Change over time theme comparison by region: gender structures




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CHANGE OVER TIME THEME COMPARISON BY REGION: GENDER STRUCTURES



REGIONS

Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods

Foundations

4500 BCE To 600 CE

Post-Classical

600 – 1450 CE

Early Modern

1450 – 1750 CE

Modern

1750 – 1914 CE

Contemporary

1914 - Present


SOUTHWEST ASIA



Paleolithic Societies:
Generalized gender equality. Women gathered but they often did hunt. Women could be leaders and sat in council. Men/women both raised children and provide for the social groups as life was subsistence.
Neolithic Society:
Sedentary society based on agriculture began to change gender roles. Women probably originated farming as they were generally gatherers and knew which seeds were edible. They probably replanted seeds nearer to settled areas to provide a more secure food source. Eventually, men tended to farm while women managed the home and children. Men also tended to be toolmakers, especially workers of metals. Women tended to be makers of cloth and clothing as it was done at home. Also, sedentary life introduced sexual double standard of female virginity but male polygamy, numerous sexual partners
Terms:


  1. Matriarchy

  2. Patriarchy

  3. Patrilineal

  4. Matrilineal

  5. Patrilocal

  6. Matrilocal

  7. Polygamy

  8. Polyandry

  9. Monogamy

  10. Extended Family

  11. Nuclear Family

Society was patriarchal; Hammurabi’s Code favored males but did allow women some protections and rights. Hebrews were matrilineal.

Quran introduced rights, protections for women inc. right to own property, divorce; over time: harem, seclusion, veiling expanded

Patriarchy entrenched; women active in market trade;; aristocratic women secluded in harem but power behind throne

Patriarchy, Muslim norm continues with little change

Elite, middle class women often ignore Islamic gender roles, but rural, poorer women continue gender roles; restrictions intensify


CENTRAL

ASIA


Nomadic society allowed women rights to property, freedom of movement, ride to hunt, even fight

Turkish, Mongolian women had great rights, freedoms even if society was patriarchal

Increasingly dominated by Muslim Arab cultural norms; Mongolian women retained many rights

Sedentary area incorporated into SW Asian, East European, or East Asian worlds, with gender norms

Area follows Chinese, East European norm

Chinese communism: women hold up half of heaven, women may divorce, choose husband, earn wage but female infanticide due to one child rule; Japan., Korea increasingly adopt West European norm


EAST

ASIA



Patriarchal, aristocrats had extended families; poor had nuclear familites. Confucian restricted women’s roles; women barred from politics but marriage politics strong

Neo-Confucianism, foot-binding; Empress Wu; in Japan, Heian culture saw women as leaders of arts; later Samurai, Chinese norms increased patriarchy

Patriarchy entrenched; Japanese women paint face white; footbinding spreads to wealthy, middle classes in China; Manchu women retain nomadic traditions

Challenge to Chinese Confucian norms: western ideas, Christianity, Taipings, 1911 Nationalist Revolution, early communism; Meiji Japan retains gender roles


SOUTH

ASIA



Indus Civ: gender equality; Hinduism; strict patriarchy, Code of Manu women legal minors; Buddhism: religious gender equality

Hindu areas: patriarchy entrenched: child brides, purdah, widow buring (sati); Muslim gender norms in Northern India;

Widow remarriage ends, sati increases; restrictions increase, seclusion enforced in both Muslim, Hindu societies

Sati ends, harem declines, purdah ends: upper castes freer than lower castes, elite women begin to exercise great influence, education

Independence, constitutions grant gender equality but patriarchy remains strong; elite, middle class women follow West European norm


SUB-

SAHARAN

AFRICA


Patriarchy; some matrilineal descent of rulers; women owned property, dominated market places; not restricted to home; women farmed, men worked metals, trades

Islam in West, East Africa but often without gender restrictions, seclusion of Arabic Islam;

Slave traders preferred males, remaining women in areas had to assume many of male roles in farming, trade

Slave trade followed by colonialism: races, genders isolated from one another; patriarchy reinforced, males migrate for work, women forced to assume male roles

Decolonization allowed women public roles, independence, constitutions granted gender equality but patriarchy remained strong; women organize, gain roles


SOUTHEAST

ASIA


Patriarchy but women owned property, led villages, owned businesses; Trung sisters led revolt; Hindu, Buddhist roles in area

Vietnam: Confucian upper class women without foot-binding; all women had great rights, freedoms, owned and ran business;

Sufi Islam not as restrictive of women in society, spreads in area.

Urban elite adopt European colonial view of women; rural patterns continue

Decolonization allowed women public roles, independence, constitutions granted gender equality but patriarchy remained strong;


WESTERN

EUROPE


Greco-Romans strongly patriarchal, but Roman less strict with women owning property, running business; Christianity: souls equal

Patriarchal but women as nuns were legal equals of men; Role of Virgin Mary; women in commerce, could own land, aristocratic rights

Queens, female regents; Renaissance increase female roles in business, education, arts; reformations retrench patriarchy, witch hunts

Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution: women into factories, schools, both end traditional roles of women; women suffrage movement

Women acquire vote, legal equality, hold elected office; World Wars bring women into all aspects of society; de Beauvoir’s Second Sex


EASTERN

EUROPE


Paleolithic and Neolithic; along Mediterranean, Greco-Roman and Christian norms

Christianity saw women as equals but still patriarchy; Byzantine empresses (Irene, Theodora), women had great influence, freedoms

Patriarchy entrenches; parts subject to Muslim empires, societies; aristocratic women had rights, owned land; Russian empresses

Region lags behind Western Europe but aristocratic women had great influence, opportunities in society; rural areas patriarchal

Russian Revolution liberates women but has restrictions: women marginalized in certain jobs, some careers; society still patriarchal


ANGLO

NORTH AMERICA

Paleolithic, Neolithic society; usually patriarchy but matriarchy, matrilineal common

Continuity; Iroquois society was matrilineal, matriarchy; women controlled election of rulers, declare war, peace

European social norm but settler societies necessitated independence, access to opportunity; females had access to schools, education

Seneca Falls Declaration; women suffrage, leadership of temperance movements; Cult of Domesticity, corsets, rise of feminism

Follow, surpass West European model; New Feminism, Betty Freidan’s Feminine Mystique, NOW but problem of glass ceiling


LATIN

AMERICA


Olmec, Mayan, Andean societies patriarchal; women roles at home, cloth making, some roll in market places

Aztec, Inca: strict patriarchy; women were to make cloth, run markets, tend home, rear warriors

Colonial society mirrored Iberian social norms, upper class women had rights but restrictions; Indian, African societies patriarchal

Machismo, patriarchy are strong; late period sees rise of public education for girls, some public economic roles as industrialization occurs

Women in revolutionary movements; mid-century enter work force, acquire vote; late century enter politics, elected to office

Famous Women and Identifications



REGIONS

Ancient Period

to 1200 BCE

Classical

1200 BCE To 600 CE

Post-Classical

600 – 1450 CE

Early Modern

1450 – 1750 CE

Modern

1750 – 1914 CE

Contemporary

1914 - Present


SOUTHWEST ASIA

CENTRAL ASIA


Goddess Ishtar

Semiramis

Nomadic women

Mary, Mother of Jesus

Zenobia of Palmyra

Jezebel”



Esther

Ruth


Khadija

Chabi

Shagrat al-Durr

Hurem Sultan Roxolana




Bahitat al-Badiya

Golda Meir

Zainab al-Ghazali

Jinnah Sadat


NORTH AFRICA

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA


Isis


Hatshepshut

Queen Nefertiti

Cleopatra

Queen Amanitere

Mwana Mkisi




Queen Nzinga




Wangari Maathai

Winnie Mandela


EAST

ASIA





Ban Zhao

Amaterasu

Matrieya Buddha

Queen Sondok

Empress Wu

Lady Murasaki

Sei Shonagon

Yang Guifei




Dowager Empress Cixi

Soong Sisters

Yoshiya Nobuko

Jiang Qing

Xue Xinran


SOUTH

ASIA


Mother Goddess


Sita, Parvati, Kali, Dhruga

Buddhist nuns





Mira Bai

Nur Jahan

Pandita Ramabai

Indira Gandhi

Benazir al Bhutto

Mother Theresa


SOUTHEAST

ASIA





Trung Sisters

Pwa Saw




Raden Adjeng Kartini

Corazon Aquino

Aung San Suu Kyi

Megawati Sukarnoputri


WESTERN

EUROPE


Mother Goddess

Venus figures


St. Monica

St. Helena

Catholic nuns & abbesses

Virgin Mary

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Hildegaard von Bingen

Heloise

St. Catherine of Siena

Christine of Pisan

Margaret of Navarre

Queen Elizabeth

Isabella of Spain

St. Theresa of Avila

Artemisia Gentileschi

Madame de Stael

Queen Victoria

Emily Pankhurst

Marie Curie

Florence Nightingale

Olympe do Gouges

Margaret Thatcher

Simone de Beauvoir


EASTERN

MEDITERRANEAN

EASTERN EUROPE


Mother Goddess


Athena

Antigone

Pythia of Delphi

Hypatia of Alexandria

Empress Theodora

Empress Irene

Empress Zoe

Anna Comnena

Olga of Kiev

Regent Sophie

Empress Elizabeth


Empress Maria Theresa

Catherine the Great


Alexadnra Kollontai

Nadezhda Krupskaya



ANGLO

NORTH AMERICA










Iroquois women

Frontier, settler women

Harriet Tubman

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Dolly Madison

Clara Barton

Susan B. Anthony

Amelia Earhart

Eleanor Roosevelt

Betty Freidan

Oprah Winfrey

Rosie the Rivieter”



Margaret Mead


LATIN

AMERICA












Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz

Princesa Isabel of Brazil

Frida Kahlo

Eva Peron

Isabel Peron

Violeta Chamorro

Rigoberta Menchu


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