Checklist of the Flora of St. Lucia




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Checklist of the Flora of St. Lucia.
All gymnosperms, monocots and dicots are included. Ferns are on a separate list. There are 1295 wild taxons in the list
I have used freely F. Axelrod’s ‘A SYSTEMATIC VADEMECUM TO THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF PUERTO RICO’ and modified it to suit the needs of a small island. All taxon names used follow the nomenclature adopted by the Vademecum.
Each taxon is represented in the following manner:-

  1. Avicennia germinans (Linnaeus) Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. (ed. 3) 2: 891. 1764.

Bas.:Bontia germinans Linnaeus (1759).
Tree of coastal swamps. Very common.
Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Barbuda, Antigua, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie Galante, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, rest of West Indies, Trinidad, North America, Mesoamerica, South America, eastern Africa.


The accepted name is in blue font, followed by basionym if applicable and synonyms used in Richard Howard’s Flora of the Lesser Antilles (referred to as FLA), the only recent flora covering St. Lucia.

The habit is followed by a simple description of habitat.

If a taxon has a restricted geographic range, then that is described. Italics represent parishes, for example “Laborie” is the parish, “Laborie” the village. This information is based on RG’s field observations.

The abundance of a species is given with respect to its habitat: some habitats are much bigger than others.

The range is given with full details of the Lesser Antilles, followed by the rest of the West Indies, then Tobago and Trinidad. Extension into North America, Mesoamerica and South America is recorded without further details. ‘St. Lucia’ indicates that this taxon is not recorded as growing wild in St. Lucia in FLA and that there is a corresponding herbarium specimen, in virtually all cases one of mine lodged at UPRRP (although there may be others elsewhere.)

Underneath is (a) herbarium specimen mumbers, all at UPRRP unless otherwise stated. Ther may be a link to an image on the Brahm’s database.

If there is no recent known collection (post1939) then that is noted along with ‘! FLA’ or ‘no ! FLA’ to indicate whether a St. Lucian specimen was seen in the preparation of FLA. (Not applicable to monocotyledons).
Local names are given with official Creole spellings (or the best RG can manage) based on Kwéyòl Dictionary ISBN #976-95091-1-6, and commonly used English names.

Taxons Included in the Checklist
All wild (native, exotic, hybrids – see below) taxons included will have a corresponding herbarium specimen to voucher for their presence in St Lucia. (See appendix.) In the case of taxons that are also cultivated, the specimen label must make reference to its collection in the wild.
Natives
Plants considered to have been members of the St Lucia flora prior to colonial times.
Exotics
1. Escaped agricultural and garden plants if the plants have persisted in the wild for at least 3 years and the colony has spread beyond the area where it was originally cultivated. In general the author has excluded taxons when in doubt. Introduced pond species which do not spread to other ponds are also excluded, even if they cover the pond completely.
2. Noncultivated exotic plants. Waifs (solitary or small groups of aliens that do not persist for more than one season) will be included.
Hybrids
Will be included if frequent or if they form, persistent, self-maintaining populations though asexual reproduction.

Not Included in the Checklist
Cultivated taxons, even if they persist for many years that do not spread beyond the area where they were originally planted.

However the names of these taxons will be listed at the end of each family. There will not necessarily be a matching herbarium specimen
Terms Used
No Recent collection- no collections since 1939 (pre-Beard) but mentioned in Howard’s Flora of The Lesser Antilles as being present in St. Lucia
diverse –unnamed horticultural species/varieties of a particular genus.
Gardens - cultivated areas close to houses

Farms - small-holdings

Plantations - large farms.
Lower elevations – 1-350m

Middle elevations - 350-700m

Higher elevations - 700-1050m
References.
F. Axelrod Franklin Axelrod, Herbarium Curator, University of Puerto Rico Rio Pedras
FLA Howard’s Flora of the Lesser Antilles.
Fournet Jacques Fournet, author of “Flore illustrée des phanérogames de Guadeloupe et de Martinique”
RG The author, Roger Graveson


Gymnospermae
Cycadopsida
Cycadaceae
Species found under cultivation only

Cycas circinalis Linnaeus.

Easter palm
Cycas revoluta Thunberg

Easter palm
Zamia furfuracea Aiton

Cardboard palm
Zamia pumila Linnaeus
Pinopsida
Araucariaceae
Species found under cultivation only
Araucaria cunninghamii Aiton ex D. Don

Hoop pine
Araucaria heterophylla (Salisbury) Franco

Norfolk Island palm

Cupressaceae

Juniperus barbadensis Linnaeus var. barbadensis, Sp. Pl. 2: 1039. 1753.

Pencil cedar
Tree on steep rocky slope close to summit of Petit Piton. One small relic population.
St. Lucia, Barbados.
Notes: extinct in Barbados.

Species found under cultivation only
Cupressus lusitanica Miller var. benthamii (Endlicher) Carrière

Christmas tree
Cupressus sempervirens Linnaeus
Platycladus orientalis (Linnaeus) Franco (Thuja orientalis Linnaeus)
Pinaceae

Pinus caribaea Morelet, Rev. Hort. Côte d'Or 1: 107. 1851.

Caribbean pine
Tree escaped around plantings and on the acidic soils around the sulphur springs.

Native to Bahamas, Cuba, Mexico, northern Central America to Nicaragua.
Notes: also a cultivated forestry tree.

Podocarpaceae.

Podocarpus coriaceus Richard & A. Richard, Comm. Bot. Conif. Cycad. Bottom of Form14, t. 1, f. 3. 1826.

Lowyé woz
Tree of windy ridges around Mount Tabak, Soufriere and cloud montane forest on Piton Troumassé. Quite common.
Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, Trinidad, South America.
Notes: also a cultivated forestry tree.

Angiospermae

Acanthaceae (including Avicenniaceae).

Asystasia gangetica (Linnaeus) T. Anderson in Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 235. 1860.

Bas.: Justicia gangetica Linnaeus (1756).



Chinese violet
Viny herb of semi-open wet spots, often close to houses. Quite rare.
Native to the tropical Africa, India.

Avicennia germinans (Linnaeus) Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. (ed. 3) 2: 891. 1764.

Bas.: Bontia germinans Linnaeus (1759).



Manng salé. Black mangrove.
Tree of coastal swamps. Very common.
Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Barbuda, Antigua, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie Galante, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, rest of West Indies, Trinidad, North America, Mesoamerica, South America, eastern Africa.

Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechman ex Moldenke, Lilloa 4: 336. 1939.

Manng salé. Black mangrove.
Tree of coastal swamps. Quite rare.
Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia, Grenada, Barbados, Trinidad, South America.

Barleria lupulina Lindley, Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1483. 1832.

Hophead Philippine violet

Erect herb/shrub on degraded hillsides around La Borne, Dauphin. Common in a small area.
Native to India, Mauritius.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental.

Blechum pyramidatum (Lamarck) Urban, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 323. 1918.

Bas.: Barleria pyramidata Lamarck (1785).

Syn.: Blechum brownei Jussieu (1807).

Zo nwè. Fonn san.
Trailing herb throughout the island except at higher elevations. Very common.
Native to Mesoamerica, northern South America, Peru.

Dicliptera martinicensis (Jacquin) Jussieu, Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 9: 268. 1807.

Bas.: Justicia martinicensis Jacquin (1760).


Erect herb of semi-open native deciduous seasonal forest on Gros and Petit Piton, Soufriere. Rare.
St. Kitts, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbados, Virgin Islands (St. Croix), Trinidad.

Hemigraphis alternata (Burman f.) T. Anderson, J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 7: 114. 1864.

Bas.: Ruellia alternata Burman f. (1768).

Syn.: Ruellia colorata Blume (1826).

Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier (1897).

Red flame ivy
Herb escaped to wet roadsides. Rare.
Native to tropical Asia. St. Lucia.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental.

Justicia carthaginensis Jacquin, Enum. Syst. Pl. 11. 1760.
Erect herb.
St. Barthélemy, Barbuda, Antigua, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Greater Antilles (Hispaniola), Virgin Islands, Mesoamerica, South America.
Notes: no recent collection. ! FLA.

Justicia pectoralis Jacquin, Enum. Syst. Pl. 11. 1760.

Chapantyé
Trailing herb escaped around houses. Quite rare.
St. Barthélemy, Antigua, St. Kitts, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Mesoamerica, South America
Notes: also a cultivated herbal medicine.

Justicia periplocifolia Jacquin, Collectanea 5: 7. 1796.

Erect herb of exposed dry, rocky areas on the Pitons. Rare.
St. Barthélemy, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola), Virgin Islands.
Notes: this taxon has also been referred to as Justicia spaerosperma Vahl.

Justicia secunda Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2: 7. 1791.

St. John’s Bush
Shrub of wet, semi-open spots at lower and middle elevations. Common.
Saba, St. Kitts, Nevis, Redonda, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Trinidad, South America.
Notes: also a cultivated herbal medicine.

Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. 1891.

Bas.: Thyrsacanthus cuspidatus Nees (1847).



Firespike.
Erect herb escaped to wet open areas and roadsides in Fond St.Jacques area, Soufriere. Very rare.
Native to Mexico. St. Lucia.
Notes: this taxon has also been referred to as Odontonema strictum (Nees) Kuntze.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental.

Odontonema nitidum (Jacquin) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 494. (1891).

Chapantyé gwan bwa
Shrub of semi-evergreen seasonal forest and lower level of lower montane rainforest. Very common.
St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Antigua, St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Virgin Islands.

Ruellia tuberosa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 635. 1753.

Ti patat
Erect herb of xeric open areas. Common.
Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Barbuda, Antigua, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Mesoamerica, South America.

Ruellia tweediana Grisebach, Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 24: 249. 1879.

Mexican petunia
Erect herb escaped into wasteland around houses, becoming naturalized in places. Quite rare.
Native to Mexico. St. Lucia.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental

Teliostachya alopecuroidea (Vahl) Nees in Mart., Fl. Bras. 9: 72. (1847)
Herb of shady, wet spots, especially forest paths. Common.
Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Trinidad, Mesoamerica, South America.

Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims, Bot. Mag. 52: t. 2591. 1825.

Black-eyed Susan vine
Vine of moderately wet, semi-open areas and roadsides. Common Choiseul and Laborie, rare elsewhere.
Native to Africa.

Thunbergia fragrans Roxburgh, Pl. Coromandel 1: 47, t. 67. 1796.
Vine of wet open and semi-open spots at lower elevations, often on fences. Quite rare.
Native to tropical Asia, China.

Thunbergia grandiflora Roxburgh, Bot. Reg. 6: t. 495. 1820.

Trumpet vine
Robust vine escaped to wasteland around houses. Quite rare.
Native to India. St. Lucia.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental.

.
Species found under cultivation only


Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anderson

Mountain thistle
Barleria cristata Linnaeus

Philippine violet
Barleria repens Nees

Coral creeper
Beloperone guttata Brandegee

Shrimp plant
Crossandra infundibuliformis Nees

Firecracker Flower
Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews

Blue sage
Fittonia albivenis (Lindley ex Veitch) Brummitt

Mosaic plant
Graptophyllum pictum (Linnaeus) Griffith

Caricature plant
Hypoestes phyllostachya Baker

Polka dot plant
Justicia betonica Linnaeus

White shrimp plant
Justicia gendarussa Burman f. .

Djapanna mal
Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau

Brazilian red cloak
Pachystachys lutea Nees

Golden Shrimp Plant
Pachystachys spicata (Ruiz López & Pavón) Wasshausen

Cardinal’s guard
Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seemann) Guillaumin

Pseuderanthemum
Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum (A. Gray) F.T. Hubb. ex L.H. Bailey

Shooting star
Ruellia coccinea (Linnaeus) Vahl

Red Ruellia
Ruellia malacosperma Greenman

White Ruellia
Sanchezia parvibracteata Sprague & Hutchinson

Sanchezia
Strobilanthes dyerianus M.T. Masters

Persian shield
Thunbergia erecta (Bentham) T. Anderson

King’s mantle
Adoxaceae
Species found under cultivation only
Sambucus canadensis Linnaeus.

Laflé siwo
Agavaceae

Agave caribaeicola Trelease, Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. Washington 11: 27. 1913.

Lang béf. Lapit Century plant. Chaspawé.
Robust acaulescent herb of Atlantic coastal savanna. Quite common.
Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada.

Furcraea tuberosa (Miller) W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew. (ed. 2) 2: 303. 1811.

Bas.: Agave tuberosa Miller (1768).
Robust acaulescent herb of dry coastal hills on the Caribbean coast. Quite rare.
St. Barthélemy, Antigua, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie Galante, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles.

Yucca aloifolia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 319. 1753.

Spanish bayonet
Shrub escaped around houses. Rare.
Native to West Indies, southeastern North America, Mexico.
Notes: not native to St. Lucia. Also a cultivated ornamental.

Species found under cultivation only
Agave americana Linnaeus
Agave angustifolia Haworth var. marginata Trelease
Agave beauleriana Jacobi
Agave sisalana Perrine

Lapit. Sisal.
Hosta species
Aizoaceae

Sesuvium portulacastrum (Linnaeus) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 2: 1058. 1759.

Bas.: Portulaca portulacastrum Linnaeus (1753).
Fleshy trailing herb of beach sand and muddy areas close to the sea. Quite common.
Throughout warm-temperate and tropical seacoasts.

Trianthema portulacastrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 223. 1753.
Fleshy trailing herb of muddy, open coastal spots. Quite common.
Throughout subtropics and tropics. St. Lucia.

Species found under cultivation only
Aptenia species.
Alliaceae
Species found under cultivation only
Allium cepa Linnaeus

Shallot
Allium fistulosum Linnaeus

Ti lonyon. Spring onions.
Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.

Garlic chives
Allium schoenoprasum Linnaeus

Ti lonyon. Spring onions.
Amaranthaceae (including CHENOPODIACEAE)

Achyranthes aspera Linnaeus var. aspera, Sp. Pl. 1: 204. 1753.

Man-better-man
Erect herb of open and semi-open xeric and mesic areas. Very common.
Widely naturalized, exact native range obscure.

Alternanthera brasiliana (Linnaeus) Kuntz, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 537. 1891.

Bas.: Gomphrena brasiliana Linnaeus (1756).
Erect herb of semi-open mesic areas, especially roadsides. Quite common.
Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Mesoamerica, South America.
Notes: also a cultivated ornamental.

Alternanthera flavescens Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. [H.B.K.] 2: 207 (qu.). 1818.
Lianoid herb of rocky xeric spots on the Pitons. Quite rare
Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Greater Antilles, North America, Mesoamerica, South America.
Notes: considered on many islands to be a cultivated species that escapes.(FLA, Fournet). In St. Lucia, RG has not observed this taxon in cultivation but it is perfectly naturalized on the Pitons.

Alternanthera olivacea Urban, Symb. Antill. 5: 340. 1907.

Bas.: Telanthera olivacea Urban (1899).
Trailing herb of muddy soil in the shade of shrubs and trees on Atlantic coast. Rare.
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Tobago, Curacao.

Alternanthera paronychioides A.St. Hilaire, Voy. Distr. Diam. 2: 439. 1833.
Trailing herb of coastal open muddy spots, such as around cattle ponds and swamps. Rare.
St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Barbuda, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Marie Galante, Les Saintes, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, North America, Mesoamerica, South America.

Alternanthera sessilis (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex de Candolle, Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp. 77. 1813.

Bas.: Gomphrena sessilis Linnaeus (1753).
Trailing herb of swampy open spots. Very rare.
Widespread in the tropics and subtropics.

Alternanthera tenella Colla, Mem. Reale Accad. Sci. Torino 33: 131-132, t. 9, f. 1-13. 1829.
Trailing herb of swampy open spots at low elevations. Common.
St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie Galante, Les Saintes, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Mesoamerica, South America.

Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 990. 1753
Erect herb of xeric open area, Pointe Seraphine, Castries. Very rare.
Native to temperate and tropical regions of the Old World, exact native range obscure.
Notes: observed by RG once, but not collected. FLA ! – may be a waif.
Amaranthus dubius Martius ex Thellung, Fl. Adv. Montpellier 203. 1912.

Zèpina blan
Erect herb of open xeric and mesic areas throughout the island. Very common.
Anguilla, St. Martin, St. Barthélemy, Antigua, Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Redonda, Guadeloupe, La Désirade, Marie Galante, Les Saintes, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, Greater Antilles, Mesoamerica, South America.
Amaranthus hybridus Linnaus, Sp. Pl. 2: 990.  1753. 

Zèpina
Erect herb escaped to open areas, especially wasteland, roadsides and around fields. Rare.
Native to South America. St. Lucia. Status. General. Notes
Cultivated as leaf vegetable.

Amaranthus spinosus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 991. 1753

Zèpina wouj
Erect herb of open xeric areas throughout the island. Very common.
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