|Dr. Hugh ELTON
Department of Ancient History and Classics
Ancient History & Classics
Trent University Tel: +1 (705) 748-1011, ext. 1727
1600 Westbank Drive Fax: +1 (705) 748-1131
Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Associate Professor, Trent University July 2006 – Current
Director, British Institute at Ankara August 2001-August 2006
Assistant Professor, Florida International University, FL August 1998-August 2001
Visiting Lecturer, University of Connecticut, CT 1997-1998
Visiting Assistant Professor, Trinity College, CT July 1994-June 1998
Visiting Assistant Professor, Rice University, TX January 1993-June 1994
EDUCATION and QUALIFICATIONS:
1986 1990 - The Queen's College, Oxford
D.Phil. for doctoral thesis, Aspects of Defence in Roman Europe: AD 350-500
1983 1986 - University of Sheffield
B.A. Honours dual degree in Ancient History/Classical Archaeology and Medieval History, 2.i
Wellings Prize in Modern History (1984)
1981 1983 - Hills Road Sixth Form College, Cambridge
A-levels in Greek, Latin, History, Special papers in Latin, History
1976 1981 - Chesterton Comprehensive School, Cambridge
My current research concentrates on Cilicia and Isauria (i.e. Asia Minor north of Cyprus), addressing the question of what does it mean to be Roman in these areas. This question of identity can be addressed in many different ways. Although in literature Isaurians are a well-stereotyped ethnic grouping, with a clear identity (at least, as perceived by outsiders), how is this represented materially? And is Isauria significantly different in its material culture to other regions of the Roman Empire? These questions are addressed through the Göksu Archaeological Project, an interdisciplinary multi-period survey in the Taurus Mountains (www.biaatr.org/goksu). The five-year fieldwork was completed in 2006; a study season will take place in 2007, to be followed by publication. This project provides contextual information for a number of previously excavated sites (Alahan, Aloda, Dağpazarı) as well as recording low-lying areas threatened with flooding by a planned dam near Mut. Changes in regional culture are explored between the Paleolithic and the Ottoman periods, though focusing in particular on the fifth century AD, when a local, Zeno, became Roman emperor.
I am also writing a book on 'Cilicia and Rome in Late Antiquity'. This work covers the third to seventh centuries AD and focuses on what it meant to Cilicia and Isauria to be a part of the Late Roman Empire. These consequences are discussed thematically, with chapters focusing on cities, the economy, the gods, the emperor, etc. There is no book-length study of this region in the Roman or Late Roman periods. Nor have late antique scholars focused much on the problems of 'Romanization'. Draft chapters have been favorably reviewed by OUP though no contract has yet been issued.
My first book, Warfare in Roman Europe: AD 350-425 (Oxford University Press, 1996; paperback 1998) examined the development and interaction of the military systems of Rome and her European enemies during the decline of the late Roman Empire. This produced several important conclusions, that the barbarian threat had little coherence, and that when compared with Roman forces, the military capacities of the barbarians were low and did not improve during this period. The problem of defining what it meant to be Roman was highlighted in the discussion of the 'barbarization' of the army, where it was shown that the recruitment of soldiers born outside the empire has been exaggerated in both its extent and impact. Relationships between Romans and non-Romans were also covered in my short monograph, Frontiers of the Roman Empire (published by Batsford and Indiana University Press, 1996; selection of the History Book Club in the US). Here, the Roman frontier was examined as a series of overlapping zones (civil, economic, and military) with attention paid to both sides of the border. By defining these various zones, it thus becomes easier to understand Roman identity. I have explored the same theme of identity in a number of prosopographical articles on Roman army officers in late antiquity (Fravitta, Illus) and on ethnicity (review article, Romania et Gothia; Nature of the Sixth-century Isaurians).
I have also focused on similar questions of definition in collaborative work. In 1989, with John Drinkwater, I organized an international conference on "Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?", asking participants to assess the state of Romanization in Gaul in the fifth century AD. The proceedings were published by Cambridge University Press. I organized another focused international conference in 1997 with Gary Reger, titled "Regionalism in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor" at Trinity College, Connecticut. Here, we asked participants to examine the ways in which regions were defined in Asia Minor. The proceedings are currently being published by Ausonius Press, France. Last, I organized a panel at the 1999 APA Meeting, concerning 'Insiders and Outsiders in the Late Roman Empire'.
Warfare in the Roman Empire: A.D. 350-425 (Oxford: OUP, 1996, paperback 1998).
Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London: Batsford; Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1996).
Drinkwater, J.F., and ELTON, H.W., eds., Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge: CUP, 1992, paperback 2002).
"Ecclesiastical Politics in Late Antique Isauria", for Festschrift for Wolf Liebeschuetz, eds. J.F. Drinkwater and B. Salway, (London, Institute of Classical Studies, 2007), BICS Supp. 91, 77-85.
"Recent Work at Alahan, Turkey", Journal of Roman Archaeology 19 (2006), 300-311.
"Transformation of Government under Diocletian and Constantine", in Potter, D., ed., The Blackwell Companion to the Roman Empire (London: Blackwell, 2006), 193-205.
"Recent Work at Alahan", for Festschrift for Hayat Erkanal, ed. Günel, S., (Istanbul, Homer Kitabevi, 2006), 310-316.
"Göksu Archaeological Project 2002-2004", Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 23.1 (Ankara, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2006), 331-342.
"Warfare and the Military in the Age of Constantine" in The Cambridge Companion to Constantine, ed. N. Lenski (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), 325-346.
"LR 1 Amphorae and the economy of southern Asia Minor", in First International Conference on Late Roman Coarse Wares, Cooking Wares and Amphorae, Barcelona ed. J.M. Gurt i Esparraguera et al. BAR S1340 (Oxford: BAR, 2005), 691-695.
"Military supply on the south coast of Anatolia in the 3rd century AD", for Patterns in the Economy of Roman Asia Minor, ed. S. Mitchell and C. Katsari, (Swansea, Classical Press of Wales, 2005), 289-304.
with G. Greatrex and R. Burgess, "Urbicius' Epitedeuma: An Edition, Translation and Commentary", Byzantinische Zeitschrift 98 (2005), 35-74.
"Romanization and some Cilician Cults", for de Ligt, L. et al., eds., Roman rule and civic life: local and regional perspectives (Amsterdam: Gieben, 2004), 231-241.
"Cilicia, Geography and the Late Roman Empire", Travel, Communication and Geography in Late Antiquity, ed. L. Ellis and F. Kidner, (Aldershot: Variorum, 2004), 5-10.
"The economy of Cilicia in late antiquity", Olba 8 (2003), 173-181 + pl. 35-36.
"Alahan and Zeno", Anatolian Studies 52 (2002), 153-157.
"The Economic Fringe: The Reach of the Roman Empire in Rough Cilicia", in de Blois, L. and Rich, J., eds., The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire (Amsterdam: Gieben, 2002), 172-183.
"Illus and the Late Roman Aristocracy under Zeno", Byzantion 70 (2000), 393-407.
"The Nature of the Sixth-century Isaurians", in Mitchell, S. and Greatrex, G., eds., Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (Swansea: University of Wales Press, 2000), 293-307.
"Off the Battlefield: The Civilian's View of Late Roman Soldiers", Expedition 39.2 (1997), 42-50.
"Romans and Goths: Recent Approaches", review article on Heather, P., Goths and Romans; Liebeschuetz, J., Barbarians and Bishops; Cameron, A. and Long, J., Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius; Heather, P. and Matthews, J., The Goths in the Fourth Century, Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996), 566-574.
"Fravitta and Barbarian Career Opportunities in Constantinople", Medieval Prosopography 17/1 (1996), 95-106.
"Defining Romans, Barbarians and the Roman Frontier" in Mathisen, R.W. and Sivan, H.S., eds., Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (Aldershot: Variorum, 1996), 126-135.
"Tile Studies" in Coccia, S., Mattingly, D., et al., "The Rieti Survey 1988-1991, Part II. The Finds, Settlement Patterns and Gazetteer", Papers of the British School at Rome 63 (1995), 105-158.
"Roman Gold and Barbarian Kings", Medieval Europe 5 (1992), 25-30.
"The Defence of Gaul" in Drinkwater, J.F., and ELTON, H.W., eds., Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge: CUP, 1992), 167-176.
"The Tiles" in Coccia, S., Mattingly, D., et al., "Settlement History, Environment and Human Exploitation of an Intermontane Basin in the Central Apennines: the Rieti Survey, 1988-1991, Part I", Papers of the British School at Rome 60 (1992), 213-289.
"Historical evidence for Zeugma in light of the results of the 2000 Excavation", for PHI Rescue Excavations at Zeugma 2000, ed. W. Aylward, (5,000 words).
ELTON, H.W. and Reger, G., eds., Regionalism in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (Ausonius Press) (17 papers). Publication date: 2007
"Geography, Labels, Romans and Cilicia", in H. Elton and G. Reger, eds., Regionalism in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (3,000 words).
"Roman Military Forces from the Third to the Seventh Centuries" for The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, (12,500 words).
"Army and Battle in the Age of Justinian" for A Companion to the Roman Army, ed. P. Erdkamp (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007), 532-550.
"The Roman Countryside at Alahan, Turkey", in Lewin, A., ed., Settlement and Demography in Late Antiquity (Oxford, BAR), 63-69.
"Göksu Archaeological Project 2006", Anatolian Archaeology 12 (2006).
Cilicia and Rome in Late Antiquity, Book MS, sample chapters favorably reviewed by OUP
"Church Decoration in Late Roman Lycia", Proceedings of the Third Lycian Symposium 2005
"Cavalry in Late Roman Warfare"
Selected reviews and short articles (since 1999):
"Göksu Archaeological Project 2005", Anatolian Archaeology 11 (2005), 16-18.
"Göksu Archaeological Project", Anatolian Archaeology 10 (2004), 26-28.
Review of Hekster, O., Commodus: An Emperor at the Crossroads (Amsterdam: Gieben, 2002) in Journal of Roman Studies 93 (2003), 397
"Göksu Archaeological Project", Anatolian Archaeology 9 (2003), 28-30.
Review of Merkelbach, R. and Stauber, J., Steinepigramme aus dem Griechischen Osten, vol. 3, (Munich, K.G. Saur Verlag, 2001) in Classical Review 53 (2003) 486-487.
Review of Ross, S.K., Roman Edessa (London: Routledge, 2000) in Classical Review 52 (2002), 133-134
"Göksu Archaeological Project", Anatolian Archaeology 8 (2002), 24.
Review of Harrison, M., Mountain and Plain (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2001) in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02.03.07.
Review of Gabrielsen, V., The Naval Aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes (Aarhus, Aarhus University Press, 1997) for International Journal of Maritime History 13.1 (2001), 238.
Review of Müller, F.L., ed. and tr., Vegetius: Abriss des Militärwesens (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1997) in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2001.01.13.
Review of Lund, A., Die ersten Germanen: Ethnizität und Ethnogenese (Heidelberg, Universitätsverlag C. Winter, 1998) in Classical Review 49 (1999), 609-610.
Presentations (since 1998):
October 2007 "The Göksu Archaeological Project 2002-2006", Rough Cilicia: New Approaches, Lincoln, Nebraska
March 2007 "Imperial politics and religion in the mid-fifth century east", Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity 7, Boulder, Colorado
March 2007 "Imperial Campaigning from Diocletian to Honorius", Late Antique Archaeology, Oxford
January 2007 "The Göksu Archaeological Project 2002-2006", University of Alberta
January 2007 "The Face of Ancient Battle: problems in describing Ancient Battle from Keegan to Hanson", Edmonton, University of Alberta
November 2006 "The Göksu Archaeological Project 2002-2006", Queen's University, Ontario
October 2006 "Introduction to the Göksu Archaeological Project" TUARC, Trent University
May 2006 "Archaeology in Turkey: Permits and Fieldwork", Princeton
May 2006 "Recent Work at Alahan", ARİT Seminar, Ankara, with James Newhard
March 2006 "Göksu Arkeoloji Projesi", Silifke Müzesi Konferansları, Silifke, March 2006
January 2006 "The Göksu Archaeological Project 2002-2005", AIA Meeting, Montreal, with James Newhard.
November 2005 "Church Decoration in Late Roman Lycia", Third International Symposium on Lycia, Antalya.
July 2005 "In the Heart of the Taurus: The Göksu Archeological Project", Classics Triennial Conference, Cambridge.
May 2005 "Göksu Yüzey Araştırmaları 2003-4", Turkish Archaeology Symposium, Antalya.
May 2005 "Cavalry in Late Roman Warfare", The Late Roman Army in the Near East, Matera, Italy.
January 2005 "The Use of GIS-Based Sampling in Archaeological Survey", with James
Newhard, Norm Levine and Allen Rutherford, AIA/APA Meeting, Boston.
September 2004 "Göksu Yüzey Araştırmaları", IX Mersin Arkeoloji Günleri, Mersin.
March 2004 "In the Heart of Isauria: The Göksu Archaeological Project 2003", ARIT Winter Seminar, Ankara.
June 2003 "Romanization and some Cilician Cults", Impact of the Roman Empire Workshop, University of Leiden.
June 2003 "Birth of Christianity", Mersin, Mosaic Project (EU funded).
May 2003 "The Göksu Archaeological Project 2003", Turkish Archaeology Symposium, Ankara.
November 2002 "Ecclesiastical Politics in Fifth and Sixth Century Isauria", Oxford University.
October 2002 "Isauria in Late Antiquity", University of Liverpool.
July 2002 "Military supply on the south coast of Anatolia in the 3rd century AD", The Economy and Society of Roman Asia Minor, Exeter.
June 2002 "The economy of Cilicia in late antiquity", Third International Symposium on Cilician Archaeology, Mersin.
March 2002 "The Structure of the Late Roman Army: Gallienus to Heraclius", Ancient Warfare, Warwick.
March 2002 "LR 1 Amphorae and the economy of southern Asia Minor", Late Roman Coarse Wares, Cooking Wares and Amphorae, Barcelona.
November 2001 "The Emperor Zeno and Some Cilician Churches", AGM lecture, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London.
July 2001 "Villages in Roman Isauria", Impact of the Roman Empire Workshop, University of Nottingham.
March 2001 "Cilicia, Geography and the Late Roman Empire", Shifting Frontiers IV, San Francisco State University.
October 1999 "The Economy of Southern Asia Minor in the Early Byzantine Period", Byzantine Studies Conference, University of Maryland, MD.
March 1999 "Monasteries and Pilgrimage in Cilicia and Isauria", Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity III, Emory University.
February 1999 "Ardabur, Aspar and Ardabur: A Military Family in Fifth-Century
Constantinople", Elites in Late Antiquity Conference, UCLA.
November 1998 "Isaurian Identity and the Empire of Justinian", Byzantine Studies Conference, Lexington, Kentucky.
RECENT WORK EXPERIENCE:
I was Director of the British Institute at Ankara (BIAA) between August 2001 and August 2006. The position involved working with a wide range of researchers, mostly from UK universities, including geologists, historians, textual specialists, and anthropologists. Similarly, although the Institute is primarily concerned with Turkey, it also has strong interests in countries surrounding the Black Sea. The Director's position during this period was defined as 50% research, 50% administration. In Ankara, two major administrative responsibilities were to assist in drafting the Corporate Plan and Research Policy, and to help prepare the annual applications for funding to the British Academy. Other responsibilities were the day-to-day running of the Ankara office (local staff of four full-time and two part-time as well as a post-doctoral fellow and graduate researcher; annual budget of c. £80,000), handling queries from researchers, managing the library acquisitions process (annual budget, c. £20,000), building and staff safety, and determining and implementing IT policy. Frequent liaison with the Turkish archaeological authorities, the British Embassy, and the British Council taught me how to work effectively with high-level non-specialists. I was also part of the Research Committee which distributed the BIAA's research grants to researchers, and made recommendations regarding grants from the BIAA to Turkish academics. Both of these activities, as well as working with applicants for Institute grants have greatly improved my own grant writing skills. I also acted as a referee for the Institute's journal, Anatolian Studies. All these tasks required frequent contact with academics based in the UK and elsewhere.
I was also involved in three large additional projects beyond the usual functions of the Institute. The first was upgrading the library facilities and making the library catalogue web-accessible, thanks to a $75,000 grant from the Packard Humanities Institute. The second was helping to create and administer the British Academy Black Sea Initiative, a three year (2002-2005) interdisciplinary program designed to encourage British research in the Black Sea Region. The third was providing archaeological advice for the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline. This $3.5 billion project involved 17 salvage excavations over 1,076 km of pipeline in Turkey. I was responsible for providing advice about current best international practice about the archaeology, Health and Safety, and capacity improvement for Turkish archaeologists. On-going consultancy work is focusing on timely publication. This involves working with the Environmental Impact Assessment team of BTC (the pipeline management company) as well as with Turkish archaeologists in both Ankara and the field. These projects enabled me to develop new skills (particularly in project management) and a wide range of professional contacts.
Although my recent archaeological work has been concentrated in Turkey, I have a wide range of experience in other areas of the Mediterranean, as well as the UK and northern France, as shown below. Similarly, though my current project is a field survey, I have extensive excavation experience. Most recently this was at Zeugma, where I was responsible for Trench 2, a 20 x 40 m area containing several Roman houses. This involved managing a team of 7 archaeologists and 30 workmen, as well as liaising with conservators and managing an on-call machine.
The work in the Göksu (www.biaatr.org/goksu) has involved students from both the US and the UK. Techniques used on the survey include intensive-fieldwalking, extensive survey, magnetometry, satellite imagery, and GIS analysis of data in the field. In the second phase, some excavation may be possible. From 2007, I am acting as the Field Director of the Beyözü Project (joint Princeton-Birmingham UK-Freiburg). This interdisciplinary multi-period survey is focusing on an area north-east of Ankara near modern Çorum. From 2008, I hope to be able to take a team of Trent students as part of this project.
Brough-on-Noe, UK, 1985 (Resistivity)
Greet Valley, UK, 1986 (Intensive field walking)
Nemea, Greece, 1986-1987 (Intensive field walking, tile specialist)
Rieti, Italy, 1989-1991 (Intensive field walking, team leading, tile specialist)
Somme Valley, France, 1991 (Intensive field walking)
Balboura, Turkey, 1991 (Intensive field walking)
Aperlai, Turkey, 1996 (Cistern specialist)
Göksu Valley, Turkey, 2002-2006 (Project Director)
Longthorpe Roman Fort, UK, 1985 (Excavator)
Anglo Saxon Cemetery, UK, 1990 (Excavator)
Cambridge Archaeological Unit, UK, 1991-1992 (Iron Age and salvage work) (Excavator)
Cosa, Italy, 1991-1992 (Excavator)
Rieti, Italy, 1991, 1992 (Trench Supervisor)
Caesarea Maritima, Israel, 1995 (Trench Supervisor, responsible for students on Trinity College Study Abroad program)
Oinoanda, Turkey (1999-2000) (Project Director; money raised, but permit not granted; designed Study Abroad Program for FIU student participation)
Zeugma, Turkey, 2000 (Trench Supervisor).
COURSES TAUGHT (1993-2006):
Survey Courses Daily Life in the Roman World (F 95, F 96, F97)
Greek History (F 93, Sum 94, F 94)
Roman History (S 95, F 97, S 98, F 98, F99, FS 06-07)
Byzantine History (S 99)
Introduction to Ancient History (F 97)
Western Civilization: Part 1 (S 98, F 98, Sum 99, F99, S00)
Language Courses Augustan Literature (Virgil, Horace, Livy) (S 96, S 97)
Intermediate Latin (FS 06-07)
Tacitus, Agricola (S 96)
Homer and Herodotus (S 97)
Advanced Courses Age of Alexander the Great (F 95, F97, S00)
Ancient Warfare (FS 06-07)
Archaeology in Israel (field course, at Caesarea Maritima) (Sum 95)
Byzantine, Arab and Turkish Empires (S 98)
Classical City (S 95)
Collapse of the Roman Empire (F 93, S00)
Roman Imperial History (S 93, S 94)
Roman Imperial Provinces (S 95, S 97)
Roman Republican History (F 93)
Seminar Courses Art and Architecture of the Near East in the Roman Era (F 95)
Roman Imperial Warfare (S 93, F 94)
Graduate Courses Age of Alexander the Great (F 96)
Collapse of the Roman Empire (Sum 97)
Roman Britain (S 97)
The Archaeology of Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (Sum 03)(Sum 06)
(with Stephen Mitchell, Exeter)
Professional (since 1998):
Nominated as President, APA Three Year Colloquium on Late Antiquity (resigned when appointed to Ankara)
1999 Program Committee, Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity 4 (2001)
1998-2000 Governing Body, The Society for Late Antiquity
1998-2002 Governing Body, Byzantine Studies Conference
I have acted as a referee for Dumbarton Oaks, the Loeb Foundation, AHRC (British equivalent of the SSHRC/NEH), and Royal Geographic Society research grant applications, for the periodicals Anatolian Studies, Antiquity, and Dumbarton Oaks Papers, and have reviewed book manuscripts for Oxford University Press, California University Press, Oklahoma University Press, Blackwell, and Routledge. I have reviewed promotion cases to full professor for University of Nebraska and Trinity College, CT. At FIU, I served on the Departmental Undergraduate Committee (the steering committee for undergraduate affairs) and created an interdisciplinary Ancient Mediterranean Civilization Certificate Program which linked courses from History, Humanities, Philosophy, English and Religious Studies.
Awards ($500 or over):
2005 Temple to Church: EU Culture 2000, 50,000 Euro, (shared with 3 other projects).
2005 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £18,000 for Göksu Project.
2004 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £19,500 for Göksu Project.
2004 Dumbarton Oaks, $3,000 for Göksu Project (not taken up).
2003 Society of Antiquaries, £1,500 for Göksu Project.
2003 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £17,500 for Göksu Project.
2002 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £8,000, for Göksu Project.
2000 FIU Grant-in-Aid Program, $840 for travel in Turkey (summer).
2000 FIU Grant-in-Aid Program, $900 for travel in Turkey (spring).
2000 Hugh Last Fund (Roman Society) £500 for Oinoanda Project.
2000 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £8,000, for Oinoanda Project.
1999 FIU Grant-in-Aid Program, $1,000 for travel in Turkey (autumn).
1999 with Martin Smith, AHRB, £5,250, for Oinoanda Project.
1999 British Institute of Archaeology in Anatolia, £7,000, for Oinoanda Project.
1999 FIU Grant-in-Aid Program, $900 for travel in Turkey (summer).
1997 Dean's Grant for Conference Promotion, $5,000, for "Regionalism in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor Conference", with Gary Reger.
1997 Trinity College Faculty Enrichment Grant, $1,000, for Reading Group in Ancient Anatolia, with A.D. Macro, Gary Reger.
1996 Trinity College Faculty Enrichment Grant, $1,000, for Reading Group in Ancient Anatolia, with A.D. Macro, Gary Reger.
1995 Trinity College Faculty Enrichment Grant, $1,000, for Reading Group in Late Antiquity, with Gary Reger, Julia Smith.
University Service: Trent University (2006-)
Ancient History and Classics
Chair, AH + C, July 2007-
Chair Search Committee, 2006
Greek Historian Search Committee, 2006-7
MARS Liaison Committee, 2006-
Graduate Studies Committee, 2006-7
Curriculum and Regulations Subcommittee, 2006-7
Reviewer for Internal SSHRC applicants for MA and PhD grants, 2006-7
Member of Anthropology Graduate Programme, 2006-
Member of TUARC, 2006-