Bsc 1085 lab dr. Vince Scialli Rev. 12/08 bsc 1085 lab




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BSC 1085 LAB

Dr. Vince Scialli



Rev. 12/08 BSC 1085 LAB
Hawk Net/Campus Cruiser may be accessed by going to the HCC Home page. At the bottom right menu, click on Hawk Net. Select the second caption Hawk Net/Campus Cruiser. Log in by entering your first initial and last name as a single entity (example = jsmith). Enter your student ID. Your personal page will open if you are registered and your fees have been paid. Select this course name and section number. Select “shared files” in the left vertical menu. Select the file you wish to open. Print or save to a disk if you wish.
Exam I - Study Guide – MICROSCOPE & HISTOLOGY
Know proper lab procedures and safety procedures as outlined in the lab manual.
Be able to identify the parts of the microscope as described in the lab manual and illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files”.
Understand the function of the microscope movable parts.
Understand the power magnifications of the four objective microscope lenses and the one ocular lens.
Be able to identify the major cell structures listed below:
Nucleus Cell Membrane Cilia
Microvilli Cytosol Centriole

Mitochondria Free Ribosomes Lysomes

Fixed ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytokeleton
Golgi Apparatus
Know the four different types of tissue found in the body as described in the Saladin text Chapter 5 or as illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files”. Study the Wall Charts in the Lab.

.
Epithelial

Connective

Nervous


Muscle Tissue
Be able to identify the cell types listed below and know (location) where they may be found in the body. The best way to learn these are by the pictorial charts on the lab walls and as illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files”. You should use the pictures in the text and on the lab wall to help you identify the histology slides provided to you during your lab period.
Know the Histology illustrations in your lab manual and as illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files”.

Be Able to identify the following tissue illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files”.


Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue

Simple Squamous – blood vessels Connective Tissue Proper Stratified Squamous

Simple Cuboidal - glands Adipose Tissue - vacuole

Stratified Cuboidal – gland ducts Areolar Tissue

Simple Columnar Reticular Tissue - parenchyma

Stratified Columnar Dense Regular Tissue

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar collagen

Transitional Epithelium - bladder Dense Irregular Tissue

Glandular Epithelium Elastic Tissue

Keratinized Stratified Squamous Fibroblast Cells

Layers of skin epidermis – “stratum” Matrix

Cilia – respiratory tract Collagen

Microvilli – digestive tract

Lumen - opening Blood

Goblet Cells – produce mucous Leukocytes Neutrophils

Keratin – skin protein (WBC’S) Eosinophils

Epidermis Basophils

Dermis Lymphocytes

Monocytes

Muscle Tissue Red Blood Cells ~ RBC’s

Platelets

Skeletal Muscle Plasma - Matrix

Nuclei


Striations Cartilage
Cardiac Muscle Fibrocartilage

Nucleus Hyaline Cartilage

Striations Elastic Cartilage

Intercalated Discs Chondrocyte Cell Matrix

Smooth Muscle

Nuclei Bone

No Striations

Osteon


Nervous Tissue Matrix – Ca+ & P-

Haversian Canal – (Central)

Neuron Osteocytes in lacunae

Dendrites Osteon

Axon Canaliculi

Cell Body Lamella - Concentric Rings

Pyramidal Cells - cerebrum Periosteum

Purkingi Cells - cerebellum Central Canal (Haversian)


Exam 2 - Study Guide – SKELETON
Know the illustrations in your lab manual and those illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files” for all structures & terminology listed below !
The Saladin “Visual Atlas for Anatomy & Physiology” is also helpful

General Body Terminology


Anatomical Regions


Directional Terms & References
Sectional Planes – Anatomical Planes
Body Cavities


Axial Skeleton ~ The Skull
Parietal Bones Coronal Suture Infraorbital Foramen

Occipital Bone Saggital Suture Supraorbital Foramen

Frontal Bone Lamdoidal Suture Foramen Magnum

Temporal Bones Squamous Suture Auditory Canal

Sphenoid Bone Zygomatic Arch TMJ

Ethmoid Bone Mental Protruberance Optic Canal

Maxillary Bone Mental Foramen Orbit – Orbit Bones

Mandible Bone Occipital Protruberance Mental Foramen

Zygomatic Bones (Arch) Naso-Lacrimal Duct Nasal Concha

Lacrimal Bone Sella Turcica Cribiform Plate

Nasal Bone Styloid Process Hyoid Bone Palatine Bone Mastoid Process Temporal-Mandibular Vomer Bone Frontal Sinus Junction

Nasal Septum Incisive Fossa




Axial Skeleton ~ Vertebral Column

Cervical Vertebrae (7) Vertebral Body

Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Transverse Process

Lumbar Vertebrae (5) Spinous Process

Sacral Vertebrae (1) - 5 fused Vertebral Foramen

Coccygeal Vertebrae (1) Intervertebral Space

Atlas ~ (C-1) Intervertebral Disc

Axis ~ (C-2) Intervertebral Foramen

Atlanto-Occipital Joint Sacral Foramen

Tailbone (coccygeal vertebrae) Sacral Curve



Lumbo-Sacral Joint = junction of L-5 & S-1 vertebrae . . .most common area

for lower back pain , degenerative changes & arthritis

Axial Skeleton ~ Thoracic Cage & Ribs
Sternum Floating Ribs (11-12)

Manibrium True Ribs (1-7) Sternal Body False Ribs (8-12

Xiphoid Process

Jugular Notch

Clavicle

Clavicular Articulation

Costal Cartilage

Costal-chondral Junction




Appendicular Skeleton
Upper Appendages:
Clavicle ~ collar bone Sternal End Acromial End

Scapula ~ shoulder blade Acromion Body Subscapular Fossa Coracoid Process Glenoid Cavity Spine of Scapula
Humerus ~ Upper Arm Head Lateral Epicondyle Shaft Medial Epicondyle

Greater Tubercle Trochlea

Lesser Tubercle Olecranon Fossa
Radius & Ulna ~ Lower Arm
Ulna Radius

Olecranon Radial Head ~ proximal end

Trochlear Notch Styloid Process

Ulnar Head Radial Notch ~ radius & ulna Styloid Process articulation




Wrist & Hand
Wrist ~ Carpel Bones (8 each side) – “Carpal Joint”
Hand ~ Phalanges (14 each hand)

Metacarpal Bones (I, II, III, IV, V) “Thumb = One”

Proximal Phalanges ~ phalynx

Middle Phalanges ~ phalynx

Distal Phalanges ~ phalynx

Carpal Joint = articulation of distal end of radius & ulna and carpal

bones
Lower Appendages
Pelvic Girdle ~ Os Coxae (half of pelvis)
Ilium Ischium Pubis

Iliac Crest ~ hip Obturator Foramen Pubic Symphasis

Acetabulum

Pelvic Outlet (Pelvic Inlet)


Sacrum ~ fused vertebrae Sacral Foramen

Coccyx ~ coccygeal vertebrae ~ tail bone


Sacroiliac Joint – Articulation between ilium & sacral vertebrae

Femur ~ Upper Leg Femoral Head Shaft

Neck Lateral Condyle

Greater Trochanter Medial Condyle

Lesser Trochanter Popliteal Surface




Patella ~ Knee cap Apex

Base of Patella Patella Ligament (patella to tibia)

Patella Tendon (quadracepts tendon)

Tibia & Fibula ~ Lower Leg
Tibia Fibula

Medial Condyle Head of Fibula

Lateral Condyle Lateral Malleous

Tibial Tuberosity

Medial Malleous

Ankle and Foot
Ankle ~ Tarsal Bones (7 each side)
Foot ~ Phalanges (14 each foot)

Metatarsal Bones (I, II, III, IV, V) Calcaneus (heel)

Proximal Phalanges ~ phalynx Middle Phalanges ~ phalynx

Distal Phalanges ~ phalynx Hallux (big toe)

Longitudinal Arch & Transverse Arch

Major Body Joints ~ Synovial Joints (free moving joints)



Shoulder Joint ~ glenoid cavity, clavicle, scapula, humerus

Elbow Joint ~ collateral ligaments, humerus & ulna Hip Joint ~ femur head ligament, femur & ilium acetabulum

Knee Joint ~ patella ligament, collateral ligaments (MCL &

LCL), cruciate ligaments (ACL & PCL), & femur

& tibia

Exam 3 - Study Guide - MUSCLES
Know the illustrations in your lab manual and those illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files” for all structures & terminology listed below !
The Saladin “Visual Atlas for Anatomy & Physiology” is also helpful

Angular & Special Movements


Flexion Abduction Eversion Plantar Flexion

Extension Adduction Inversion Elevation

Hyperextension Circumduction Dorsi-flexion Depression

Opposition Retraction Lateral Flexion Protraction

Arrangement of Skeletal Muscle Fibers (Described inText Book)
Parallel Muscle Bipennate Muscle Muscle Origin

Convergent Muscle Multipennate Muscle Muscle Insertion

Unipennate Muscle Circular Muscle

Head & Neck Muscles

Occipitalis-Frontalis = Occipital Belly & Frontal Belly

(Occipitalis) (Frontalis)
Epicranial aponeurosis = Galea aponeurotica - tendon sheath that connects

Occipitalis & Frontalis

Orbicularis oris Risorius Buccinator

Orbicularis oculi Mentalis Pterygoids

Zygomatic major Platysma Levator labii superioris

Nasalis Trapezius Depressor anguli oris

Sternocleidomastoid Masseter Depressor labii inferioris

Muscle Groups of Head & Neck
Muscles of Mastication: temporalis, masseter, buccinator, & pterygoids

Glossal Muscles: tongue muscle group
Hyoid Muscles: throat muscle group
Palatal Muscles: pharynx muscle group
Intervertebral Muscles: many small along vertebral column

Torso & Shoulder Muscles
Teres minor (rotator cuff) Pectoralis major External oblique

Teres major (rotator cuff) Pectoralis minor Internal oblique

Infraspinatus (rotator cuff) Serratus anterior Latissimus dorsi

Supraspinatus (rotator cuff) Rectus abdominis Transverse abdominus

Subscapularis (rotator cuff)

Intercostals = muscles of expiration between ribs
Linea Alba = tendon sheath down midline of rectus abdominis – surgery location


Upper Appendage Muscles - Arms

Deltoid Brachio-radialis Flexor digitorums

Biceps brachei Pronator teres Extensor digitorums

Brachialis Extensor carpi radialis Extensor carpi ulnais

Triceps brachei Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris


Lower Appendage Muscles

Gluteus medius ~ abductor, hip extensor

Gluteus maximus ~ abductor, hip extensor

Ilio-psoas (groin) ~ hip flexor


Tensor fasciae latae ~ hip abductor ileal Tibial Tract = tendon sheath

used for ligament repair

Adductor longus ~ hip adductor

Pectineus ~ hip adductor

Gracillus ~ hip adductor

Bicepts femoris ~ knee flexor


Hamstrings ~ knee flexors Quadracepts ~ knee extensor

Semimembranosus Satorius

Semitendinosus Rectus femoris

Vastus medialis

Vastus lateralis
Patella Tendon = Quadracepts Tendon – connects quadracepts muscle to patella
Patella Ligament – connects patella to tibia

Gastrocnemius = superficial calf muscle

Soleus = internal calf muscle
Tibialis anterior – shin splints

Peroneus longus = Fibularis longus (same)


Flexor digitorums

Extensor digitorums


Calcaneal tendon ~ Achilles tendon tendon of the gastrocnemius

Exam 4 - Study Guide – NERVOUS SYSTEM & EYE
Know the illustrations in your lab manual and those illustrated on your Hawk Net / Campus Cruiser Course page under “shared files” for all structures & terminology listed below !
The Saladin “Visual Atlas for Anatomy & Physiology” is also helpful

Eye Structures

Anterior cavity Posterior cavity Fovea

Aqueous humor-fluid Vitreous humor-fluid Optic disc

Optic nerve


Limbus = junction of iris & sclera Pupil - opening Iris – colored muscle

Ocular conjunctiva=Sclera Lens

Palpebral conjunctiva

Lateral canthus/commissure

Medial canthus/commissure Sclera = Fibrous Tunic – white of eye

Choroid = Vascular tunic

Lacrimal gland Retina = Neural Tunic

Lacrimal sac

Lacrimal caniculi ~ canal

Lacrimal caruncle/puncta

Naso-lacrimal duct

Orbital fat




Brain Structures

Cerebrum

Parietal lobe Cerebral cortex Gray matter

Occipital lobe Central sulcus Longitudinal fissure Temporal lobe Lateral sulcus Corpus callosum

Frontal lobe Parieto-occipital sulcus Cerebral hemispheres

Sulci-“valleys” Gyri-“ridges” Primary motor cortex

Primary sensory cortex Pyramidal cells Prefrontal cortex

Gustatory cortex Olfactory cortex Auditory cortex

Visual cortex Association areas White matter


Cerebellum

Cerebellar hemispheres Vermis Cerebellar peduncles Anterior lobe Posterior lobe Cerebellar cortex Flocculonodular lobe Arbor vitae Purkinje cells



Pons . . . Mesencephalon . . . Diencephalon . . . Medulla Oblongata
Ventricles-CSF Diencephalon Mesencephalon

Lateral ventricles Hypothalamus Corpra Quadrigemina

Third ventricle Infundibulum Inferior colliculi

Fourth ventricle Pituitary gland Superior colliculi

Septum pellicidum

Inter-ventricular foramen Thalamus Red nucleus Cerebral aqueduct Epithalamus Substantia nigra

Choriod plexus Pineal gland

Other

Meninges Olfactory tract

Dura mater Olfactory bulb

Arachnoid Optic Chiasma

Pia mater Optic Nerve


Spinal Cord & Peripheral Nerves

Cervical plexus Cervical enlargement Coccygeal ligament

Brachial plexus Lumbar enlargement Phrenic nerve (C-3)

Lumbar plexus Conus medularis Sciatic nerve

Sacral Plexus Cauda equina Femoral nerve

Ulna nerve-funny bone Radial nerve Medial nerve Lumbo-sacral joint (L5-S1) Central canal




Cranial Nerves

Be able to NAME the cranial nerves & understand their functions

I Olfactory V Trigeminal IX Glossopharyngeal


II Optic VI Abducens X Vagus

III Oculomotor VII Facial XI Spinal Accessory

IV Trochlear VIII Vestibular-cochlear XII Hypoglossal

(Auditory)



Crutch: “Oh . . .Oh. . . Oh. . . to touch and feel a grill very so hot”
O O O T T A F A G V S H

Reflexes

Be sure to understand the following reflex concepts as described in your lab manual & text

Cranial reflexes (cranial nerves only)

Spinal reflexes (spinal nerves only)


Mixed reflex ~ both cranial & spinal nerves involved
Mono-synaptic reflex (type) . . . . Example = Patella Reflex

Poly-synaptic reflex (type) . . . . Example = Crossed Extensor Reflex


Ipsy-lateral reflex . . . .same side involved

Contra-lateral reflex . . . opposite side involved


Inter-segmental reflex . . . . more than one spinal segment involved

Autonomic Reflexes (Described in Lab Manual)
Cilio-spinal reflex & Oculo-cephalic reflex
Oculo-cardiac reflex – Vagal Reflex
Pupillary reflex (concetric pupil reflex)

Somatic Reflexes (Described in Lab Manual)

Achilles tendon reflex

Patellar reflex – Mono-synaptic

Plantar reflex Normal in adults) (Babinski reflex or sign in infants)

Biceps tendon reflex

Triceps tendon reflex

Crossed extensor reflex (Exsmple) – Poly-synaptic (type)

Abdominal reflex


Visual reflex to bright lights (superior colliculi ~ mesencephalon)
Auditory reflexvto loud noises (inferior colliculi ~ mesencephalon)

Adaptation ~ tonic & phasic (Know the difference) & Examples of each


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