Classification of Living Reptiles and Amphibians mostly as per Zug (1993)




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Classification of Living Reptiles and Amphibians

--mostly as per Zug (1993)

(Taxa higher than family are of various taxonomic ranks)
Amphibians extant 4,300, reptiles extant 6,000, mammals extant 5,000, birds extant 8,600

AMPHIBIA

Lissamphibia

Anura (Salientia) – frog and toads

Ascaphidae – tailed frog

Discoglossidae

Leiopelmatidae – New Zealand-similar to Ascaphidae

Pelobatidae – spadefoot toads – Scaphiopus (N. America, Europe, and Asia)

Pelodytidae

Pipidae - Aquatic, primitive-Pipa, Xenopus clawed frogs (Africa & South America)

Rhinophrynidae

Brachycephalidae

Bufonidae - True toads, parotoid gland, (worldwide exc. Greenland & Austrialia)

Centrolenidae

Dendrobatidae

Heleophrynidae

Hylidae – tree frog > 500sp.- many arboreal - toe pads (mostly Americas)

Hyperoliidae

Leptodactylidae – 800 - New World only.

Microhylidae – Narrow-mouth frogs – (Asia, Africa, North America, South America)

Myobatrachidae

Pelodryadidae

Pseudidae

Ranidae – true frogs > 700 sp., (worldwide except South Australia & Greenland)

Rhacophoridae - similar to Hylids, arboreal, foam nest, tropical

Rhinodermatidae – 2 species (Argentina, Chile) Darwin’s frog male parental care.

Sooglossidae

Caudata (Urodela) – Salamanders

Cryptobranchidae – Hellbender (Asia & North America) neotenic

Hynobiidae – primitive Asian salamander

Sirenidae – reduced legs no pelvic girdle or rear legs (neotenic)

Ambystomatidae – internal fertilization – spermatophore (North America)

Amphiumidae – Amphiuma only genus, neotenic, reduced legs

Dicamptodontidae

Plethodontidae – worldwide, terrestrial, lungless

Proteidae – Two genera (Protea, Necturus) Europe, North America (mudpuppy)

Salamandridae – Europe, Asia, North America

Gymnophiona – Caecilians ( Tropical Asia, South America, Africa)

Caeciliaidae –most specious family

Ichthyophiidae

Rhinatrematidae

Scolecomorphidae

Typhlonectidae

Uraeotyphlidae


REPTILIA

Anapsida - turtles

Testudines (Chelonia) –longitudinal vent, true penis

Pleurodira

Chelidae

Pelomedusidae

Cryptodira

Cheloniidae – Green turtle, Loggerhead – marine species

Dermochelyidae - Leatherback

Chelydridae – Snapping turtle

Carettochelyidae

Dermatemydidae

Kinosternidae - Stinkpot, Musk, and Mud turtle

Trionychidae – soft-shelled turtles

Emydidae

Testudinidae – lg. tortoises, most specious, wide distribution

Diapsida

Archosauria – all dinosaurs and birds

Crocodylia – longitudinal vent, 4-chambered heart

Alligatoridae – 4th mandibular tooth not visible

Crocodylidae – marine, freshwater

Gavialidae – 1 species (Gavial or Gharial), elongate slender snout (India)

Lepidosauria

Sphenodontida (Rhynchocephalia) – sister taxon to all squamates, Tuatara, lizard-like

Sphenodontidae

Squamata – lizards and snakes

[lizards] – (Sauria, Lacertilia) – suborder; hemipenis, transverse cloaca

Agamidae – Old World; Draco, Agama, Uromastix

Chamaeleonidae – chameleons – Africa, Madagascar

Iguanidae – mostly herbivorous

Polychridae – Anoles – Southern US or central Mexico

Phrynosomatidae – over 100 sp., N. America-Mexico

Crotaphytidae – 2 genera, SW US & N Mexico

Corytophanidae

Tropiduridae

Hoplocercidae

Opluridae

Eublepharidae – have eyelids, desert sp. – terrestrial

Gekkonidae – vertical pupils, expanded toe pads

Anguidae – mostly tropical – glass lizard, Alligator lizard

Cordylidae

Dibamidae

Gymnophthalmidae

Helodermatidae – 2 sp., Gila monster, SW US & Mexico

Lacertidae – Old World counterpart of Teiidae, some unisex

Scincidae - >1000 sp., many fossorial forms

Teiidae – New World – whiptails – Cnemidophorus

Varanidae – monitors (Africa, S America, Australia)

Xantusiidae – night lizards, diurnal, secretive, fossorial

Xenosauridae

[worm lizards] – (Amphisbaenia) – suborder, reduced eyes, legless

Amphisbaenidae

Bipedidae – front limbs

Rhineuridae – found in Florida, forest ground litter

Trogonophidae

[snakes] – (Serpentes, Ophidia) – suborder

Anomalepididae

Leptotyphlopidae – blindsnakes – primitive, termite specialists

Typhlopidae

Acrochordidae

Aniliidae

Atractaspididae

Boidae – tropical – Old/New World, vestigial hind limbs

Bolyeriidae

Colubridae – not monophyletic

Elapidae – coral snakes, cobras, mambas, sea snakes

Loxocemidae

Pythonidae – 3 genera (Africa, India, Australia)

Uropeltidae

Viperidae – worldwide exc. Australia, hinged fang

Xenopeltidae

Major Higher Taxa of World Herps


The following classification largely follows Zug (1993). Also following Zug (1993) categories higher than family are not assigned ranks. You will be required to know taxa marked with asterisks, other names are provided for organizational purposes, or just because they are interesting. This classification is not intended to represent completely the relationships within the Amphibia and Retilia. (Similar categories are generally in the same columns but differences in tree lengths result in some ambiguilty.)
Amphibia

Lissamphibia

Gymnophiona

Family Caeciliaidae

Caudata

Cryptobranchoidea

Family Cryptobranchidae

Salamandroidea

Family Ambysitomatidae

Family Amphiumidae

Family Plethodontidae

Family Proteidae

Family Salamandridae

Meantes


Family Sirenidae

Salienta


Anura

Archobatrachia

Family Ascaphidae

Family Discoglossidae

Mesobatrachia

Pipoidea


Family Pipidae

Pelobatoidea

Family Pelobatidae

Neobatrachia

Bufonoidea

Family Bufonidae

Family Dendrobatidae

Family Hylidae

Microhyloidea

Family Microhylidae

Ranoidea

Family Ranidae

Reptilia

Anapsida


Testudines

Cryptodira

Chelonoidea

Family Cheloniidae

Family Dermochelyidae

Chelydroidae

Family Chelydridae

Testudinoidea

Family Emydidae

Family Testudinidae

Trionychoidea

Family Kinosternidae

Family Trionychidae

Pleurodira

Family Pelomedusidae

Diapsida


Sauria

Archosauria

Crocodylia

Family Alligatoridae

Family Crocodylidae

Lepidosauria

Sphenodotida

Family Sphenodontidae

Squamata

Gekkota


Family Eublepharidae

Family Gekkonidae

Iguania

Family Agamidae



Family Chameleonidae

Family Iguanidae

Family Phrynosomatidae

Family Crotaphytidae

Family Polychridae

Autarchoglossa

Anguimorpha

Family Anguidae

Family Helodermatidae

Family Varanidae

Scincomorpha

Family Lacertidae

Family Scincidae

Family Teiidae

Amphisbaenia

Family Amphisbaenidae

Serpentes

Scolicophidia

Family Leptotyphlopidae

Alethinophidia

Family Boidae

Family Colubridae

Family Elapidae

Family Pythonidae

Family Viperidae
Herpetology Zoology 4154

Spring 1994


Descriptions of herp families and other higher taxa. ( Numbers join parenthese indicate pages in)
Amphibia (3) Two phase life cycle (generally aquatic eggs/larvae, terrestrial or aquatic adults), pedicellate teeth, two types of skin glands, no epidermal scales.
Gymophiona (335) Caecilians: Worm-like, no legs or girdles, distinct annuli, no ear opening, some have dermal scales.

Family Caeciliaidea (337) Largest family of caecilian, tropical America, Africa, and India.

Caudata (340) Salamanders. Tailed amphibians, most have limbs and internal fertilization via Spermatophores.

Family Cryptobranchidae (341) - Hellbenders, Large neotenic salamanders, completely aquatic as adults but lack external gills, loose wrinkled skin.

Family Abystomatidae (345) - Mole Salmander, Most have highly terrestrial adults although some populations are neotenic, all have lungs and thick tails.

Family Amphiumidae (346) Large neotenic salamanders, adults aquatic although external gills are lost, limbs are severely reduced.

Family Plethodontidae (348) lungless salamanders, all have nasolabial groove. Diverse group

Family Proteidae (349) Mudpuppies, neotenic, adults retain external gills, tails are laterally compressed. Aquatic- Necturus


Family Salamandridae (351) Newts, Skin generally rugose, many are highly toxic. Notopthalums viridescens, Aposematic color.

Family Sirenidae- Neotenic, no hind limbs

Salienta (357) Frogs and toads, reduced an shortened vertebral column, no tails (except Ascaphidae). Modified hindlimbs for jumping

Family Ascaphidae (358) Monotypic family, males have copulatory organ (tail). Primitive Frog.

Family Discoglossidae (359) European and Asian frogs, includes fire bellied toads. Brightly colored ventor, rough skin.

Family Pipidae (364) Generally aquatic, highly modified pertoral and pelvic girdles, includes clawed frogs. Xenopus labis

Family Pelobatidae (361) Toad-like, warty skin, spadefoot toads possess large keratinous tubercle on hind foot. Single large tubercle.

Family Bufonidae (366) True toads, stout robust bodies with thick skin, usually with numerous warts, worldwide distribution. More than one tubercle.

Family Denrodatidae (368) Poison dart frogs, small slender frogs usually brightly (aposematically) colored. Toxic skin secretions, treefrog-like disks

Family Hylidae (369) Treefrogs, highly diverse, most have slender bodies and long limbs with expanded digit tips. Disks on ends of digits. Chorus frogs may not have expanded digits



Family Microhylidae (373) Narrow mouth toads (in OK), stout bodies with small heads, others resemble treefrogs. Gatrophryne

Family Ranidae (377) Extremely diverse (+700 sp), worldwide distribution, “typical” frogs. Long jumping legs-Genus Rana


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