Austin Chalk Prairie Plant List




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  1. Austin Chalk Prairie Plant List


By Scott Lenharth and Coby Dinges

Trees & Shrubs


Texas almond (Prunus minutiflora) – hay meadow, Lamar/Howard triangle, Howard.

New Jersey tea (Ceanothus herbaceous) – hay meadow, immense colony on Dessau chalk dome.

Agarita (Berberis trifoliata)

Twist-leaf yucca (Yucca rupicola)

Arkansas yucca (Yucca arkansana) – hybrids at Parmer on high chalk??

Toothache tree (Zanthoxylum hirsutum)

Mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa)

Hackberry (Celtis laevigata)

Bumelia (Bumelia lanuginosa)

Kidneywood (Eysenhardtia texana)

Elbow bush (Forestiera pubescens)

Ashe Juniper (Juniperus Ashei)

NOT AT HAY MEADOW Eastern Red Juniper (Juniperus virginiana)

Lantana (Lantana horrida)

Lantana (Lantana Camara) – Howard, hybridized with horrida, probably escaped from old home site.

Rough-Leaf Dogwood (Cornus drummondii)

Huisache (Acacia farnesiana)

NOT AT HAY MEADOW Creek Plum (Prunus rivularis)

Chickasaw Plum (Prunus angustifolia) – Parmer, along tributary, big colony.

Carolina Buckthorn (Rhamnus caroliniana) – only at WC137x197 chalk woodland, with Durand oak/yellow buckeye/red buckeye/hawthorn/red oak/Mexican buckeye.




Cactus


Plains nipple cactus (Escobaria missouriensis var. robustior)

Prairie prickly pear (Opuntia macrorhiza)

Prickly pear (Opuntia lindheimeri var Englmania)
Grasses & Sedges

Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) – co-dominant at hay meadow

Meadow dropseed (Sporobolus clandestinus) – co-dominant at hay meadow

Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula) – co-dominant at hay meadow


Witchgrass (Panicum capillare) – old chalk roads

Purple 3-awn (Aristida purpurea)

Hall’s panicum (Panicum Hallii) – common, nice colony at WC169CDS

Silver bluestem (Bothriochloa saccharoides)

Texas grama (Bouteloua rigidiseta)

Hairy grama (Bouteloua hirsuta) – high chalk (Eddy), mostly WC169CDS.

Hairy tridens (Erioneuron pilosum)

Slim tridens (Tridens muticus var. muticus)

Red grama (Bouteloua trifida) – high chalk (Eddy)

Texas wintergrass (Nasella leucotricha)

Little barley (Hordeum pusillum)

Ozark grass (Limnodea arkansana)

Plains lovegrass (Eragrostis intermedia)

Windmill grass (Chloris verticillata)

Texas cupgrass (Eriochloa sericea) – huge amount in field E/adjoining hay meadow.

Small-toothed prairie caric sedge (Carex microdonta) – pervasive in grasses.

Spike rush (Eleocharis spp) – swale at Parmer.

Cedar sedge (Carex planostachys) – in with grasses, less common that microdonta.

Vine Mesquite (Panicum obtusum) – big colony at hay meadow, Austin soil.

Seep muhly (Muhlenbergia reverchonii) – small amounts at hay meadow.

Reverchon bristlegrass (Setaria reverchonii)

Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides)

Red sprangletop (Leptochloa filoformis) – waste fields below hay meadow.

Green Sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia) – small colony at Parmer only.

Common Sixweeksgrass (Vulpia octoflora)


Vines


Mustang grape (Vitis mustangensis)

Old man’s beard (Clematis drummondii)

Milkweed vine #1 (Sarcostemma crispum)

Milkweed vine #2 (Cynanchum sp.)

Snout bean (Rhynchosia texana) – extremely common at Dessau Rd.

Purple Milkweed Vine (Matelea bifora)

Common milkweed vine (Matelea reticulata)

Dewberry (Rubus trivialis)

Snailseed vine (Cocculus carolinus) – pervasive at hay meadow.

Balloon Vine (Cardiospermum halicacabum) – below hay meadow, by creek.

Cowitch Vine (Cissus incisa)

Forbs


Purple Horsemint (Monarda citriodora)

Heller’s Plaintain (Plantago helleri)

Texas Dandelion (Pyrrhopappus multicaulis)

Corn Salad (Valerianella amarella)

Agalinus (Agalinus heterophylla)

Wild Hyacinth (Camassia scilloides)

Noseburn (Tragia ramosa)

Noseburn (Tragia brevispica)

Dodder (Cuscuta sp.)

Rabbit Tobacco (Evax verna)

Rabbit Tobacco (Evax prolifera)

Ground Cherry (Physalis lobata)

False Nightshade (Chamaesaracha sordida)

Buffalo Bur (Solanum rostratum)

Antelope Horns (Asclepias asperula)

Green Milkweed (Asclepias viridis)

Zigzag Milkweed (Asclepias viridiflora)

Silver-Leaf Nightshade (Solanum elaegnifolium)

Common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

Maximilian Sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)

Snakeherb (Dyschoriste linearis)

Wild Petunia (Ruellia nudiflora var. nudiflora)

Wild Petunia (Ruellia nudiflora var. metzae)

Texas Star (Lindheimera texana)

Crow Poison (Nothoscordum bivalve)

White rosinweed (Silphium albiflorum)

Whitlow grass (Draba cuneifolia)

Wild geranium (Geranium carolinianum)

Stork’s bill (Erodium texanum)

Yellow flax (Linum rigidum var Berlandieri)

Variegated winecup (Callirhoe involucrata) – Wmsn cnty, var lineariloba, on chalk.

Standing winecup (Callirhoe digitata) – much more common than involucrata.

Red gaura (Gaura coccinea) – huge colony at Parmer.

Lime gaura (Gaura calcicola)

Other gaura (perennial but not coccinea)

Annual gaura (Gaura parviflora)

Tall gaura (Gaura filiformis ssp filiformis) - species is guess, at top of hay meadow. Unlike anything else we’ve seen.

Texas blazing star (Liatris mucronata) – common in grazed chalk areas.

Western paintbrush (Castilleja purpurea var Lindheimeri)

Texas Paintbrush (Castilleja indivisa)

Bladderpod (Lesquerella densiflora)

Ratany (Krameria lanceolata)

Golden Dalea (Dalea aura)

Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea compacta)

Round-headed prairie clover (Dalea multiflora)

Black dalea (Dalea frutescens)

Nine-anther dalea (Dalea enneandra) – not hay meadow or Parmer, but Gattis School Rd and WC100 – both chalk.

Prairie foxglove (Penstemon cobea)

Mealy Blue Sage (Salvia farinacea)

Prairie baccharis (Baccharis texana)

Low Wild Mercury (Argythamnia simulans)

Leaf Flower (Phyllanthus polygonoides)

Fern Acacia (Acacia angustissima)

Gray-Golden Aster (Heterotheca canescens)

Wild Garlic (Allium drummondii)

Venus’ Looking Glass (Triodanis perfoliata)

Fall Gumweed (Grindelia lanceolata)

Woolly Ironweed (Vernonia lindheimeri)

Ironweed (Vernonia guadalupensis) – not hay meadow, but WC169 cul-de-sac.

Queen’s delight (Stilingia texana)

Englemann sage (Salvia englemannia)

Texas sage (Salvia texana)

Annual broomweed (Xanthocephalum dracunculoides)

Snow-on-the-prairie (Euphorbia bicolor)

Roemer’s Spurge (Euphorbia roemeriana)

Prairie Spurge (Euphorbia missurica)

Eyebane (Euphorbia nutans)

Doveweed (Croton monanthogynus)

Indian blanket (Gallardia pulchella)

Bluets (Hedyotis nigricans)

Bluebonnets (Lupinis texensis)

Prairie larkspur (Delphinium carolinianum spp. penardii)

Ground plum (Astragalus crassicarpus var crassicarpus) – endemic variety?

Rain lily (Cooperia pedunculata)

Funnel flower (Androstephium coeruleum)

Big-root cymopterus (Cymopterus macrorhizus) – hay meadow and Howard x cemetery field.

Wild onion (Allium canadense var canadense)

Englemann daisy (Englemannia pinnatifida)

Texas parsley (Polytaenia texana)

Puccoon (Lithospermum incisum)

Scarlet Pea (Indigofera miniata)

Texas Bindweed (Convolvulus equitans)

Mock Pennyroyal (Hedeoma drummondii)

Annual Pennyroyal (Hedeoma acinoides)

Bush Sunflower (Simsia calva)

Illinois Bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis)

Creeping Bundleflower (Desmanthus velutinus)

Eryngo (Eryngium leavenworthii)

Wild buckwheat (Eriogonum longifolium)

Windflower (Anemone heterophylla)

Barbara’s buttons (Marshallia caespitosa var. signata)

Wild heliotrope (Heliotropium tenellum)

Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisifolia)

Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

Western Ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya)

Prairie celestial (Nemastylis geminiflora)

Bush skullcap (Scutellaria resinosa)

Annual skullcap (Scutellaria Drummondii)

Buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima)

Indian turnip (Psorelea cuspidata)

Cucumber plant (Pariataria pennsylvanica)

Meadow pink (Sabatia campestris)

Texas dandelion (Pyrrhopappus multicaulis)

Prairie kuhnia (Brickellia eupataroides var texana) – Parmer x I35 in Austin soil near low point.

Tickseed (Desmodium paniculatum) – Parmer x I35 in Austin soil near low point – with prairie kuhnia.

Navajo tea (Thelesperma simplicifolium)

Greenthread (Thelesperma filifolium)

Blue-Eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium ensigerum) – species??

Peppergrass (Lepidium virginicum)

Western Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis)

Giant Spiderwort (Tradescantia gigantea) – Austin/Houston soils.

Two-Leaved Senna (Cassia roemeriana)

Partridge Pea (Chamaecrista fasciculata)

White Aster (Aster ericoides)

Prairie Coneflower (Ratibida columnaris)

Yellow bitterweed (Helenium amarum)

Slender-leaf bitterweed (Tetraneuris scaposa)

Annual bitterweed (Tetraneuris linearifolia)

Palafoxia (Palafoxia callosa)

Old plainsman (Hymenopappus scabiosaeus)

Basketflower (Centaurea americana)

Texas thistle (Cirsium texanum)

Skeleton plant (Lygodesmia texana)

Gray Vervain (Verbena canescens)

Four-O’clock (Mirabilis linearis) – Parmer, at least

White Prickly Poppy (Argemone albiflora)

Sensitive Briar (Mimosa quadravalvis)

Sida (Sida filicaulis)

Blue Gilia (Gilia rigidula var. rigidula)

Evening Primrose (Oenothera speciosa)

Yellow Primrose (Oenothera triloba)

Calylophus (Calylophus drummondianus)

Prairie verbena (Verbena bipinnatifida)

Redbud (Menodora heterophylla)

Prairie Bishop’s weed (Bifora americana)

Lady Bird’s Centaury (Centaurium texense)




Trees & Shrubs


American elm (Ulmus americana) – Grand Ave Pkwy and MoKan Prairie, in seasonal creek.

Osage orange (Maclura ponifera) – as American elm.

Willow (Salix nigra var. lindheimeri)

Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) – creek below hay meadow.

Rattlebush (Sesbania drummondii) – same.

Mt laurel (Sophora secundiflora) – Dessau chalk dome.



Grasses & Sedges


White tridens (Tridens albescens)

Bushy bluestem (Andropogon glomeratus) – in high chalk, rarely (Eddy).

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) – near hay meadow.

Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) – near hay meadow, also Parmer.

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) – Parmer and Grand Ave Pkwy.

Sedge (Cyperess sp.) – how many species??

Spike rush (Eleocharis sp.)

Carolina canary grass (Phalaris caroliniana) – swales, Parmer.

Eastern Gama Grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) – creeks in chalk, WC100.

Canada Wild Rye (Elymus canadensis) – Parmer, Austin soil.




Vines


Balsam gourd (Ibervillea Lindheimeri)

Peppervine (Ampelopsis arborea)



Forbs


Texas bluebell (Eustoma russellianum) – below hay meadow, also low area near Dessau chalk dome, also Howard, Austin soils.

Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)

Prairie goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis) – high chalk, Gattis School Rd

Sumpweed (Iva angustifolia)

Sumpweed (Iva annua)

Frogfruit (Phyla incisa)

White avens (Geum canadense) – in woods, Austin soil, Parmer and MoKan Prairie

Western ironweed (Vernonia Baldwinii) – Austin soils

Golden groundsel (Senecio obovatus…) – as white avens

Ranunculus macrantha – Parmer, even in high chalk.

Tall blue sage (Salvia azurea var. grandiflora) – Howard, in Austin soil, very deep.

California Loosestrife (Lythrum californicum) – WC169CDS, rare, usually with big blue.

Annual Aster (Aster subulatus)

Water Primrose (Ludwigia sp.) – Parmer, in swale.

Clasping-Leaf Coneflower (Dracopis amplexicaulis) – low areas, common.

Marsh Fleabane

Sneezeweed (Helenium sp.)

Smartweed (Polygonum)

Brazoria scutellaroides

Texas vervain (Verb s)



Coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)

Philadelphia fleabane


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