Cab 195/19 cabinet minutes

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H. New Dpt. wd. not take over work of Br. Council.
P.M. Presentation – Head’s telegram.
C.M.A. In nearby independent countries gt. sensitiveness to continuing “Colonial” rule. Cd. reduce this by operating in 2 phases.

P’poning until later transfer of responsibility for O.C.S. Argument against – Dpt. wd. not be viable. Nigerian refusal to adopt new O.C.S. plan is a warning we shd. heed.

P.M. Better perhaps to p’pone announcement until after P.M.M.
I.M. Awkward to appear to consult them.
H. Cd. tell them w’out appearing to consult.
C.M.A. No objn. from old Doms. Canada, eg. has already gone further.

Prob. no gt. objn. from Asian countries.

Even Nigeria – P.M. wd. prob. favour it, if explained in advance.
M. No further progress w’out such a Dpt.
I.M. Incln. of O.C.S. wd. help to avoid disappointment at no Commonwealth Service : esp. in Colonial Service.
P.M. We can consider taking it in 2 bites.
Agreed : p’pone announcement until after P.M.M.

re-consider O.C.S. point ? 2 stages.

3. Federation of Rhodesia & Nyasaland.
P.M. Federal review adjourned until constitutional reform in N. & S. Rhodesia has bn. carried a further stage.
In S. Rhodesia some progress seems to have bn. made.
I.M. In N. Rhodesia – playing it slow. Can’t keep it going for more than 48 hours. Don’t think we cd. merely adjourn it – w’out risk of disorder. U.F.P. boycott was mistake – shows Party to be dominated by Salisbury & also that they are purely European party.
Hope to be able to put issues to Cab. on Friday.

4. Newspaper Mergers.

P.M. Made it plain in H/C. tht. we wd. not intervene in current negotns.

Remaining ques. : is there need for longer-term enquiry into economics of newspaper & magazine industry.

Argument for – i) public anxiety ii) risk of another merger or suppression before long. iii) expose facts, to help industry to put their house in order.
Against – i) appear to be acting under pressure ii) might spread to large scale organisation of business etc. generally. iii) recommns. may be embarrassing.
Possible terms of reference.

Type of enquiry. Need to call for persons & papers. Therefore R. Commn. but with small membership eg. five. [Tho’ powers of R. commn. may be in doubt, it is harder for people to refuse to disclose facts to R. Commn. than to Dpt. Cttee.]

K. On balance I favour this. There is a threat to democracy here.
S.L.I Agree. Restrictive practices in printing – cdn’t have legn. without preliminary enquiry.
R.M. Distinguish newspp. from industry generally.
I.M. In favour.
J.H. Favour light being thrown into v. practices of printing trade.
P.M.G. Overlap with what we have asked Pilkington Commn. to do.
P.M. Shall have to write to him. W’draw request for interim report, esp. on 2nd point. W’draw your letter & change it.
R.A.B. Content. Esp. in view of threat to Glasgow Herald.
P.T. In fact, we shall be in baulk while R.C. is sitting and this will provoke Thompson to get ahead.
P.M. Might send for them after R.C. appointed. Better posture.
Agreed. Announce Thursday.

[Exit P.M.

5. Facilities in U.K. for German Forces.
H.W. No diffy. about storage or m’tenance facilities. But mght. be pol. trouble over training facilities for G. tanks. Hope it can be restricted to cadres. of tanks & men. No room in G. because we & U.S. are using it all. Might get £5-10 m. out of it all.
P.M. Request is for up to 10 Armd. Regts. p.a.
H.W. They only want range firing – not manoeuvres.

Might help us to sell them tanks, eventually.

C.S. They don’t need to come here for that only.
H.W. We don’t know what they want yet.

Part of N.A.T.O. interdependence.

P.M. But the obgn. will be sentimental. We must be ready : to defend it as a good thing on the philosophy of integration.
C.S. x/. Is done in France – and has gone v. well.
Get details of proposal re tanks & let Cab. see it again.

F.O. to get report on x/.

6. Sunday Observance.

R.A.B. Pity not to do this as well as my other reforms.

Need not involve legn. this session.

K. Support this : in general interest of bringing law up to date.
Hail. On balance we have got pol. credit for tackling social reform – betting etc. licensing.
E.H. Sunday trading – if included in enquiry wd. preclude shops legn. While Commn. sitting.
P.M. There will be 2 views: strongly held.
P.T. Why not have a memo. showing the points for decision.

Do it privately through H.O.

P.M. Can we have a memo. on the law as it stands – and what are the areas for possible action. Agreed.

7. Parliament : Expenses of Members.

S.L.I Oppn. have now said they wd. like it – claim rail fare for journeys made by car between House, home and constituency.
Agreed – introduce it.
C.C.6(61) 13th February 1961

1. Industrial Disputes : Tally Clerks. [Enter M.R.

J.H. Cousins seen : will go back on his original assurance. Stevedores Union have also threatened strike if plan goes ahead. Cousins has bn. idle, not malicious. Seeing his regional offls. now : but unlikely to change.
We have no power to direct Bd. Nat. Bd. unlikely to direct Ldn. Bd. to go ahead. Employers won’t risk strike if it’s officially supported. We came into this only in support of employers.
Unfortunate. But some gain. Unions have conceded to Bd. right to permit addl. tally clerks. They have 200 more this year than last.
P.M. We were ready to risk unoffl. strikes. Risk of offl. strike is difft. matter.
E.M. Enquiry into docks generally may give us chance to have another go at this.
Agreed - no action.

2. Rhodesia & Nyasaland.

P.M. During past week revival mtgs. of Africa Cttee.

V. diff. situation. African parties press for clear majority in Leg. Co. & manhood suffrage. U.F.P. boycotting Conference, are opposed to any major change – certainly to party. Realities : growth in national consciousness & world support for it/other hand, gt. security risks (either way). Threatened secession of S Rhodesia, or decln. of Fedn. to be independent.

No need for Cab. to follow numerous variants considered.

New plan evolved – put to Welensky in C.R.O. Tel. 278 of 11/2.

Leg. Co. so balanced tht. ⅓rd. upper roll (broadly Europns) ⅓rd on lower roll (Africans) and ⅓rd. elected on principle tht. it cd. not expect election save by appeal to moderate opinion (votes from both polls, averaged out with minor votes discounted). This provision wd. eventually moderate extremity of appeal on first & second ⅓rd. – wdn’t be separate Parties for 3rdrd.
Importance of European views. W. is P.M. of whole Federation. Wh. has referendum which is of v. gt. importance.
Africans will be disappointed – they were hoping for majority, at least among elected members.
Advantage of new plan is that it contains compulsions twds. multi.racial attitudes.

Details to be worked out. Possibility, too, of introducg. in N.Rhodesia a Bill of rights on S. Rhodesian model.

Wel. has put fwd. alternatives – unacceptable because contemplates permanent Europn. majority.
D.S. Wel. has come round to view tht. provided we don’t compel him to contemplate scheme involving African majority or parity, he is ready to accept some solution. He has w’drawn his alternative plan & is working on Whitehead to accept our line. Wh.’s trouble is his referendum – all our conclns. on S. Rhod. constitution are subject to it. Expecting to hear from him during this morning.
K. Great dangers. a) European reaction v. this plan. b) If Wh. lost his referendum, Harpes regime in S. Rhodesia wd. lead to even greater blood shed. But, despite risks, this plan is defensible because it is just.

Devaluation of lower roll votes eventually equalises value of the two rolls because lower roll is equally more numerous. As our policy has bn. based on multi racialism, this is consistent ground on which to stand. A certain propn. of votes on each roll is a condn. of election. With progress there will be growing no. of Africans on upper roll. Moreover, on this basis no one can say there will be a majority of Europeans or of Africans.

To concede African majority wd lead to Europn. re.actions wh., on balance, wd. be worse than disorders wh. may be provoked by refusing it.
I.M. Two ideas – barist African majority or variants on theme of parity. Reluctantly I have come to prefer the second. For the first is essentially a racial approach. I am ready to give full support to 2nd course – wh. we evolved ourselves.
Third roll. Minimum no. of votes from each roll (12½%) : then devaluation of lower roll on basis of its excess numbers. This is a challenge Wel. U.F.P. : if it really is a multi.racial Party he will get these seats : if he has no longer any African support, a liberal Party will win them. Any Party which can capture these middle voted will gain the Govt. Wish to present it in this way to Conference tomorrow.
H. Greatest danger is secession by Wh. for that means a white African s. of the Zambizi & an armed frontier.
Only chance of establishing multi racial system, in politics or in society, is to enable Wel. to hold 2 or 3 Parlts. in Federation.

We must demonstrate we intend to stay in Fedn. for some years – wd. like therefore to see big scheme for training Africans.

Various questions raised for elucidiation.
I.M. In reply to ques. on likely re-action of Africans. Initially, hostile.

But they are capable of being persuaded. I may be able to moderate violence of their reaction. Best we can hope is that each side will say this doesn’t meet them but that they will accept it as a blue print by U.K. for the next phase.

R.A.B. Real risk tht. Europeans in S. Rhodesia will take rash action to safeguard their position – whatever we do. That being so, it is essential tht. we shd. base ourselves on principle; And I would support this plan on tht.basis.
H.B. I agree with that view.
R.M. So do I – tho’ I’m nervous of the complexity of the plan – open to misrepresentation.

3. Capital Punishment. [Enter Att.G,.

R.A.B. Don’t believe there wd. be majority in this Parliament for extending c.p. or abolishing it. Must therefore hold present position, despite the (conflicting) pressures.
Propose also to resist amendmt. on C.J. Bill to raise age limit to 21 – because amount of serious crime by young people.

Also shall resist demand for enquiry with Evans case.

Finally, shall oppose motion tht. exercise of p. of m. shall be debatable in Parliament before the event.
J.M. Support.

Expectation of review after 5 years.

P.M. Avoid commitment. Discourage firm period of 5 years.
I.M. Evans. Court ruled tht. evidence v wife was admissible in charge v Child. New evidence was admissible in charge v Child. New evce. (sexually assaulted after death) suggests tht. Christie murdered Mrs. Evans. I’m inclined to think Christie may have murdered the child.
Att.T. Doubt if evce.established sexual connn. after death. Also facial injuries – not typical of Christie’s murder.
R.A.B. Tiero believes sexual intercourse was before death.

Further enquiry wd. only make things worse.

K. I agree.
On general issue – support for R.A.B.’s line.
Att.G. On C.J. Bill amendment, we may lose in Cttee. We shall then have to consider wthr. we put it back on Report.

4. Farm Price Review. [Exit Att.G.

S.L.I. Ready to settle for £10 m. more this year – positive determination of

£3 m.
R.M. Awkward in negotns. with Europe. May look like addl. protection for agriculture.

C.S. Detailed presentn. will be less awkward than seems from global totals.
Difficult : they have £19 m. addl. costs : will ask for £22-5 m.

We shall be offering £3 m.

P.M. We must say this involves no extension of the system.

C.C.7(61) 16th February 1961

1. Parliament. [Enter M.R.

R.A.B. Business for next week.

2. Coloured Immigrants.

K. After 2 yrs. of low figures, rise to 60.000. Total now 300.000 & projects to 1½m. in 20 years’ time. Housing posn. is serious now : even at 40.000 p.a. it will frustrate slum clearance problem. Health : small but awkward problem on t.b. and v.d. Public order : not too bad, & contained.
Apart from principle of mother country & discrimn. v. coloured, two special problems i) bill of rights in S. Rhodesia : we are making rather a point of this. ii) W. Indies independence conference : legn. on this subject mght. cause them to leave C’wealth.
Motion by Osbourne M.P. on 17/2. Oppn. amendment.

Line suggd. by R.A.B. – watching sitn. : diffies. of principle : welcome expn. of Parlt.’s opinion : i.e. a stalling answer. Ministers to abstain on both motion & amendment.

I.M. W. Indies : intend to proceed via conference to independence as soon as internal diffies. resolved. Fraser seems to be persuading them to do this. Immigration is peculiarly Jamaican problem : & if they stood out of Fedn. it wd. collapse. Specially awkward moment for this.
R.A.B. Agree with K.’s concln.. Cdn’t announce legn. tomorrow. But there is strong feeling in Party. Glad tht. I.M. is prepd. to support legn. at some stage. Possibly requirement of labour permit wd. suffice.
On vote tomorrow, try to vote down Labour amendment.
M.R. Might be able to talk it all out.

3. Steel – Realisation Agency.

No note taken.

4. Rhodesia : Federation.

I.M. Re-actions to our proposals in Conference.

Labour Oppn. will wish to see P.M.

Statement in H/C. next week.

[Enter J.A.

5. Defence : Exchange of Information on Aircraft Movements.
J.A. Gib. can’t receive early warning of attack. This wd. put them into U.S./Spanish system. Required only in global war.
H. Awkward politically – but has gone rather far.
P.M. There are no air defences in Gib. to be alerted. Is it worth incurring any political cost for this?
Cd. we not at least p’pone this?
P.T. Wd. be marginally useful to civil aviation – to avoid mistaken identification of a civil aircraft in a time of tension.
P.M. Cd. make an arrangemt. v. quickly, at Command level, in a time of tension.
H. H.W. cd. verify from Macnamara wthr. U.S. attach any importance to our coming in.

[Exit J.A.

6. Germany : Defence Facilities in U.K.

H.W. Only diffy. is over tank training. No local objn. from M/Welsh Affairs. Main trouble is national political. We cd. try in discussions to steer them off it.
Cd. we settle the other facilities anyhow?
H. In France, despite attempts by Communists to make trouble, it went off quite well.
Hail. G. is an Ally, if we are too sensitive, we shall fail to educate our public opinion to accept this. A part of our policy of tie-ing in W. Germany. This particular proposal is not too much to bear.
R.A.B. We shd. be making Visiting Forces order, when G. have not ratified N.A.T.O. agreement.
H.W. We cd. consider i) wthr. it is necessary ii) if so, wthr. we cd. make it a condition that G. did ratify that agreement.
D.E. Support Hail’s view. Anyway, our younger generation is more international minded.
P.M. Consider wthr. Visiting Forces Order is really required. * N.B. to go into this.
Ch.H. Don’t oppose this : but be sure we have sound arguments for doing it.
E.M. Better be sure they wdn’t w’draw if there were a row in H/C. esp. on Visiting Forces order.
C.S. Must do things which are necessary to the Alliance. But I’m doubtful if we can make a really good case for the tank training.

i) nice for our regiments to come home to ranges ii) G. intend to use Fr. not Br. tanks.

1. Allow discussions to proceed.

2. Look into Visiting Forces point.

M. Put it into N.A.T.O. context. Give the facilities to N.A.T.O. not Germany.

7. Commonwealth Youth Trust.

P.M. Try to avoid publn. of summary. If you appoint confidential enquiry, you don’t publish its report.
D.S. I wdn’t even refer to the Cttee. in our statement. Confine it to our hostel scheme, with passing reference to other activities too.
H. D/Ed.’s interest.
P.M. If D.S. can get away with that, let him try. Agreed.
D.E. Hostel p’mme shd. be co-ordinated with provision for Br. students.

8. Congo.

H. R. re-actions to L.’s death. Risks i) air left via Egypt ii) pressure on Ghana etc. to support G. with their troops.

U.S. are asking what we cd do on i). Best course wd. be for M.’s troops to get to airport at Stanleyville or put it out of use. We will consider possibilities & report.

R. are using this to undermine H. in U.N. and secure a Triumvirate

They are sending comm.ns. to their man on H.’s Secretariat.

P.M. M/D. to have technical appreciation of R. diffies. in getting into Stanleyville airport
We shd. leave H. to stand firm – order Ethiopians to block airfield.

He has lost R. support in any event. It is his duty to forestall intervention by R. or any individual state.

P. Dean shd. be instructed to stiffen H. on these lines.

C.C.8(61). 20th February 1961

1. Northern Rhodesia : Constitution. [Enter M.R.

P.M. Purpose of Conference : to bring component parts of Fedn. on twds. the point at wh. they cd., acc. to preamble, themselves decide wthr. to remain w’in Fedn. – & so pave way for independence of Fed n.

U.F.P. boycott, at dirn. of R. Welensky. This has meant tht. their pressure were exercised via Salisbury to D.S. and me.

We finally evolved plan which is fair and holds balance multi racially. The problem arises, after all, from prescence of Europeans. Our plan is not acceptable to African Parties. They give lip service to multi racialism but demand majority rule. So do Europeans.

Each side want system in which results of election will be certain – an odd concept to us.

Africans and our Press think we have sold out to R.W. Salisbury thinks we have sold out to Africans. At least no one has paid us.

In bldg. Empire you work from secure base. In transforming it we have no base. We (U.K.) shd. have gt. diffy. in getting troops into Fedn. if Europeans were sour. But we cdn’t today fight v. Europeans. On other hand, if we really sell out to R.W., we shall have to quell African disorders not only in Fedn. but elsewhere, in E. Africa.

Can we adhere to principles of our scheme, but leave room for adjustment in details?
Two fears : i) S. Rhodesia plan : we need it to go fwd. : we don’t want to imperil referendum. E.W. might secede.

ii) Impetuous action by R.W. in reln. to Fedn. of these two, second wd. be much the more serious.

Only 2 courses open : a) record lack of agreement, have a period of pause (4-6 wks.) &hope for better atmosphere.

b) proceed to announce our plan and negotiate on it. Oppn. from both sides : but not prs. violent or desperate.

On balance I suspect risks of a) are greater. Positions wd. harden : our own wd. not be clear : passions wd. be roused : U.K. wd. not be in good posture.
K. Our plan is defensible – it rests on multi racial principle.

Why is it not acceptable to Salisbury? Because U.F.P. fear they can’t make successful multi racial appeal. They cdn’t appeal to lower roll : Dom. Party cd. do as well as they on upper role.

They therefore want upper role to dominate – 4:1.

Other pol. diffies. : Party Conferences there this week and open to extremist attack.

If we go ahead : my guess is they will not go on with S.R. plan : U.F.P. can’t co-operate in N.R. : S.R. can’t stay in Fedn. on this basis.

But words, not action.

If we take course (a) – delay – all will assume we shall adjust our plan to meet views off Europeans. Believe this wd. cause riots in N.R. – based on allegn. tht. R.W. vetoed our (I.M.’s) wish to give African majority : and they wd. be put down by Fedn. troops.
I vote therefore for course (b). Can’t w’hold W. Paper, when contents are broadly known. But present our plan in such a way as to maximise the room for negotn. : eg. para.13 of C.R.O. 327. wh. leaves real field for decn. eg. nos. of 3 groups : %age to qualify : no. & character of constituencies.
I.M. Always knew we wd. reach this posn. We knew we cdn’t meet full point of view of Africans or Europeans. Double danger : Europn. Boston T. Party : African – violent revulsion. Chance now of avoiding both. Africans are opposed, but not violently angry.
Europeans : final telegram (drafting : we cd. meet 2 out of 4) is much less abusive than many earlier ones. Moffatt’s support of plan is helpful.
Wh. Paper shows tht. our final plan is consistent with my 1st speech made with authy. of Africa Cttee.
One diffy. : many members of M. Commn. favoured A majority in Leg. Co. in N.Rh. But, generally, they favoured parity in N.R. w’in parity w’in Fedn. M. Commn. chose racial approach to parity : wrong view, challenged by Mrs. Huxley etc., 20:20:20 is what she recommended. I.e. parity, but not achieved by balancing black and white. This is our plan, not dictated by either side.
I cdn’t myself support course (a).
D.S. Transition from Europn. control to stage in wh. A. will play dominant part (tho’ tht. is diff. from A. dominn.). Dangerous to move fr. white to black control overnight. Object of all constitl. change is to ease transition. Must therefore aim at encouraging moderate multi racial elements. Believe they exist & will emerge if encouraged.
In past 7 yrs. opporties. have bn. lost. This doesn’t mean we shdn’t make a last effort.
Our plan conforms to that objective. Fact tht. both sides reject it doesn’t make it less sound : may mean tht. it is a reasonable multi racial approach. Prob. grd. for objn. is tht. elections are left uncertain. If it produces middle men, it will be good. Not a strong Govt. prs. : but compromise is essential now in C. Africa.

The double danger. Two wks. ago risk of Eur. violence was great – but they had no plan to object to & cd. be content with slogans.

Temperature in Salisbury is now lower. We can take risk tht. it will be words not action. African disorder will prob. be controllable.
Conclude – our plan is right. We shd. go forward with it.
H., If Europ. believe Govt. will get out of responsible hands, there is risk i) S. Rh. will secede & look twds. S. Africa ii) Fedn. will declare themselves independent. We are near that point.
If Sal. feared this plan wd. have that result, they may act.

If no Fedn., what wd. we do? Multi racial soln. : but how fast wd. we go? Remember Congo. Believe we shd. aim at getting 2 Parlts. during wh. moderate Africans cd. be brought into the middle Parties.

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