Cab 195/19 cabinet minutes

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Gt. risk of dividing Africa, black and white, on line of Zambesi.

With v. gt. doubt, I am ready to support this plan – if there is room for adjustment to enable moderate Africans to join such a Party as M.F.P.

Hail. We must publish – for we must be able to defend a position.

Ingenious plan : danger that it is too clever.

And say we are ready to go on with it.

Similar action on Cyprus was catalyst which produced soln.

J.H. Agree with I.M. : posn. is less bad than I expected. This is defensible plan.
P.T. Agree. Danger of delay is the greater. What is Party posn.?
H.W. Agree. Must make our posn. clear : it is defensible.
S.L.I. Do we believe plan will work. Is there a chance of producing multi racial society in Fedn. If not, is this point of no return for S.R.
P.M. On complexity – remember tht. v. complicated franchises etc. are common in Colonies.
I.M. Yes : by comparison with many African states this is quite simple.

Much easier than 1958 system in N.R.

This is a world of fancy franchises – wh. we in U.K. have forgotten.
E.H. Right to go ahead with this. But doubtful on long-term.
Ch.H. First serious effort at multi racial structure.

Absence of any Govt. statement is giving bad Press – and undue personalisation. Essential to make it clear tht. this is a united Govt. plan.

Important to get discn. of detail.

D.E. Can you say you have a plan if you leave over for discn. detail of electoral rolls. We can’t allow R.W. to push us into settling this so tht. there is certainty of Europ. majority. If that is put over us, we shall be accused of bad faith.

M. Publn. of plan is essential if we are to stop posns. from hardening.
J.M. Agree. But can we accept R.W.’s 4 points.
R.M. Publish plan : but can’t believe this system will succeed.
I.M. N.Rh. has had 7 constitutions – all imposed.
R.A.B. Quoted I.M.’s statements at Conference – non-racial. We shd. publish plan and support I.M. in it.
V. gt. importance tht. we can all support this plan.
Party : does this adhere to 1958 principles? We can say it does.

Important to give R.W. time to include Africans in his Party.

The future is a different matter. I can’t say it will be final.

R.W. is a hard friend to help. Impatient with Africans.

In S.R., if E.W. loses out to Dom. Party, there will be swing to Union. That is inevitable, too, if Fedn. collapses.
Despite all these uncertainties, this is honourable line for U.K.

Govt. to take.

Southern Rhodesia.
D.S. Quite impossible to forecast developmts. E.W.’s political posn. is v. precarious. He is bound (by election pledge) to refer any constitutional change to existing electorate. Events in N.R. will affect referendum.
Hope we can say we will back results of S.Rh. conference, despite rush out by African Party. They agreed : indeed these were their words. They have bn. thrown over by supporters.
Northern Rhodesia (resumed).
E.M. No reason for delay. Hope we can present plan in intelligible way?
C.S. Agree – proceed. Alternative involves a worse risk.
H.B. Agree : must announce our plan – boldly.
I.M. Cd. we say to Press today tht. Cab. approved plan & Col. Secy. will make statement tomorrow. This wd. give us another day to reply to R.W.
On R.W.’s suggns. Para.4. We cdn’t meet this : tho’ we might adjust wording. E.g. The method contemplated for national roll …

Para.7. Originally proposed 100.000 : we have gone down to 70.000. 45.000 rquire literacy qualifn. under A. Those under B. don’t speak English : but they are “responsible”.

D.S. You cd. get home on this if you cd. use the word “literacy”.
I.M. We cd. add, in the legn., [complete] “without assistance.”

Para.8. We cd. omit words ..... but ….. Roll. Stet only first phrase and numbers at end.

Para.11. We can meet him completely.

Words can be found.

D.S. ‘A constitutional council’ via ‘necessary machinery’.
Statement in both Houses Tuesday. Wh. Paper available at 4 pm. Also in separate Wh. Paper the statement as statement of Govt. policy.

C.C.9(61). 21st February 1951

1. Congo. [Enter M.R.

H. Arrests – execution of L.’s followers – deterioration. Resoln. in Sec. Council authorising limited use of force by U.N. to prevent such incidents. I authd. Dean to support this, but make it clear in speech tht. this was an understandg. tht. force wd. not be used in support of any particular political solution. Dangerous developmt. Leaves wide discretion to commander.
These events discredit K. May be diff. to build him up again. May be necessary to bring in Bomboko.

2. Laos.

H. U.S. are now going for political settlement.

R. reply now recd. – conference before Commn. returns : it shd. deal with Phonma. Concilatory tone. Agree it (Commn. shd. go to India King of L. has proposed commn. (Camb., Laos, Burma,) to conciliate.

We are asking R. wthr. the two plans cd. be married.
More consultns. needed on type of commn. : but growing support for a political settlement.

3. Polaris.

H.W. U.S. Admiral here is unaware of p’ponement. If there were anything in this, wd. want F.O. to make repns. to U.S. Govt.
H. Have heard that ships are sailing.

4. E.F.T.A.

E.H. Agreed consultative Council.

“ acceleration of tariff redns. from January.

“ Finland assocn. : Swiss & Austrians acquiesced : with agreemt. to support any country subjected to pressure of Soviet economic penetration.
Good discn. on Six/Seven. No suspicion among Seven. Austrians favoured plainer speaking to French. Swiss emphasised need for diff. arrangemts. for diff. countries.
Discns. with Germany (officials) w’out commitment. France. G. talks delayed & these went badly. But French agreed to offl. talks with U.K. – which will take place next week. Can go over ground again : & test out wthr. Fr. are more ready for an agreement. After this, Cab. will need to review whole situation.

5. Parliament.

R.A.B. Business for next week.

6. Broadcasting : Subscription Television. [Enter P.M.G.

R.A.B. Seen Pilkington. Views strongly held. Stands by his lr. of Nov. wd. evidently throw his hand in, if we went ahead. In this he has the support of his Cttee.
R.M. Fear we must give way to him.
P.T. Does he realise how small a thing this is. No ques. of setting up a third body. Experiment wd. cover only 3.000 homes : cd. be limited to 2 yrs.
R.M. All those points have bn. put to P. – without result.
P.M.G. Purpose of experiment is not to boost exports, but to capture the 3rd T.V. channel. The Co. wd. put in whatever money is needed to ensure tht. experiment succeeded.
P.T. But the U.S. competitor, which has made experiment, is getting ahead of our company. At expenditure of £25.000 the co. could get a foot in export market.
This is a wired experiment.
Agreed : P.T. and R.M. authorised to put the commercial case to Pilkington.

[Exit P.M.G.

7. Kenya.

I.M. Opinion in K. is moving. Business community wd. like to see the issue out of the way.
Govr. won’t bargain – eg. if Africans decline Ministerial office unless K. is released. But he wants to begin de-bunking him. Thus, bring him nearer to civilisation : but people see him – Ministers & Press.
Draft statement by Govr. – in v. personal tone. Wants to make it next week – after election is over.
P.M. Trouble will begin if Africans won’t join Govt. until K. is out.

On this Govr. is firm : he will, if necessary, assume direct rule.

Hail. May become a place of pilgrimage. Might build him up.
S.L.I. Phrases in draft which might build him up. Repetitn. of fears of his becoming a man of great influence.
R.A.B. Prefer : I will not release him until Govt. is working well.

P.M. Agree – no release : move to a nearer place : allow more visits (incldg. Press visits). Take care there are no phrases in speech which, out of context, might suggest weakness.

[If it became a place of pilgrimage, he might have to be moved again.]

8. Sunday Observance.

P.M. What are the areas where some easement might be thought urgent.

Entertainment : players need one day’s rest a week. Do you want to have that on Monday?

Trading : cd. we not do what is necessary in Shops legisln.
J.H. Don’t want hours in my legn. on safety and welfare.
R.A.B. Law is out of date and needs overhaul. We want a Cttee. to say what we shd. do.
P.M. When do you want to have a Bill.
R.A.B. Cttee. will take about 18 months.
Hail. Try: if practical report results, we cd. legislate – in this Parlt. or the next.
M. Trading : complicated by chain stores, which wdn’t open.
R.M. Marginal advantage for tourism.
R.A.B. Looks silly not to have enquiry. Genl. p’mme of reforming our social laws.
P.M. Believe it will bring you more trouble than credit : but, if you want to do it, you had better.

C.C.13(61). 16th March 1961

1. Meeting of Commonwealth Prime Ministers.

P.M. Despite strength of views, had thght. on Wed. pm. it might be possible to reach agreement on basis of draft communiqué. Think we cd. have forced this thro’ with pressure – on basis of respect for U.K.

But doubt if it wd. have had any lasting value. Clear tht. some Afro. Asians wd. have campaigned for S.A.’s excln. from then on : - some might even have considered w’drawing themselves.

Dr. V. unwilling to make any concession even on dipl. repn. of African members of C’wealth.
We wd. have gained shadow, not reality. Posn. at a future mtg. wd. have bn. v. difficult.
Sorrow for people in S.A. of Br. origin.

Dr.V.’s manner of w’drawal was v. dignified.

May increase pol. diffies. at home – also diffies. over Central Africa.
R.A.B. Persuaded tht. P.M. cd. not have done more. Menzies of that opinion.

Heavy responsibility for P.M.

There will be some trouble with Party. Analogy with U.N. (Dr. V.) won’t help us much.
D.S. i) Impressive courtesy & restraint.

ii) We cd. have got agreement on basis we proposed : but public discord over it wd. have followed, Determination of several Afro. Asians to pursue the issue in public outside the mtg.

H. Agub said tht. Pak. cd. not stay in C’wealth for long if S.A. remained.

But diffies. in Africa. Portugal may leave U.N. & stand with S.A.

Concentration of world opinion on our problems in C. Africa.
I.M. Tanganyika wd. not have joined : nor W. Indies : Nigeria wd. have left.
Concerned however at action v. Govt. not people by this assocn. of peoples.
D.E. Keep door open for return of S.A. under another Govt.
C.S. Pressure on H.C. territories.

2. Parliament.

C.C.14(61). 20th March 1961

Federation of Rhodesia etc.,
P.M. Difficult discns. with R.W. Variety of plans.

On 3 fifteens : we have agreed tht. existg. system of cross-voting cd. be extended to that : if proposed at Lusaka.

We made it clear we weren’t commd. to 15:15:15 – nos. cd. be varied.

Extension of franchise : we had said 1300-2000 people : he opposes lowering of standards, tho’ he is ready to include holders of particular posts. We have said we won’t split on that.

But he also objects to balancing for national seats : he believes averaging will produce wrong people : he insists tht. upper roll shd. dominate elections viz. a built in majority for Europeans (of his own Party).
We made appeal to him this am. to play it long.
D.S. Greenfield is trying to turn this into a negotiation : I have told him it can’t be – that must be in Lusaka.
Welensky wd. like to accept our view.

Greenfield continues to ask us to accept tht. upper roll shd. be dominant. I have put it to him tht. if our plan can be shown to be impracticable Lusaka will have to devise something different. We are prepd. to consider other solutions to problem wh. will give same result viz., tht. Parlt. will include an element dependent on votes of each side.

Have advised them to put all their plans to Lusaka. Dangerous to recommend plan 2. lest he thinks we have accepted it. I have steadily made it plain tht. we are not “agreeing to anything” at this stage.
P.M. Read draft of [joint] communiqué – hope R.W. can be brought to agree to it. If he won’t, we cd. make unilateral statement in H/C.
I.M. If R.W. will agree, we can play it long – possibly beyond referendum in S.R.H.

His request for L.F.P. majority to be enshrined in constitn. – can’t be accepted.

D.E. V. serious to go back on statement in Wh,. P. tht. can’t be built in majority for Europeans.
H. We did think 15:15:15 wd. give built in majority for moderates black or white. But, now we look at it, it seems poss. it may produce majority for irresponsible [blacks].
Our ultimate aim is single roll with both African & Europeans on it.

That wd. be frustrated if extremists got control.

I.M. Africans have described our plan as “sell out to moderates”.
K. Scheme 3, I think, mght produce African majority. 24 seats on upper roll predominance – 16 European & 8 African. 16 seats on lower roll – 12 in African areas. Another 4 wh. Africans wd. win.
This gives 23 Europeans & 24 Africans. Surely a concession (or mistake?) by R.W.
I.M. But this scheme spells out principle tht. upper roll must dominate the election. Does it too nakedly. Still, he can put it forward.
H. When wd. there be African majority on upper roll.
I.M. 8-10 years prs.
H. Then they wd. be “responsible”.
I.M. But he won’t admit tht. Africans on upper roll now are responsible.
P.M. Our task is to persuade R.W. to allow his Party to negotiate.

We must keep it going. For if wh loses referendum Fedn. is bust anyway. Object now is to prevent explosion.

Suspicion in N.R. tht. we are negotiating with R.W.

C.C.15(61) 21st March 1961

1. Laos. [Enter M.R.

H. Pathet Lao gaining ground – royal forces being worsted.

Phonmi - Souvanna conversns. broken down & P. has gone abroad. Have put it to Rusk tht. I.C.C. shd. meet in Delhi : 2 co-chairman shd. appeal for cease fire. I.C.C. shd. report when that has happened : conference shd. then be convened. Conference of 14 countries.

U.S. are seeking pol. settlement; but make cease fire a pre-condn.

2. Congo.

H. Improvement in relns. with U.N. forces, since Dyal left. Genl. Alex told me it wd. be poss. to neutralise C. army with their consent, under U.N. resoln. – if he cd. be authd. to talk to them. Negotns. by soldiers on spot : to bring them into a role with U.N. troops. More lift to deal with Kartonga : but if others integrated first Tshombe mght. be handled more easily.
Discussion in P.M.M. unsatisf. – no unity of purpose. N. and N.K. on one side : Abul on other.

3. Parliament.

R.A.B. Business in week before Easter.
Adjourn 30th March.

4. Nationalised Industries. [Enter P.M.G., R.W., Craigton

R.A.B. Wh. Paper ready for presentation.
M. Electricity industry wd. publicly disassociate themselves from 8% - second half of para.23 & whole of para.24 cd. be omitted.
R.W. Despite wishes of fuel industries, I think balance of advantage is on side of publn. N.C.B. : para.32 will alter relationship which has grown up betwn. Ministers & Bds. That is main reason v. publn. But we shan’t get ourselves straight with public opinion if we don’t publish.
R.M. Publn. will mean pressure on Govt. to change price policy.
M. x/. Vagueness of ‘taking one ?? with another’ : that gives rise to need for publishing a statement.
E.M. B.T.C. favour publn. I suspect that cf. para.33, which wd. have it open to B.T.C. to do what they like. V. dangerous.
S.L.I. Plan was to publish on 11 or 12 April. Time to reconsider.
R.W. Some further definition of x/ is necessary.
P.M. Last sentence of para.32.
S.L.I. Designed to help Boards.
D.E. Para.32. If you require business to make ends meet over 5 years

you can’t interfere with prices etc. Anyhow reasons for Govt. intervention have bn. mainly political – which no Govt. wd. want to publish.

How much monopoly remains to warrant Govt. intervention on prices.

They are in competn. – rlways with roads : power indies. with one another. Better to give them control over price policy.

H.M. But all save coal are inheritors of industries which were not free to control their price policy.
P.T. Appln. to air corpns. They wd. wish to buy U.S. aircraft : be released from social obligns. of service in Scotland : be relieved of increased charges at airports.
E.H. x/. If they reached 8% balances wd. be so large as to invite wage demands.
J.H. Para.19 is attempt to guard v. that.
S.L.I. I wd. be content to rest on para.30 and omit 32.
R.W. If we set target for each industry, & then ques. directions which make them imposs. to attain, we must make it plain we have done so.
P.M. Sympathise with x/. They shd. potter on slightly in red.
S.L.I. But don’t forget immense investment we are putting in : we can’t afford to do that and allow them to make a loss.
G.P.O. have adopted target of 8%. That is only 50% of what private industry expect to make.
R.W. 8% for electricity wd. mean £90 m. p.a. – which would tempt E.T.U.
H.B. Accept policy but dangerous to publish.
R.A.B. Ready to omit last sentence of para.32.
P.M. Amend para.24 as proposed by M. and omit last 2 sentences of 23. Stop 32 short of last sentence. Cab. to consider at further mtg. wthr. this shd. Be publd. as so amended.
[Exit 3 above : enter J.P.

5. Cameroons.

I.M. France will support C. Republic. But, if we get thro’ U.N. debate, we shall have smooth hand-over in North, but diff. in south.
H. French will be awkward : their line is tht. unless they support Republic up to hilt, R. will gain. Means that relns. between France and Nigeria will be worsened.
S.L.I. Sooner we can wind this up, the better.
J.P. Ditto : want our forces out.
P.M. Let Def. Cttee. see a plan for rapid w’drawal. C.O. and W.O. to concert.

[Exit J.P.

6. Economic Survey.

Approved – subject to amendments suggd. in discn.

7. South Africa.

D.S. Can’t get agreement with Union on all matters before 31/5. Tempy. Bill requd.
H. Problem of Territories is v. gt. Can only be administered from S. Africa. F.O. aren’t equipped for this.
D.S. Doesn’t affect legn.
K. Believe we cd. avoid repealing these sections of S. Africa Act – in law : tho’ awkward in politics.
P.M. Avoid backdoor impression. But many important matters to be settled.
Shd. we say – to end of 1961 : or for 6 mos. with power to extend.

On the whole prs. 31/3/62 wd. do. * Later : take 12 months from 31/5.

I.M. Lines 13 etc. These words can’t be omitted. Because of law making powers of Colonies.
Approve : subject to *.

C.C.16(61) 23rd March 1961

1. Laos. [Enter M.R., E. Boyle

P.M. Read J.I.C. appreciation : military situation.
H. U.S. adminn. reversing posn. of predecessors, decided in favour of neutral Laos & political settlement. Return of I.C.C. & at some stage a conference.
This was U.K. view. But R. reluctant on I.C.C. and U.S. on conference. But y’day I was able to send to R. an Anglo-U.S. p’posal. Willing to contemplate conference of 14, provided cease fire occurs and is attested by I.C.C. (i.e. as in last Cab. minutes). K. & G. are away from Moscow : but initial response of Kremlin is not unfavourable. M.K. Press conference today – hope he will hope R. will accept this, but he may add tht. U.S. can’t see Laos overrun.
U.S. thinking of putting in force, if need be, to hold perimeter round Vientiane. Tels. F.O. to W’ton 1677 and W’ton 740 read to Cabinet.
H.W. Macnamara told me (with Burke’s aid) what they had in mind.

They don’t want to intervene : but “can we stand aside &see Laos wholly overrun?.

They wd. first try intensified C.I.A. action –incldg. bombers.

If that fails, they may (they have a plan) make overt intervention – airborne into Vietiane. They want a Govt. with a foothold in the country, so tht. negotns. can proceed : and they will say so. They wd. not need any material help from us.

H. Only sensible mil. plan : defence of Thailand. In Laos all you cd. do is hold Vientiane with talks to, & supplies from Thailand. But no negotns. wd. be poss. once U.S. troops moved in. They cd. only sit in V. To go beyond and try to secure the tongue running S. and E. of Siam wd. entail many more troops.
Reactions from India & Malaya – and in U.N.
H.W. In reply to ques : U.S. mil. think this opn. cd. be done w’out n. weapons.
Max. no. 10.000. W’in 4 days after 4 days’ notice.
H. C.I.A. activity need not preclude negotn. Overt mil. intervention would.
H.W. Feasible mil. opern.
D.S. But doesn’t prevent Laos being overrun.
P.M. But keeps Thailand with us; and keeps King of Laos in the country.
E.H. U.S. wd. be in v. diff. posn. in U.N. This action wd. be inconsistent with their attitude in U.N. on Congo.
P.M. V. gt. problem & turning point. Not sure it’s in our power, or our interest, for us to comment on their mil. plans. Our duty is to consider wthr. we shd. say anything on 2 tels. – warn them of its xdangers &say we cdn’t be associated with it x i.e. pol. consequences, India : Malaya : U.N.) : also perhaps risk of developing into war (Korea or worse). If they then went in, we wd. have to take a posn. : wdn’t want to lose our posn. in Anglo-U.S. axis. If Laos goes, Thailand & protected States may fall to Communists. Dangerous to allow U.S. to feel that, when it comes to a crunch, they get no support – in S.E.A., so important to us & especially to A. and N.Z.
What do R. intend? Hanging back on Tests. In U.N. a v. bitter attack.

Here : they cd. delay agreement to negotn. until L. overrun.

Wd. it suit us for U.S. to get into this – and be forced to stay 20 years.

Do we, or do we not, wish them to get embroiled?

I.M. i) Is this a sensible operation? I think not. We shd. say so to U.S.

ii) Do we support it? If they go on with it, we shd. give moral support.

P.M. Chief U.S. purpose is to stiffen Siam.
R.A.B. Agree : this is an important point.
P.M. Read draft of message to M.K.
I.M. V. good.
D.S. i) omit promise of material support.

ii) put on record our feeling tht. operation cdn’t end at this.

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