Sale of Movable Property
74.- (1) Where the property to be sold is agricultural produce the sale shall be held, -
a) if such produce is a growing crop, on or near the land on which such crop has grown, or
b) if such produce has been cut or gathered, at or near the threshing-floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited:
Provided that the Court may direct the sale to be held at the nearest place of public resort, if it is of opinion that the produce is thereby likely to sell to greater advantage.
(2) Where on the produce being put up for sale, -
a) a fair price, in the estimation of the person holding the sale, is not offered for it, and
b) the owner of the produce or a person authorized to act in his behalf applies to have the sale postponed till the next day or, if a market is held at the place of sale, the next market-day,
the sale shall be postponed accordingly and shall be then completed, whatever price maybe offered for the produce.
75.- (1) Where the property to be sold is a growing crop and the crop from its nature admits of being stored but has not yet been stored, the day of the sale shall be so fixed as to admit of its being made ready for storing before the arrival of such day, and the sale shall not be held until the crop has been cut or gathered and is ready for storing.
(2) Where the crop from its nature does not admit of being stored, it may be sold before it is cut and gathered, and the purchaser shall be entitled to enter on the land, and to do all that is necessary for the purpose of tending and cutting and or gathering it.
76. Where the property to be sold is a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation, the Court may, instead of directing the sale to be made by public auction, authorise the sale of such instrument or share through a broker.
77- (1) Where movable property is sold by public auction the price of each lot shall be paid at the time of sale or as soon after as the officer or other person holding the sale directs, and in default of payment the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) On payment of the purchase-money the officer or other person holding the sale shall grant a receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute.
(3) Where the movable property to be sold is a share in goods belonging to the judgment-debtor and a co-owner, and two or more persons, of whom one is such co-owner, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bidding shall be deemed to be the bidding of the co-owner.
78. No irregularity in publishing or conducting he sale of movable property shall vitiate the sale; but any person sustaining any injury by reason of such irregularity at the hand of any other person may institute a suit against him for compensation or (if such other person is the purchaser) for the recovery of the specific property and for compensation in default of such recovery.
79.-(1) Where the property sold is movable property of which actual seizure has been made, it shall be delivered to the purchaser.
(2) Where the property sold is movable property in the possession of some person other than the judgment-debtor, the delivery thereof to the purchaser shall be made by giving notice to the person in possession prohibiting him from delivering possession of the property to any person except the purchaser.
(3) Where the property sold is a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument, or is a share in a corporation, the delivery thereof shall be made by a written order of the Court prohibiting the creditor from receiving the debt or any interest thereon, and the debtor from making payment thereof to any person except the purchaser, or prohibiting the person in whose name the share may be standing from making any transfer of the share to any person except the purchaser, or receiving payment of any dividend or interest thereon, and the manager, secretary or other proper officer of the corporation from permitting any such transfer or making any such payment to any person except the purchaser.
80.-(1) Where the execution of a document or the endorsement of the party in whose name a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation is standing is required to transfer such negotiable instrument or share, the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf may execute such document or make such endorsement as may be necessary, and such execution or endorsement shall have the same effect as an execution or endorsement by the party.
(2) Such execution or endorsement may be in the following form namely:-
AB by CD Judge of the Court of (or as the case may be) in a suit by EF against AB.
(3) Until the transfer of such negotiable instrument or share, the Court may by order appoint some person to receive any interest or divided due thereon and to sign a receipt for the same; and any receipt so signed shall be as valid and effectual for all purposes as if the same had been signed by the party himself.
81. In case of any movable property not hereinbefore provided for, the Court may make an order vesting such property in the purchaser or as he may direct; and such property shall vest accordingly.
Sale of Immovable Property
82. Sales of immovable property in execution of decrees may be ordered by any Court other than a Court of Small Causes.
83.- (1) Where an order for the sale of immovable property has been made, if the judgment-debtor can satisfy the Court that there is reason to believe that the amount of the decree may be raised by the mortgage or lease or private sale of such property, or some part thereof, or of any other immovable property of the judgement-debtor the Court may on his application postpone the sale of the property comprised in the order for sale on such terms and for such period as it thinks proper, to enable him to raise the amount.
(2) In such case the Court shall grant a certificate to the judgment-debtor authorizing him within a period to be mentioned therein, and notwithstanding anything contained in section 64 to make the proposed mortgage lease or sale:
Provided that all monies payable under such mortgage, lease or sale shall be paid not to the judgment-debtor, but save in so far as a decree-holder is entitled to set-off such money under the provisions of rule 72 into Court:
Provided also that no mortgage leases or sale under this rule shall become absolute until it has been confirmed by the Court.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to apply to a sale of property directed to be sold in execution of a decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of or charge on such property.
84.-(1) On every sale of immovable property the person declared to be the purchaser shall pay immediately after such declaration a deposit ot twenty-five per cent. On the amount of his purchase money to the officer or other person conducting the sale and in default of such deposit the property shall forthwith be resold.
(2) Where the decree holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set off the purchase-money under rule 12, the Court may dispense with the requirements of this rule.
85. The full amount of purchase-money payable shall be paid by the purchaser into Court before the Court closes on the fifteenth day from the sale of the property:
Provided that in calculating the amount to be so paid into Court, the purchaser shall have the advantage of any set-off to which he may be entitled under rule 72.
86. In default of payment within the period mentioned in the last preceding rule the deposit may if the court thinks fit after defraying the expenses of the sale, be forfeited to the Government and the property shall be re-sold and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claim to the property or to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.
87. Every re-sale of immovable property in default of payment of the purchase-money within the period allowed for such payment shall be made after the issue of a fresh proclamation in the manner and for the period hereinbefore prescribed for the sale.
88. Where the property sold is a share of undivided immovable property and two or more persons of whom one is a co-sharer, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot the bid shall be deemed to be the bid of the co-sharer.
89. - (1) Where immovable property has been sold in execution of a decree, any person either owning such property or holding an interest therein by virtue of a title acquired before such sale may apply to have the sale set aside on his depositing in Court, -
a) for payment to the purchaser a sum equal to five per cent of the purchase money; and
b) for payment to the decree holder the amount specified in the proclamation of sale as that for the recovery of which the sale was ordered less any amount which may since the date of such proclamation of sale have been received by the decree holder.
(2) Where a person applied under rule 90 to set aside the sale of his immovable property he shall not unless he withdraws his application be entitled to make or prosecute an application under this rule.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgement-debtor from any liability he may be under in respect of costs and interest not covered by the proclamation of sale.
90. Where any immovable property has been sold in execution of a decree the decree-holder or any person entitled to share in a rateable distribution of assets or whose interests are affected by the sale may apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it:
Provided that no sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud unless upon the facts proved the Court is satisfied that the applicant has sustained substantial injury by reason of such irregularity or fraud [and]
[Provided also that no such application shall be entertained unless the applicant deposits such amount not exceeding twenty per cent of the sum realized at the sale or furnishes such security as the Court may direct]
[Provided further that no such application shall be entertained unless the applicant deposits such amount not exceeding twenty per cent of the sum realized at the sale or furnishes such security as the Court may direct.]
91. 91. The purchaser at any such sale in execution of a decree may apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the property sold.
92.- (1) Where no application is made under rule 89, rule 90 or rule 91, or where such application is made and disallowed the Court shall make an order confirming the sale and thereupon the sale shall become absolute.
(2) Where such application is made and allowed and where in the case of an application under rule 89 the deposit required by that rule is made within thirty days from the date of sale the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale:
Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to all persons affected thereby.
(3) No suit to set aside an order made under this rule shall be brought by any person against whom such order is made.
93. Where a sale of immovable property is set aside under rule 92 the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of his purchase money with or without interest as the Court may direct against any person to whom it has been paid.
94. Where a sale of immovable property has become absolute the Court shall grant a certificate specifying the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of sale is declared to be the purchaser. Such certificate shall bear date the day on which the sale became absolute.
95. Where the immovable property sold is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf or of some person claiming under a title created by the judgment debtor subsequently to the attachment of such property and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94 the Court shall on the application of the purchaser order delivery to be made by putting such purchaser or any person whom he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the property and if need be by removing any person who refuses to vacate the same.
96. Where the property sold is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the certificate of sale in some conspicuous place on the property and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place that the interest of judgment debtor has been transferred to the purchaser.
Resistance to Delivery of Possession to Decree-holder
97.- (1) Where the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution of a decree is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of the property he may make an application to the Court complaining of such resistance or obstruction.
(2) The Court shall fix a day for investigating the matter and shall summon the party against whom the application is made to appear and answer the same.
98. Where the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or by some other person at his instigation it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property and where the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession the Court may also at the instance of the applicant order the judgment-debtor or any person acting at his instigation to be detained in […..] prison for a term which may extend to thirty days.
99. Where the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned by any person (other than the judgment-debtor) claiming in good faith to be in possession of the property on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgment-debtor the Court shall make an order dismissing the application.
100.- (1) Where any person other than the judgment-debtor is dispossessed of immovable property by the holder of a decree for the possession of such property or where such property has been sold in execution of a decree by the purchaser thereof he may make an application to the Court complaining of such dispossession.
(2) The Court shall fix a day for investigating the matter and shall summon the party against whom the application is made to appear and answer the same.
101. Where the Court is satisfied that the applicant was in possession of the property on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgement-debtor it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property.
102. Nothing in rules 99 and 101 shall apply to resistance or obstruction in execution of a decree for the possession of immovable property by a person to whom the judgment-debtor has transferred the property after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed or to the dispossession of any such person.
[103. - All questions arising as to title, right or interest in or possession of immovable property between an applicant under rule 97 and the opposite-party or between an applicant under rule 100 and the opposite party shall be adjudicated upon and determined by the Court and no separate suit shall lie for the determination of any such matter.]
DEATH, MARRIAGE AND INSOLVENCY OF PARTIES
1. The death of plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate if the right to sue survives.
2. Where there are more plaintiffs or defendants than one, and any of them dies, and where the right to sue survives to the surviving plaintiffs or plaintiffs alone or against the surviving defendant or defendants alone the Court shall cause an entry to that effect to be made on the record and the suit shall proceed at the instance of the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs or against the surviving defendant or defendants.
3. - (1) Where one of two or more plaintiffs dies and the right to sue does not survive to the surviving plaintiffs alone; [or on receipt of an intimation of the death of such plaintiff from the person nominated by him for that purpose under rule 26, Order VII or a sole plaintiff or sole surviving plaintiff dies and the right to sue survives the Court on an application made in that behalf shall cause the legal representative of the deceased plaintiff to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.
[(2) Where within the time allowed by law no application is made or intimation is given under sub-rule (I), the Court may proceed with the suit and any order made or judgment pronounced in such suit shall notwithstanding the death of such plaintiff have the same force and effect as if it had been made or pronounced before the death took place.]
4.- (1) Where one of two or more defendants dies and the right to sue does not survive against the surviving defendant or defendants alone [or on receipt of an intimation of the death of such defendant from the person nominated by him for that purpose under rule 13, Order VIII] or a sole defendant or sole surviving defendant dies and the right to sue survives the Court on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased defendant to made a party and shall proceed with the suit.
(2) Any person so made a party may make any defence appropriate to his character as legal representative of the deceased defendant.
[(3) When within the time limited by law no application is made or intimation is given under sub-rule (1) the Court may proceed with the suit and any order made or judgment pronounced in such suit shall notwithstanding the death of such defendant have the same force and effect as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.]
[(4) It shall not be necessary to substitute the legal representatives of any such defendant who has failed to file a written statement or has failed to appear and contest the suit at the hearing; and judgment may in such case be pronounced against the said defendant notwithstanding his death and such judgment shall have the same force and effect as if had been pronounced before his death took place.]
5. Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or a deceased defendant such question shall be determined by the Court.
6. Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing rules, whether the cause of action survives or not, there shall be no abatement by reason of the death of either party between the conclusion of the hearing and the pronouncing of the judgment, but judgment may in such case be pronounced notwithstanding death and shall have the same force and effect as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.
7. - (1) The marriage of a female plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate but the suit may notwithstanding be proceeded with to judgment and where the decree is against a female defendant it may be executed against her alone.
(2) Where the husband is by law liable for the debts of his wife the decree may with the permission of the |court be executed against the husband also; and in case of judgment for the wife execution of the decree may with such permission, be issued upon the application of the husband where the husband is by law entitled to the subject-matter of the decree.
8. - (1) The insolvency of a plaintiff in any suit which the assignee or receiver might maintain for the benefit of his creditors, shall not cause the suit to abate unless such assignee or receiver declines to continue the suit or (unless for any special reason the Court otherwise directs) to give security for the costs thereof within such time as the Court may direct.
(2) Where the assignee or receiver neglects or refuses to continue the suit and to give such security within the time so ordered the defendant may apply for the dismissal of the suit on the ground of the plaintiff's insolvency and the Court may make an order dismissing the suit and awarding to the defendant the costs which he has incurred in defending the same to be proved as a debt against the plaintiff's estate.
9. - (1) When a suit is dismissed under rule 8 no fresh suit shall be brought on the same cause of action.
(2) Any person claiming to be the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or defendant or the assignee or the receiver in the case of an insolvent [plaintiff may apply to the Court for setting aside any order made or judgment pronounced by it in his absence; and if it is proved that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from continuing the suit or defending the suit as the case may be the Court shall set aside the order or the judgment upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.]
[(3) The provisions of section 5 of the Limitation Act, 1908 (IX of 1908) shall apply to applications under sub-rule (2).]
10. - (1) In other cases of an assignment, creation or devolution of any interest during the pendency of a suit the suit may, by leave of the Court be continued by or against the person to or upon whom such interest has come or devolved.
(2) The attachment of a decree pending an appeal therefrom shall be deemed to be an interest entitling the person who procured such attachment to the benefit of sub-rule (1).
11. In the application of this Order to appeals so far as may be the word "Plaintiff" shall be held to include an appellant the word "defendant" a respondent and the word "suit" an appeal.
12. Nothing in rules 3, 4 and 8 shall apply to proceedings in execution of a decree or order.
WITHDRAWAL AND ADJUSTMENT OF SUITS
1. -(1) At any time after the institution of a suit the plaintiff may as against all or any of the defendants withdraw his suit or abandon part of his claim.
(2) Where the Court is satisfied -
a) that a suit must fail by reason of some formal defect or
b) that there are other sufficient grounds for allowing the plaintiff to institute a fresh suit for the subject-matter of a suit or part of a claim,
it may, on such terms as it thinks fit, grant the plaintiff permission to withdraw from such suit or abandon such part of a claim with liberty to institute a fresh suit in respect of the subject matter of such suit or such part of a claim.
(3) Where the plaintiff withdraws from a suit or abandons part of a claim without the permission referred to in sub-rule (2), he shall be liable for such costs as the Court may award and shall be precluded from instituting any fresh suit in respect of such subject-matter or such part of the claim.
(4) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to authorise the Court to permit one of several plaintiffs to withdraw without the consent of the others.
2. In any fresh suit instituted on permission granted under the last preceding rule the plaintiff shall be bound by the law of limitation in the same manner as if the first suit had not been instituted.
3. Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that a suit has been adjusted wholly or in part by any lawful agreement or compromise or where the defendant satisfies the plaintiff in respect of the whole or any part of the subject-matter of the suit the Court shall order such agreement compromise or satisfaction to be recorded and shall pass a decree in accordance therewith so far as it relates to the suit.
4. Nothing in this Order shall apply to any proceedings in execution of a decree or order.
PAYMENT INTO COURT
1. The defendant in any suit to recover a debt or damages may at any stage of the suit deposit in Court such sum of money as he considers a satisfaction in full of the claim.
2. Notice of the deposit shall be given through the Court by the defendant to the plaintiff and the amount of the deposit shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be paid to the plaintiff on his application.
3. No interest shall be allowed to the plaintiff on any sum deposited by the defendant from the date of the receipt of such notice whether the sum deposited is in full of the claim or falls short thereof.
4. - (1) Where the plaintiff accepts such amount as satisfaction in part only of his claim, he may prosecute his suit for the balance; and if the court decides that the deposit by the defendant was a full satisfaction of the plaintiff's claim the plaintiff shall pay the costs of the suit incurred after the deposit and the costs incurred previous thereto so far as they were caused by excess in the plaintiff's claim.
(2) |Where the plaintiff accepts such amount as satisfaction in full of his claim he shall present to the Court a statement to that effect and such statement shall be filed and the Court shall pronounce judgment accordingly and in directing by whom the costs of each party are to be paid the Court shall consider which of the parties is most to blame for the litigation.
a) A owes B Rs.100 . B sues A for the amount, having made no demand for payment and having no reason to believe that the delay caused by making a demand would place him at a disadvantage. On the plaint being filed, A pays the money into Court. B accepts it in full satisfaction of his claim, but the Court should not allow him any costs, the litigation being presumably groundless on his part.
b) B sues A under the circumstances mentioned in Illustration (a). On the plaint being filed A disputes the claim. Afterwards A pays the money into Court. B accepts it in full satisfaction of his claim. The Court should also give B his costs of suit, A's conduct having shown that the litigation was necessary.
c) A owes B Rs 100, and is willing to pay him that sum without suit. B claims Rs.150 and sues A for that amount. On the plain being filed A pays Rs.100 into Court and disputes only his liability to pay the remaining Rs.50. B accepts the Rs.100 in full satisfaction of his claim. The Court should order him to pay A's costs.