Aims: Stalin wanted reparations from Germany/ a buffer of friendly states.
Britain and the USA [led by President Truman] wanted to help Germany recover/ to prevent large areas of Europe from coming under Communist control.
Resentment about history: The USSR did not trust Britain and the USA – They had tried to destroy the Russian Revolution in 1918/ Stalin thought they had not helped the USSR enough in WW2.
Britain & USA did not trust USSR – Stalin had signed the Nazi-Soviet pact in 1939.
Events turned the mistrust into war: Yalta/ Potsdam/ Salami tactics/ Fulton/ Greece/ Truman Doctrine/ Marshall Plan/ Cominform/ Czechoslovakia
YALTA Conference (February 1945)
Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed to Divide Germany into 4 zones (France, Britain, USA, USSR)/ to hold free elections in Eastern European countries./ to set up the United Nations./ to set up a government of Communists and non Communists in Poland.
Albania (1945) – the Communists took power after the war without opposition
Bulgaria (1945) – the Communists executed the leaders of all the other parties.
Poland (1947) – the Communists forced the non-Communist leaders into exile.
Hungary (1947) – Russian troops stayed / Stalin allowed elections (non-communists won a big majority)/ Communists led by the pro-Russian Rakosi./ Rakosi demanded that groups which opposed him should be banned./ He got control of the police, and arrested his opponents./ He set up a secret police unit, the AVH.
Romania (1945–1947) – the Communists gradually took over control.
Czechoslovakia (1948) – the Communists banned all other parties/ killed their leaders.
East Germany (1949) – Russians turned their zone into German Democratic Republic.
Fulton speech (March 1946)
Churchill described the Soviet bloc as an ‘iron curtain’ – Stalin believed this was necessary to maintain the safety of the USSR.
After Fulton, the Cold War worsened. Russia called the speech a declaration of war.
US supplied arms and money to defeat the Communists.
Truman Doctrine (March 1947) – The USA implemented a policy of ‘containment’ towards the USSR – to prevent Communism spreading any further.
Marshall Plan (June 1947) – Marshall believed poverty was a breeding ground for Communism. American introduced ‘Marshall Aid’ – $17 billion to get Europe’s economy going.
Cominform (October 1947) – Stalin forbade Communist countries to accept Marshall Aid. (October 1947) Cominform was set up to control all Communist countries in Europe.
Czechoslovakia (February 1948) – Communists took control
Panicked the US Senate into granting Marshall Aid (31 March 1948)
THE BERLIN BLOCKADE
Cold War was beginning to bite – created tension.
Aims – USA+UK wanted Germany to recover/ Stalin looting German industrial capacity.
Bizonia – USA, UK, France merged zones – became more prosperous than the Soviet.
American Aid – Marshall Aid was voted 31 March 1948.
New Currency –Britain and America introduced new currency – destabilised the East German economy. Stalin said that this was the cause of the blockade.
Events – (24 June 1948) – Stalin closed rail + road links to Berlin / Lasted 11 months/ Allies airlifted supplies to Berlin – 275,000 flights, 1.5m tons/ In winter, Berliners lived on dried eggs and potatoes/ 4 hours of electricity a day./ US had B29 bombers on standby./ (12 May 1949) – Stalin re-opened the borders.
Cold War got worse.
East/West Germany: German Democratic Republic/ Federal Republic of Germany.
NATO and Warsaw Pact – NATO (1949) defensive alliance against USSR/ Warsaw Pact 1955 by Russia
Arms Race. The USA and USSR competed for world domination.
KOREAN WAR (North Korea [Communist] invaded South Korea [Capitalist])
Domino theory – Truman thought that Far Eastern countries would fall like dominoes. China Communist (1949). Truman feared Japan would follow.
Undermine Communism – The National Security Council recommended (NSC 68 – April 1950) abandoning containment to ‘roll back’ Communism.
Cold War – America & Russia for world domination – Korea a ‘war at arm’s length’.
Kim Il Sung – got Stalin’s and Mao tse Tung’s agreement to attack South Korea.
Syngman Rhee (1950) – boasted he would attack North Korea – gave an excuse.
By June 1950 – the NKPA captured most of South Korea from the ROKs.
July 1950 – UN troops (Americans led by MacArthur), drove the Communists back to the Chinese border.
October 1950 – China attacked/ drove the Americans back/ advanced into South Korea.
March 1950 – American reinforcements drove back Chinese (200,000 dead). Truman told the troops to stop t the 38th parallel. Truman sacked MacArthur for criticising his orders.
1953 – Truce: America claimed successful containment.
KHRUSHCHEV succeeded Stalin.
It seemed he would bring a thaw in the Cold War – He advocated ‘Peaceful Coexistence’/ He met Western leaders at summit meetings/ He was friendly to Yugoslavia, telling Tito there were ‘different roads to Communism’/ He criticised Stalin, executed Beria, set free political prisoners and de-stalinised the eastern bloc countries.
Khrushchev used Russian troops when countries tried to leave Russian control.
By peaceful co-existence, Khrushchev meant ‘peaceful competition’ (He loved to argue (Kitchen debate with Nixon)/ He gave economic aid to countries like Afghanistan and Burma/ Space Race (1957: Sputnik. 1961: Yuri Gagarin orbits the earth)/ Arms Race (1953: Russia got the hydrogen bomb)
Warsaw Pact (1955) – USSR/ Albania/ Bulgaria/ Czechoslovakia/ E Germany/ Hungary/ Poland/ Romania
In retaliation, in America McCarthy conducted a ‘witchhunt’ for Communists/ In 1955, NATO agreed to an army of 0.5 m men in W Germany/ rushed to put a man on the moon/ American U2 planes spied on Russia
Poverty – When most of Hungary’s food was sent to Russia
Russian Control – The Hungarians were very patriotic/ They hated censorship, the AVH, and Russian control of education./ They hated having Russian troops stationed in Hungary
24 October – 3 November – Reforming government led by Imre Nagy (Democracy/ Freedom of speech/ Freedom of religion/ Aimed to withdraw from Warsaw Pact.
4 November – Soviets sent 1000 tanks to crush/ Western powers protested but didn’t want a war.
Janos Kadar put in control of Hungary/ 4,000 Hungarians killed/ Nagy shot./ 200,000 Hungarians flee to West./ Many westerners leave the Communist party./ Russia stays in control in Eastern Europe./ Western leaders all the more determined to ‘contain’ communism.
1 May 1960 Soviets shot down American U2 spy plane over USSR, and captured pilot Gary Powers./ Americans had to admit he was a spy./ Khrushchev demanded apology + end to spy flights./ Eisenhower refused.
Khrushchev walks out of Paris summit (14 May 1960)/ Eisenhower’s planned visit to Russia cancelled/ Khrushchev demands US leaves West Berlin/ Americans came off badly – been caught lying- propaganda victory for USSR./ New American president Kennedy promises to get tough on Communism.