearance, all witnesses upon whose evidence he I rely in support of his case.

9.- (1) Where the defendant resides within the jurisdiction of the Court in which the suit is instituted, or has an agent resident within that jurisdiction who is empowered to accept the service of the summons, the summons shall, unless the Court otherwise directs, be delivered or sent to the proper officer to be served by him or one of his subordinates.

(2) The proper officer may be an officer of a Court other than that in which the suit is instituted, and, where he is such an officer, the summons may be sent to him by post or in such other manner as the Court may direct.

1[(3) Unless the Court otherwise directs, the proper officer or an officer authorized by him in this behalf shall cause the service of summons and return it to the Court within fifteen days of issue of summons.]

10. Service of the summons shall be made by delivering or tendering a copy thereof signed by the Judge or such officer, as he appoints in this behalf, and sealed with the seal of the Court.

2[10-A.-(1) simultaneously, with the issue of summons under rule 9, there shall be sent, unless to the defendant, by registered other copy of the summons provided in rule 10.

(2) An acknowledgement purporting to be signed by the defendant of the receipt of the registered communication or an endorsement by a postal employee that the defendant refused to take delivery of the same shall be deemed by the Court issuing the summons to be prima facie proof of service of summons.

11. Save as otherwise prescribed, defendants than one, service of the summons each defendant.

12. Wherever it is practicable, service shall be made on the defendant in person, unless he has an agent empowered to accept service, in which case service on such agent shall be sufficient.

13.-(l) In a suit relating to any business or work against a person who does not reside within; the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court from which the summons is issued, service on any manager or agent, who, at the time of service, personally carries on such business or works for such person within such limits, shall be deemed good service.

(2) For the purpose of this rule the master of a ship shall be deemed to be the agent of the owner or character.

14. Where in a suit to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovable property, service cannot be made on the defendant in person, and the defendant has no agent empowered to accept the service, it may be made on any agent of the defendant in charge of the property.

15. Where in any suit the defendant cannot be found and has no agent empowered to accept service of the summons on his behalf, service may be made on any adult male member of the family of the defendant who is residing with him.

Explanation: A servant is not a member of the family within the meaning of this rule.

16. Where the serving officer delivers or tenders a copy of the summons to the defendant personally, or to an agent or other person on his behalf, he shall require the signature of the person to whom the copy is so delivered or tendered to an acknowledgment of service endorsed on the original summons.

17. Where the defendant or his agent or such other person as aforesaid refuses to sign the acknowledgment, or where the serving officer, after using all due and reasonable diligence, cannot find the defendant, and there is no agent empowered to accept service of the summons on his behalf, nor any other person on whom service can be made, the serving officer shall affix a copy of the summons on the outer door or some other conspicuous part of the house in which the defendant ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain, and shall then return the original to the Court from which it was issued, with a report endorsed thereon or annexed thereto stating that he has so affixed the copy, the circumstances under which he did so, and the name and address of the person (if any), by whom the house was identified and in whose presence the copy was affixed.

18. The serving officer shall, in all cases in which the summons has been served under rule 16, endorse or annex, or cause to be endorsed or annexed, on or to the original summons, a return stating the time when and the manner in which the summons was served, and the name and address of the person (if any) identifying the person served and witnessing the delivery or tender of the summons.

19. Where a summons is returned under rule 17, the Court shall, if the return under that rule has not been verified by the affidavit of the serving officer, and may, if it has been so verified, examine the serving officer on oath, or cause him to be so examined by another Court, touching his proceedings, and may make such further inquiry in the matter as it thinks fit; and shall either declare that the summons has been duly served or order such service as it thinks fit.

20.-(l) Where the Court is satisfied that there is reason to believe that the defendant is keeping out of the way for the purpose of avoiding service, or that for nay other reason the summons cannot be served in the ordinary way, the Court shall order for service of the summons by-

(a) affixing a copy of the summons at some conspicuous part of the house, if any, in which the defendant is known to have last resided or carried on business or personally worked for gain; or

(b) any electronic device of communication which may include telegram, phonogram, telex, fax, radio and television; or
(c) urgent mail service or public courier services; or
(d) beat of drum in the locality where the defendant resides; or
(e) publication in press; or
(f) any other manner or mode as it may think fit:

Provided that the Court may order the use of all or any of the aforesaid manners and modes of service simultaneously].

(2) Service substituted by order of the Court shall be as effectual as if it had been made on the defendant personally.

(3) Where service is substituted by order of the Court, the Court shall fix such time for the appearance of the defendant as the case may require [which shall not ordinarily exceed fifteen days].

21. A summons may be sent by the Court by which it is issued, whether within or without the Province, either by one of its officers or by post to any Court (not being the High Court) having jurisdiction in the place where the defendant resides.

22. Omitted by the A. 0., 1949.

23. The Court to which a summons is sent under rule 2 * * shall, upon receipt thereof, proceed as if it had been issued by such Court and shall then return the summons to the Court of issue, together with the record (if any) of its proceedings with regard thereto in a prison, the otherwise to the defendant.

25. Where the defendant resides out of 3[Pakistan] and has no agent in 3[Pakistan] empowered to accept service, the summons shall 4[except in the cases mentioned in rule 26-A] be addressed to the defendant at the place where he is residing and sent to him by post. If the is postal communication between such place and the place where the Court is situate.

26. Where: -

(a) In the enteric of any foreign 3[or extra-provincial jurisdiction vested in the Central (3ovcrnment), a Political Agent has been appointed, or a Court has been established or continued, with power to serve a summons issued by a Court under this Code in any foreign territory in which the defendant resides, or

(b) 3[the Provincial Government] has, by notification in the of1iciaI Gazette], declared, in respect of any Court situate In any such territory and not established or con-wined in the exercise of any such jurisdiction as aforesaid that service by such Court of any summons 6[issued under this Code by a Court of the Province] shall be deemed to be valid service,]

the summons may be sent to such Political Agent or Court, by post or otherwise, for the purpose of being served upon the defendant ; and, if the Political Agent or Court returns the summons with an endorsement signed by such Political Agent or by the Judge or other officer of the Court that the summons has been served on the defendant in manner hereinbefore directed, such endorsement shall be deemed to be evidence of service.

[26-A. where the defendant is a servant (not belonging to the military, naval or air forces) of any Government in India, or civil public a servant of a railway company or local authority in India, the officer or on summons together with a copy of it to be retained by the defendant shall be sent, with a request that it may be served on the defendant.

(a) In the case of a defendant serving in connection with the affairs of the Government of India or a servant of a Railway in India, to the Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Home Affairs, and

(b) in the case of a defendant serving in connection with the affairs of any other Government in India, or in the case of a servant of a local authority in India, to the Home Secretary to that Government or, as the case may be to the Home Secretary to the Government in whose territories the local authority has its jurisdiction.

27. Where the defendant is a public officer (not belonging to the armed forces of Pakistan) or is the servant of a railway company or local authority, the Court may, if it appears to it that the summons may be most conveniently so served, send if for service on the defendant to the head of the office in which he is employed, together with a copy to be retained by the defendant.

28. Where the defendant is a soldier, [sailor] [or airman] the Court shall send the summons for service to his commanding officer together with a copy to be retained by the defendant.

29. (1) Where a summons is delivered or sent to any person for service under rule 24, rule 27 or rule 28, such person shall be bound to serve it, if possible, and to return it under his signature with the written acknowledgement of the defendant, and such signature shall be deemed to be evidence of service.

(2) Were from any cause service is impossible, the summons shall be returned to the Court with a full statement of such cause and of the steps taken to procure service, and such statement shall be deemed to be evidence of non-service.

30. (1) The Court may, notwithstanding anything herein before contained, substitute for a summons a letter signed by the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf, where the defendant is, in the opinion of the Court, of a rank entitling him to such mark of consideration.

(2) A letter substituted under sub-rule (1) shall contain all the particulars required to be stated in summons, and, subject to the provisions of sub-rule (3), shall be treated in all respects as a summons.

(3) A letter so substituted may be sent to the defendant by post or by a special messenger selected by the Court, or in any other manner which the Court thinks fit; and where the defendant has an agent empowered to accept service, the letter may be delivered or sent to such agent.


1. "Pleading" shall mean plaint or written statement.

2. Every pleading shall contain, and contain only, a statement in a concise form of the material facts on which the party pleading relies for his claim or defence, as the case may be, but not the evidence by which they are to be proved, and shall, when necessary, be divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively-Dates, sums and numbers shall be expressed in figures.

3. The forms in Appendix A when applicable, and where they are not applicable forms of the like character, as nearly as may be, shall be used for all pleadings.

4. In all cases in which the party pleading relies on any misrepresentation, fraud, breach of trust, willful default, or undue influence, and in all other cases in which particulars may be necessary beyond such as are exemplified in the forms aforesaid, particulars (with dates and items if necessary) shall be stated in the pleading.

5. A further and better statement of nature of the claim or defence, or further and better particulars of any matter stated in any pleading, may in all cases be ordered, upon such terms as to costs and otherwise, as may be just.

6. Any condition precedent the performance or occurrence of which is intended to be contested, shall be distinctly specified in his pleading by the plaintiff or defendant, as the case may be; and, subject thereto, an averment of the performance or occurrence of all conditions precedent necessary for the case of the plaintiff or defendant shall be implied in his pleading.

7. No pleading shall, except by way of amendment, raise any new ground of claim or contain any allegation of fact inconsistent with the previous pleadings of the party pleading the same.

8. Where a contract is alleged in any pleading, a bare denial of the same by the opposite-party shall be construed only as a denial in fact of the express contract alleged or of the matters of fact from which the same may be implied, and not as a denial of the legality or sufficiency in law of such contract.

9. Wherever the contents of any document are material, it shall be sufficient in any pleading to state the effect thereof as briefly as possible, without setting out the whole or any part thereof, unless the precise words of the document or any part thereof are material.

10. Wherever it is material to allege, malice fraudulent intention, knowledge or other condition of the mind of any person, it shall be sufficient to allege the same as a fact without setting out the circumstances from which the same is to be inferred.

11. Wherever it is material to allege notice to any person of any fact, matter or thing, it shall be sufficient to allege such notice as a fact, unless the form or the precise terms of such notice, or the circumstances from which such notice is to be inferred, are material.

12. Whenever any contract or any relation between any persons is to be implied from a series of letters or conversations or otherwise from a number of circumstances, it shall be sufficient to allege such contract or relation as a fact, and to refer generally to such letters, conversations or circumstances without setting them out in detail. And if in such case the person so pleading desires to rely in the alternative upon more contracts or relations than one as to be implied from such circumstances, he may state the same in the alternative.

13. Neither party need in any pleading allege any matter of fact which the law presumes in his favour or as to which the burden of proof lies upon the other side unless the same has first been specifically denied (e.g., consideration for a bill of exchange where the plaintiff sues only on the bill and not for the consideration as a substantive ground of claim).

14. Every pleading shall be signed by the party and his pleader (if any): Provided that where a party pleading is, by reason of absence or for other good cause, unable to sign the pleading, it may be signed by any person duly authorized by him to sign the same or to sue or defend on his behalf.

15. (1) Save as otherwise provided by any law for the time being in force, every pleading shall be verified [on oath or solemn affirmation] at the foot by the party or by one of the parties pleading or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case.

(2) The person verifying shall specify, by reference to the numbered paragraphs of the pleading, what he verifies of his own knowledge and what he verifies upon information

(3) The verification shall be signed by the person making it and shall state the date on which and the place at which it was signed.

16. The Court may at any stage of the proceedings order to be struck out or amended any matter in any pleading which may be unnecessary or scandalous or which may tend to prejudice, embarrass or delay the fair trial of the suit.

17. The Court may at any stage of the proceedings allow either party to alter or amend his pleadings in such manner and on such terms as may be just, and all such amendments shall be made as may be necessary for the purpose of determining the real questions in controversy between the parties.

18. If a party who has obtained an order for leave to amend does not amend accordingly within the time limited for that purpose by the order, or if no time is thereby limited then within fourteen days from the date of the order, he shall not be permitted to amend after the expiration of such limited time as aforesaid or of such fourteen days, as the case may be, unless the time is extended by the Court.

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