Brief resume of the intended work




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TITLE OF THE TOPIC:
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF MARKERS FROM Allium cepa TOWARDS CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION”



BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK:





Need of study:

Current advancement in drug discovery technology and search for novel chemical diversity have intensified the efforts for exploring lead from “Ayurveda” the traditional system of medicine in India. Allium cepa, family: Liliaceae (Alliaceae) is commonly known as garden onion or bulb onion, has been important coniferous plant in ayurvedic and indigenous medicinal systems. Clinical trials and animal research support the use of Allium cepa for anti asthmatic1,2, anti diabetic3,4,5, anti viral6,10, anti thrombotic7 , hypo cholestremic8, anti inflammatory, anti oxidant, aphrodisiacs, cardiotonic, diueretic9, expectorant9, stimulant9, anti cancer10, platelet aggregation inhibitor10 and insecticidal properties. It is also used in osteoporosis treatment.

The major biochemical constituents of onion extraction are identified as quercetin, allicin (S-oxodiallyl disulfide) 11, 12, alliin (S-allyl L-cysteine S-oxide) 12, diallyl disulfide (allyl disulfide) 12, S-methyl L-cysteine S-oxide (3-(methyl sulfinyl alanine) 12, propanethial S-oxide (thiopropanal S-oxide) 12 and 3-mercapto-2-methypentan-1-ol13.

Seven compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the seeds of Allium cepa, their structures were elucidated by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic analysis as tianshic acid, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, beta-sitosterol-3 beta-glucopyranoside-6'-palmitate, sitosterol, daucosterol, tryptophane and sadenine riboside14.

Till the constituents of the juice of onion have not been reported and preliminary studies indicated that juice has a very different chemical composition as compared to the extract of onion.

In our present investigation we propose to isolate the major phytochemical markers from the appropriate juice of the Allium cepa and to compare the chemistry of juice vs extract through chemical standardization by analytical methods for the isolated phytochemical markers.



Review of Literature:


Allium cepa is also used in human homeotheraphy as the mother tincture as well as lower concentrations and in human phytotheraphy. It is used for treatment of gastro intestinal disorders, asthma and bronchitis15.

The odorous thiosulphonates occur (in low concentrations) only in freshly chopped onions, whereas the sulfides accumulate in stored extracts or steamdistilled oils16.

An aqueous extract or the juice of Bulbus Allium Cepa inhibited the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Streptococcus species, Lactobacillus odontolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhosa16.

A petroleum ether extract of Bulbus Allium Cepa inhibited the in vitro growth of Clostridium paraputrificum and Staphylococcus aureus16.

The hypoglycemic effects of Bulbus Allium Cepa have been demonstrated invivo. Intragastric administration of the juice, a chloroform, ethanol, petroleum ether or water extract, suppressed alloxan-, glucose- and epinephrine-induced hyperglycaemia in rabbits and mice16.

Inhibition of platelet aggregation by Bulbus Allium Cepa has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo.

An aqueous extract inhibited adenosine diphosphate-, collagen-, epinephrine- and arachidonic acid-induced platelet.

Both ethanol and methanol extracts of Bulbus Allium Cepa demonstrated diuretic activity in dogs and rats after intragastric administration16.

Antihyperlipidaemic and anticholesterolaemic activities of the drug were observed after oral administration of minced bulbs, a water extract, the essential oil (100 mg/kg), or the fixed oil to rabbits or rats16

The active antiallergic and anti-inflammatory constituents of onion are the flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol). The flavonoids act as anti-inflammatory agents because they inhibit the action of protein kinase, phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase, as well as the release of mediators of inflammation (e.g. histamine) from leukocytes16.



In vitro, an aqueous extract of Bulbus Allium Cepa inhibited fibroblast proliferation16. Administration of a butanol extract to patients with alimentary lipaemia prevented an increase in the total serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein and serum triglycerides16.

Objectives of study: To carry out isolation and characterization of markers from Allium cepa towards chemical standardization.





  • Preparation of appropriate juice and solvent extracts from A.cepa

  • To study the TLC of the prepared samples

  • Isolation of phytochemical markers from above samples by Column Chromatography

  • Identification and characterization of the isolated phytochemical markers from analytical data’s – HPLC, IR, NMR, LC-MS, MPLC etc.






MATERIALS AND METHOD:

Source of Data:

Data were obtained from literature and related articles from libraries of Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Indian Institute of Science, Publications and various Journals of Chemistry.



Methodology :

  • Raw materials will be collected from Natural Remedies Pvt. LTD. Bangalore.

  • Preparation of appropriate juice and extracts from A.cepa.

  • TLC study of above samples

  • Isolation of major phytochemical markers from the above samples

  • Structural characterization of the isolated compounds by analytical and spectral methods

  • Comparison of chromatographic profiles of juice vs the extracts.

Method of characterization:

Characterization of compounds will be performed by using modern analytical

techniques like TLC,Melting point, Elemental Analysis, IR, NMR, Mass

Spectroscopy








Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals?

NO.


Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of above?

Not applicable.




LIST OF REFERENCES:


  1. Bayer T, Breu W, Seligmann O, Wray V, Wagner H. Biologically Active Thiosulfinates and Alpha Sulfinyl Disulfides from Allium-Cepa. Ind J Med Res 1989; 28:2373-8.

  2. Bayer T. Used extracts of Allium cepa. Ind J Med Res 1977; 68: 122-125.

  3. Sharma KK, Gupta RK, Gupta S, Samuel KC. Antihyperglycemic effect of onion: effect on fasting blood sugar and induced hyperglycemia in man. Ind J Med Res 1977; 65: 422-429.

  4. Lucy Dey, Anoja S. Attele, Chun-Su Yuan. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7(1): 45-58.

  5. Jain RC, Vyas CR. Hypoglycemic action of onion on rabbits. Bri Med J 1974; 730.

  6. Ram Prakash Rastogi, Bhola Nath Dhawan.Anticancer and antiviral activities in Indian medicinal plants: a review. Drug development research 1990; 19(1): 1-12.

  7. Ali M, Thomson M, Mohammed N, Bordia T. An evolution of garlic and onion as antithrombotic agents. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996; 54(3): 183-6.

  8. Kumara K, Augusti KT. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2007; 109(3): 367-71.

  9. Chaudhari RD. Herbal drugs industry: A practical approach to industrial pharmacology. IST ed. Eastern publishers: 1996.

  10. Winston J Craig. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 70: 491S–9S.

  11. Cavallito, C.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1944; 66: 1952.

  12. Jeffrey B. Harborne FRS, Herbert Baxter, Gerard P. Moss. Dictionary of plant toxins. John wiky & son’s 1996.

  13. Rose, Peter, Widder, Looft, Pickenhagen, Whiteman et al. Inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated cellular toxicity, tyrosine nitration, and α1-antiproteinase inactivation by 3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol, a novel compound isolated from Allium cepa. Biomedical and biophysical research communications. 2003; 302(2): 397-402

  14. Yuvan L, Wang AG, Yanq JB. Studies on chemical constituents of the seeds of Allium cepa. Article in Chinese 2008; 31(2): 222-3.

  15. Committee for veterinary medicinal products Allium cepa. The European agency for the evolution of medicinal products. Veterinary medicines evolution unit 1999 Aug. 

  16. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. World Health Organization, Geneva 1999; 1.




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