Botanical root meanings as compiled from website




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Roots: E
e- = without, (emarginatus = without a margin) ALSO out of, out from (erumpens = breaking out of)
eben- = referring to ivory (ebenaceus)
echin- = referring to a bristle, prickle, spine (hedgehog) (Echino- cereus, a cactus genus)
edul- = edible (edulis)
elae- = referring to the olive (elaeiformis = shpaed like an olive)
elat- = tall (elata)
eleg- = referring to elegance (elegantissima)
elepha- = referring to an elephant (Phytelephas = Elephant Plant, a palm genus noted for the hard, white endosperm of the seeds, which can be worked like ivory)
ens- = referring to a sword (ensiformis = formed like a sword / ensifolia = sword + leaf / ensata)
-ense = native to (canariense = native to the Canary Islands)
-ensis = native to (canadensis)
entom- = referring to insects (entomophilus = insect-loving)
epi- = upon (Epigaea = on the ground)
equ- = referring to horses (equinus)
aequator- = referring to equatorial regions (aequatorialis)
equin- / equis- = referring to horses (Equisetum, the horsetail genus) (equisetifolia)
erem- = solitary, deserted (therefore usually refers to a desert) (Eremurus = desert + tail)

eri- / erio- = referring to wool (eriospatha = hairy spathe / eriocarpa = wooly fruit)


erica- = referring to the genus Erica, the Heath (ericoides)
erina- = referring to spines, a hedgehog (Erinacea)
eros- = jagged (erosus)
erubescens = retiring, blushing - usually referring to color - literally, emitting rose-color
erythr- = red (Erythrina, the tropical coral-tree)
escul- = edible (esculentum)
eu- = well, good, normal, complete (Eucalyptus, well and calypt (kalypt, calypt = covered, referring to the seed capsules) (eumorpha = well-formed)
ex- = out of, from (Exorrhiza = from the root)
exalt- = very high, tall, lofty (exaltata)
excel- = exalted, lofty, high, tall (excelsus / excelsior)
exci- = cut (excisus)
exigu- = small, lowly (exiguus)
exim- = distinguished (eximia)
Roots: F
faba- = referring to a bean (fabaceus)
falc- = referring to a sickle (shaped) (falcatus)
farin- = referring to starch or wheat (farinacea / farinosa)
fasciat- = flat (fasciatus)
fascicul- = clustered (fasciculatus)
febri- = referring to fever (febrifugus = fever + flight, driving away fever)
fenestr- = referring to a window (fenestralis)
-fer(...) = bearing, producing (coccifera = bearing berries; resiniferous; nucifera = nut-bearing; indigofera = indigo-bearing)
fero- = ferocious (Ferocactus = ferociously-spined cactus) (ferox is the Lat. adjective)
ferr- = referring to iron, rusty (color) (ferruginea)
fert- = referring to fruit, fruitful (fertilis)

festuc- = referring to the genus Festuca, a grass, therefore grass- like (festucoides)


fic- = referring to the genus Ficus (ficifolia = figleaf) (ficus-indica = fig of India) (ficaria / ficoides = like a fig)
-fid(...) = parted, divided (multifida = many-parted; bipinnatifida = twice/doubly-pinnately cut/divided)
fili- = referring to a thread (filifera = thread-bearing / filipes = hair + stalk/foot/ filipendulum = thread + drooping)
filic- = referring to ferns (filicifolia = fern-like leaves); the noun is filix = fern (filix-femina = fern + woman, the lady-fern)
fimbr- = referring to a fringe (fimbriatus)
fissi- = split (fissifolia)
fistul- = hollow tubelike (fistularis / fistulosa)
flabell- = fan-like (flabelliformis = formed like a fan)
flaccid- = soft (flaccida)
flagell- = referring to a whip (flagelliforma)
flamm- = referring to a flame (color) (flammeus)
flav- = referring to yellow (flavescens / flavum / flavida)
flex- = pliable, crooked, bent (flexuosus = bent)
floc- = referring to wool (floccosus)
flor- = a flower (floribunda = abundantly-flowering)
flui- = floating (fluidans)
fluv- = referring to a river (fluvialis)
foetid- fetid- = stinking (foetida)
foli- = referring to leaves (foliosa)
-foli(...) = referring to leaves (latifolia = flat-leaved)
foll- = referring to follicles (follicularis)
-form(...) = in the form of .... (fusiforma = spindle-shaped)
formos- = beautiful (formosa / formosissima = most beautiful) NB: formosana usually refers to Formosa (Taiwan))
formosan- = referring to Formosa (Taiwan) (formosanum)
-frag(...) = referring to a break or rupture (rupifragum = rock- breaker)
frax- = referring to the ash tree (fraxifolia = ash-foliaged / fraxinifolia)
frond- = referring to a leaf (frondosa)
-frons = referring to a leaf (frond) (simplicifrons)
frigid- = referring to cold regions (frigida)
fruct- = referring to fruit (esp. the grape) (fructifera = fruit- bearing)
frut- = referring to a shrub (shrubby) (fruticosa / fruticans = shrubby)
fuc- = painted (fucatus) - ALSO referring to a red alga plant in shape (fucoidea)
fulg- = shining, excessive (fulgens)
fulgin- = black, dark in color (fulginosa)
fulv- = referring to the color yellow (orange) (fulvescens, fulvida / fulvus)
furc- = forked. cleft (furcatus)
fusc- = brown, reddish-brown (fuscus)
fusi- = referring to a spindle (fusiformis)
Roots: G
-gae(...) = referring to the earth, ground (hypogaea = underground)
-gal(...) = referring to milk (Polygala = many milks, referring to a myth that the plants increase the flow of mother's milk)
gall- = referring to Gaul (France), Gallic (gallicus) ALSO referring to a cock (rooster) (crus-galli = cock-spur)
gam- = united (married) (gamopetala = joined petals) (polygama = many married, meaning, in a botanical sense, that the flowers are of both sexes on a single plant)
gast- = referring to a stomach, a belly, swollen (Gasteria, a a genus of succulents, the appearance pf which is somewhat a swollen stem)
gemin- = referring to twins (geminiflora)
gemm- = referring to jewels or buds (gemmiflorus)
geo- = referring to the earth, the ground (geoides)
-ger(...) = bearing (cornigera = with a horn)
gibb- = swollen on one side (the gibbous moon) (gibbosa)

gig- = referring to giants or immensity (gigantea)


glabr- = smooth (glabrescens)
glad- = referring to a sword (Gladiolus, because of the leaves)
gland- = referring to a gland (glandulifera = gland-bearing)
glauc- = milky, with a bloom, greyish (glaucescens / glaucinus)
glob- = referring to a ball or sphere (globulus)
glom- = referring to a cluster (glomerata)
glor- = glorious (gloriosa)
gloss- = referring to a tongue (shape) (Ophioglossum = snake's tongue - a fern)
glut- = referring to glue (glutinosa)
glyc- = sweet (in taste) (Glycyrrhiza, the licorice plant, = sweet root)
-gon(...) = referring to an angle (Polygonum = many-angled/jointed) (chrysogonum = golden angle (star))
goni- = referring to an angle (Goniopterus = angle-winged)
gongyl- = rounded, swollen (gongyloides)
gossyp- = referring to the genus Gossypium, the cotton plant (gossypifolium = cotton plant + leaf)
gracil- = graceful, slender (gracilis / gracilipes = slender + foot / stalk)
graec- = pertaining to Greece (Greek) (graeca)
gramin- = referring to grass (graminifolia = grass-like leaves)
gramm- = referring to a line / written upon (Grammatophyllum = written-on (lined) leaves)
grand- = large (grandiceps = large-headed)
granul- = granular, grainy (granulosus)
-graph(...) = referring to writing (xerographica = dried writing)
grat- = wonderful, pleasing, likeable (gratus gratissima)
graveol- = heavy (often referring to odor) (graveolens)
gris- = referring to the color gray (griseus)
gumm- = referring to gum (gummifera = gum-bearing)
gutt- = referring to a spot or a drop (the genus Guttifera whose leaves exude water)) (guttatus = spotted)
gymn- = naked, bare (gymnocladus = bare-branched)
gyn- = referring to the female sex (Gynura tailed woman - just wanted to see if you were awake! -- a stigma with a tail) (monogyna = single female sexual part, a single pistil)
gyr- = revolving, gyrating (gyrans)
Roots: H
haema- = referring to blood (Haemanthus = blood flower) (haematodes)
hal- = referring to salt (halodendron = salt + tree)
ham- = referring to a hook (hamosus)
haplo- = referring to the number one (haplophylla = one-leaved)
harp- = referring to a sickle (shape) (harpophyllus = sickle-shaped leaf)
hast- = referring to a spear (hastatum)
hebe- = pubescent (hebecarpus = hairy-fruited)
hedy- = sweet, fragrant (Hedycarya = sweet nut)
heli- = referring to the sun (Helianthus = sun flower)
helic- = referring to a spiral, a coil (helicoides)
helvetic- = referring to Switzerland (helvetica)
hemero- = referring to a day (Hemerocallis = beautiful for a day)
hemi- = half (hemisphaericus = half a sphere)
hepat- = referring to the liver (shape) (hepaticus)
hepta- = referring to the number seven (heptaphyllum = seven- leaved)
herb- = not woody (herbaceous) (herbacea)
hesper- = referring to the evening or the west (Hesperaloe = Western Aloe)
heter- = variable, different, not-alike (Heteranthera = having unlike anthers in the flowers)
hexa- = referring to the number six (hexagonus = six-angled)
hibern- = referring to winter (hibernalis) OR Ireland (hibernicus)
hipp- = referring to a horse (Hippocrepis = horse-shoe)
hirss- / hirt- = referring to hair (hirtellus = somewhat hairy) / (hirsutum)
hispid- = referring to bristles (hispidula)
hort- = referring to a garden (cultivated) (hortensis / hortulanum)
humil- = low, dwarf (humilis / humile)
hyal- = transparent, translucent (hyalina)
hyem- / hiem- = referring to winter (hyemalis)
hydr- = referring to water (Hydrocotyle = water cup)
hyl- = referring to wood (Hylocereus, a climbing, night- blooming cactus with eventual woody stems)
hymen- = referring to a membrane (Hymenocallis = beautiful membrane, referring to the membrane which connects the base of the anthers in this genus of the spider lily)
hyo- = referring to a hog/swine (Hyophorbe = swine food)
hyper- = above, far, extreme (hyperborealis = of the far north)
hypo- = under, beneath (hypophyllus = under the leaf / hypoleuca = white beneath)
hystr- = bristly (hystrix)
Roots: I
iber- = referring to Spain (Iberis)
-ifoli(...) = this part is used very much in combination with parts of generic names (as a prefix) to mean leaves like [x] where [x] is the generic word-part prefix (aconitifolium = leaves like Aconitum) (ulmifolia = leaves like Ulmus, the elm)
ign- = referring to fire (color) (igneus)
ilic- = referring to the holly tree (plant) (illicifolia = holly-leaved)
illic- = referring to fragrance/seduction (Illicium)
illustr- = bright, notable (illustris)
illyr- = referring to Greece (illyrica)
imbricat- = shingled, overlapping (imbricatus)
immacul- = spotless, immaculate (immaculata)
imper- = regal, imperious (imperator / imperialis)
impres- = sunken (impressum)
in- = un..., not .... without (inermis = unarmed / inapertum = not + open, therefore closed)
inaequal- = unequal (inaequalifolius = unequal leaves)
incan- = hairy, hoary (incana)
incarn- = referring to flesh (colored) (incarnatus)
incis- = cut (incisus)
incurv- = bent inward (incurvatus)
indent- = indented (indentata)
ind- = Indian (the subcontinent) (indica)
-ind(...) = referring to India (Morinda = mulberry + India)
indivis- = undivided (indivisus)
inerm- = unarmed (inermis)
infector- = referring to dyes and the process of dyeing (infectoria)
infest- = unsafe (infesta)
inflat- = swollen (inflatus)
ingens = massive, tremendous (size)
insign- = remarkable, distinguished (insignis / insigne)
integ- = entire (integrifolia = entire (margin)-leaved / integerrimus = very complete, entire)
intors- = turned inwards (intorsus)
involucr- = referring to an involucre (involucrata)
ion- = referring to a violet or the color (Ionopsis = violet-like - an orchid)
irid- = referring to the genus Iris, Gr. for rainbow (iridiflorus = iris-flowered)
isa- / iso- = equal, like (Isochilus = equal lips - an orchid) (isophylla = equal (sized) leaves)
-issim(...) = most, very (viridissima = very green / altissima = VERY tall)
ital- = referring to Italy (italica)
Roots: J
japon- = referring to Japan (japonica)
java- = referring to Java (javanicus)
juba- = crested (jubatus)
junc- = referring to a reed, Juncus (juncifolia = Juncus-leaved)
Roots: L
labi- = referring to a lip (labiata)
lachry- = referring to a tear (like in drop) (lachrymosa)
lacin- = torn, cut, incised (laciniatus)
lact- = referring to milk (lactiflorus = milk-colored flowers)
lacun- = referring to a hole or pit (lacunosa)
lacustr- = referring to a lake (lacustris)
laet- = bright (laetum)
laevi- = smooth (laevigatus / laevis /laeve)
lagen- = referring to a bottle (Lagenaria, a gourd genus)
lan- = referring to wool (lanata, lanosus)
lanc- = referring to a lance (lanceolatus)
lanig- = referring to wool (lanigerus = wool-bearing)
lanug- = referring to wool or down (lanuginosus)
larici- = referring to the genus Larix, the Larch tree (laricifolia = leaves like a larch)
lasi- = rough, hairy (lasiocarpus = rough fruit)
later- = lateral, referring to a side (lateriflora = flowers on the side)
laterit- = referring to a brick (color) (lateritium)
lati- = broad, wide - horizontally (latifolia = wide-leaved)
lauri- = referring to the Laurel tree (laurifolius = leaves like the laurel)
lavand- = referring to the genus Lavandula, the Lavender plant which name, itself, comes from the Latin word to wash, the plant having been used since ancient times in the bath water (lavandulacea)

lax- = loose, open (laxifolia = loosely/sparsely-leaved) (laxa)


leia- / leio- = smooth (leiocarpus = smooth fruit)
lenti- = referring to a lens (lentiformis = in the form of a lens)
leon- = referring to a lion (Leontopodium, the Edelweiss, = lion's foot)
lep- = referring to scales (Lepidium = little scale)
-lep(...) = referring to a scale (Microlepia = small scale - a fern)
lepr- = scurfy (leprosepala = scurfy petalled)
lept- = thin, slender (Leptocodon = slender bell)
leuc- = referring to the color white (Leucadendron = silver tree) (leuconeura = white-nerved)
lign- = referring to wood (lignosa)
ligul- = referring to a strap (shape)
limn- / lim- = referring to mud or marshes (Limodorum = marsh gift)
line- = linear (linearis) ALSO meaning lined (lineatus)
ling- = referring to a tongue (lingua / lingularia)
liri- = referring to a lily (Liriodendron = lily + tree)
-liri(...) = referring to a lily (Dasylirion, thick lily)
litho- = referring to a stone (Lithospermum = stone seed)
littor- = referring to a shore (sea) (littoralis)
lob- = referring to lobes - as a suffix it usually refers to a fruit
loma- = referring to a margin (Lomatophyllum = margined leaf)
lonch- = referring to a lance (Lonchocarpus = lance-fruit)
longi- = long (longipes = long foot)
loph- = referring to a crest (Lophophora (the Peyote) = crest-bearing)
lor- = referring to a strap (Loranthus = strap-flower)
lori- = referring to a strap (lorifolius = strap-leaved)
lucid- = referring to light; bright, clear, lustrous (lucida)
ludovic- = referring to King Louis [x], therefore, by extension, to the State of Louisiana (ludoviciana)

luna- = referring to the moon (usually in crescent shape) (Lunaria, referring to the moon-shaped seed pods / lunatus = crescent-shaped)


lurid- = pale, sallow (luridus)
lusitan- = referring to Portugal (lusitanica)
lute- = referring to the color yellow (esp. light yellow) (lutescens / lutea)
lyc- = referring to a wolf (Lycopersicum ((Lycopersicon)) = wolf-peach - the tomato; the derivation is probably due to the fact that the fruit was once considered poisonous)
lyr- = referring to a lyre (shape) (lyrata)
Roots: M
macr- = large (macranthus = large-flowered)
macul- = referring to a spot (maculatus)
magellan- = referring to the area of the Straits of Maggellan (magellanica)
magn- = big, magnificent (magnificus / magnimama = big mama, actually mammary glands, the protuberances on a species of Mammillaria)
maj- = major, larger (major / majus)
majal- = referring to the month of May (flowering) (majalis)
malabar- = referring to an area of India (malabaricum)
malac- = soft (Malacocarpus = soft-fruited) (malacodendron = soft + tree)
malv- = referring to the genus Malva, the Mallow (malvacea)
mamm- = referring to breasts or nipples (mammifera = breast- bearing breasts or nipples) (Mammillaria, a great genus of cactus, because all the bodies of the plants bear many nipple-like protuberances)
manic- = referring to a covering of dense hairs, a sleeve (manicata)
margin- = referring to a margin (marginalis)
mariland- = referring to Maryland (marilandica)
marin- = referring to the sea marinum)
marit- = referring to the seashore (maritima)
marm- = marbled, marbled (marmoratus / marmoreum)
mas = male - usually referring to robustness of the plant, rather than sex of the flowers -- sexist!
maurit- = referring to North Africa (mauritania)
maxim- = largest (maxima)
maxil- = referring to a jaw (maxillaris
medul- = referring to marrow, the center, the pith (medullaris)
mega- = large (megacarpa = large-fruited / megalanthus = large-flowered)
mela- = black (Melaleuca = black (trunk) + white (branches))
mel- / mell- = referring to honey (melliodora = honey-scented) (Melianthus = honey flower)
-meles = referring to an apple, or any fruit (Chaenomeles = split + fruit)
melo- = referring to a melon (meloformis = melon shaped)
men- = referring to a month and, by extension, the moon (Menispermum = moon seed)
menisc- = referring to a crescent (meniscifolius = crescent- shaped foliage)
-mer(...) = referring to parts (trimera = three parts)
merid- = referring to noon (meridionalis = mid-day bloomer)
mes- = mixed, middle (Mesembryanthemum = mid-day flower)
metr- = referring to the center (heart) of an entity (Metroxylon = heartwood)
mica- = referring to mica, glittering (micans)
mic- = referring to mica or glitter (micans)
mille- = referring to the number 1000 or a very large number (millefolius = very many leaves)
mim- = referring to a mime (Mimosa, because of the closing up of the leaflets in many species - also Mimulus, because the flowers are supposedly similar to grinning faces - by extension, a monkey or an ape: Mimusops = like a monkey)
minax = forbidding, threatening (like thorns)
miniat- = of a reddish color (miniata)
minim- = very small (minimus)
minor / minus = smaller
minut- = very small (minutus)
mirab- = wonderful (Mirabilis, the Four-O'Clock genus)
misc- = referring to a stem (Miscanthus = stem flower)
mitis = mild, gentle, unarmed
mitr- = referring to a turban, mitre (mitrocarpus = mitre-shaped fruit)
modest- = modest, unaffected, usually means unadorned (modesta)
moldav- = referring to Rumania (moldavicus)
moll- = soft (hairy) (mollis / mollissima / molle)
molucc- = referring to the East Indies
mon- = referring to the number one (Monanthes = single-flowered) (monophylla = one leaf)
monil- = referring to necklace (monilifera = necklace-bearing)
monst- = monstrous, abnormal (Monstera, because of the unusual, cut leaves)
mont- = referring to a mountain (montanus)
monti- = referring to mts. (monticolus)
mor- = referring to the genus Morus, the mulberry
-mord(...) = to bite (Momordica, referring to the appearance of the seeds)
-morph(...) = referring to form (polymorpha = many forms / callimorphum = beautifully-formed)
mosch- = referring to musk (odor) (Moschosma = musk-like odor / moschata)
mucron- = referring to a point (usually in shape of leaf) (mucronatus)
multi- = many (multiflora = many-flowered / multicaulis = many-trunked)
munit- = referring to defense (with thorns, prickles, etc.) (munitus)
mura- = referring to a wall (muralis)
muric- = rough, knobby (muricata)
mus- / myos- = referring to a mouse (Myosotis = mouse ear - the Forget -Me-Not genus, in reference to the mousy leaves
musc- = referring to musk (Muscari, because of the musky odor of the flowers of M. moschatum) ALSO referring to a fly (muscivorus = fly-eating)
mutab- = referring to change, variability (mutabilis)
mutic- = blunt (mutica)
myr- = referring to myrrh (Myristica, the nutmeg genus, because of the odor)
myri- = numberless, too many to count, myriad (Myriocephalus = with a myriad of heads)
myrmec- = referring to ants (myrmecophilus = beloved of ants)
myrt- = referring to the myrtle genus, Myrtus (Myrtillocactus = myrtle-berried cactus) myrtifolia = myrtle-leaved)
Roots: N
nan- = dwarf (Nannorhops = dwarf bush) (nanus)
nat- = floating, swimming (natans)
nav- = referring to a ship (navicularis)
nem- = referring to a thread (Nemastylis = thread-like styles (of the flower)
nemor- = referring to the woods (nemoralis / nemorum)
neo- = new (Agave neo-mexicana)
nepalens- = referring to Nepal (nepalensis / nepalense)
nephr- = referring to a kidney (shape) (Nephrolepis = kidney- shaped scale - the spore cases of this genus of ferns)
neri- = referring to the genus Nerium, the oleander (neriifolia = oleander-shaped leaf)
nervos- = referring to a nerve (nervosus)
neva- = referring to mts., Nevada, Sierra Nevada (nevadensis)
nicit- = blinking, moving (nicitans)
nid- = referring to a nest (nidus / nidularia)
nigr- = referring to the color black (nigrescens nigricans)
nilo- = referring to the river Nile
niph- = referring to snow (niphophilus = snow-loving)
nit- = shining (nitens / nitida)
niv- = referring to snow or the color white (nivea / nivalis)

nobil- = noble, renowned (nobilissimus = most noble / nobile)


noct- = referring to the night (nocturnum)
nod- = referring to a node (nodosus)
noli- = the negative imperative (noli-tangere = touch-me-not)
not- = marked, notable (notabilis)
notho- = false (Nothofagus = false Beech tree)
nov- = new (novae-zelandica = New Zealand)
nub- = referring to a cloud (nubicola)
nuc- = referring to a nut (as in Rifflea nucoides var. obesiformis)
nud- = naked (nudicaulis = naked stem)
num- = referring to coins (shape) (numismatus / nummularium)
nutans = nodding
nyct- = referring to the night (Nyctanthes = night flower)

Roots: O
ob- = reverse, inverse, upside down, etc. (obovatus)
obes- = fat (obesus)
obfusc- = cloudy, confused (obfuscatus)
obliq- = oblique, slanting (obliqua)
oblong- = oblong (surprise!) (oblongifolia = oblong leaves)
occi- = western (occidentalis)
ochr- = yellowish (Ochrocarpos = yellow fruit)
oct- = referring to the number eight (Octomeria = eight parts - an orchid)
ocul- = referring to an eye (oculiforma = in the shape of an eye / oculatum)
odont- = referring to a tooth (Odontoglossum = toothed tongue)
-odon(...) = referring to a tooth (Leontodon = lion's tooth)
oen- = referring to a vine, esp. the grape vine; therefore, by ex- tension, WINE (Oenothera, the evening primrose, = wine-scented)
offic- = official, recognized (usually from medicine or commerce) (officinalis)
-oide(...) = like unto (botryoides = cluster-like / malacoides = mallow-like / dendroideum = tree-like))
ole- = referring to oil (olive) (oleifera = oil-bearing)
oler- = referring to a vegetable, edible (oleracea)
olig- = few (oligocarpa = few-fruited)
oliv- = referring to an olive (olivifolia = leaves like an olive)
omni- = all (kinds)
onc- = referring to a barb, a protruberance, a tubercle (Oncidium)
ono- = referring to a donkey (Onosma = donkey + smell - which donkeys supposedly favor) !
opac- = shaded (opacus)
operc- = referring to a lid (operculatus)
ophio- = referring to a snake (Ophiopogon = snake's beard) !
-opsis = like unto (Chilopsis, lip-like) (phalaenopsis = like a moth)
orbic- = round (orbicularis)
orch- = referring to an orchid (or the sexual parts of a flower) - actually, the Gr. word, orchis refers to the male gonads (orchioides = like an orchid)
oreo- / oro- = referring to mountains (Oreocereus = mountain cactus / oreophilus = mountain-loving)
orient- = referring to the Orient, eastern (orientalis)
ornat- = showy, adorned, ornate (ornatus)
ornith- = referring to a bird (Ornithocephalus = bird's head) (ornithorhyncum = bird + snout/beak)
orth- = straight, correct (Orthocarpus = straight fruit)
osm- = referring to an odor (Osmanthus = fragrant flower)
-osm(...) = referring to an odor (Coprosma = feces + odor)
ost- = referring to a bone, therefore hardness (Osteospermum = bone seed)
-ot(...) = referring to an ear (Leonotis = lion's ear)
oval- = oval (ovalis)

ovat- = ovately shaped (ovata)


ovi- = referring to an egg (shape) (ovifera = egg-bearing)
ox- / oxy- = sharp, pointed, sour (Oxalis, referring to the oxalic acid in the leaves and roots) (oxycarpa = sharp, pointed fruit)
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