Apparent Cause Example Reference




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Pathways to Invasion – November 2005 – MPWG Question of the Month


Apparent Cause

Example

Reference

Contaminated Crop Seed

Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.)

Gerlach 1997




Camelthorn (Alhagi camelorum Medik.)

Tellman 1996

Railroad/road expansion

Cheat grass (Bromus tectorum L.)

Gerlach 1997




Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.)

Gerlach 1997

Immigrant traditional crops and farming practices

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

Tellman 1996




Tumbleweed (Salsold kali Pallas)

Tellman 1996

Horticultural pursuits

Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle)

Tellman 1996




Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.)

Tellman 1996




Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.)

Tellman 1996




Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.)

Bergmann and Swearingen 2005

Commerce (ballast, packing materials)

Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.)

Tellman 1996




Camelthorn (Alhagi camelorum Fisch.)

Tellman 1996

Animal carriers / pedestrian trails (seeds in fur or on human clothing/shoes)

Filaree (Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. Ex Ait.) *

Tellman 1996




Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.)

Miller 2004




Needlegrass (Achnatherum brachychaetum Godr.) M.E.Barkworth)

Miller 2004




Smutgrass (Sporobolus indicus R. Br. and Sporobolus indicus var. pyramidalis (Beauv.) Veldkamp)

Miller 2004




Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus)

Miller 2004

Intentional forage plantings

Buffel Grass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link)

Tellman 1996




Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flugge)

Miller 2004




Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.)

Miller 2004

Equestrian trails, deer, cattle

Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal)

Miller 2004

*The presence of filaree in Native American adobe bricks pre-dating 1769 suggests that this species arrived prior to the Spaniards (Tellman 1996).


References:
Barbour, M.G. 1996. California Landscapes Before the Invaders. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council 1996 Symposium. .
Bergmann, C. and J.M. Jil M. Swearingen. 2005. Multiflora rose. Plant Conservation Alliance-Alien Plant Working Group Fact Sheet. .
Gerlach, J. D. 1997. How the West Was Lost: Reconstructing the Invasion Dynamics of Yellow Starthistle and Other Plant Invaders of Western Rangelands and Natural Areas. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council 1997 Symposium. .
Miller, J. 2004. Invasive plant species how they can affect trail access (and how you can help prevent their access). Southeastern Equestrian Trails Conference, July 29-31, Atlanta, Georgia, p. 1-3. .
Tellman, B. 1996). Stowaways and Invited Guests: How Some Exotic: Plants Reached the American Southwest. Proceedings of the California Exotic Pest Plant Council 1996 Symposium. .


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