Aphids control Aphididae




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Aphids control Aphididae

Aphids of the family Aphididae feed on most plants, especially on the young shoots. Aphids can become a pest when uncontrolled in different plants. They suck the sap from the leaves which curl and wilt. Aphids produce honey-dew (a sticky substance) which attracts ants, fruit flies and other pests. Another problem with aphids is that they transmit virus diseases. Some aphids produce a toxin which may kill young plants.

Aphids vary in colour from green, yellow, brown, grey, white and black. When they are feeding they usually live in large numbers close together on mostly young shoots of plants.

Adults can produce up to 20 offspring’s a day. They live up to two weeks under optimal conditions. When the host plant is getting too crowded wing development will occur.

Healthy plants develop their own in built resistance to aphid attacks.
Management practices:


  • Reduce ants in the fields as they spread aphids.

  • Increase plant diversity by crop rotation and intercropping.

  • Trap cropping: Intercrop with plants that attract aphids so the number of aphids is reduced in the crop. Plants like milkweed, sowthistle and black nightshade do attract aphids and reduce the aphids in the crop.

  • Use compost manure since this makes plant healthy and more resistant against attacks.

  • Practice companion planting; Plant repellents within the crop; like marigold, chives, parsley, pigeon pea, onion, garlic, basil, fennel. These plants repel aphids.

  • Stimulate the appearance of predators and parasites through maintaining their breeding places by keeping natural surroundings. Predators include ladybirds, lacewing larvae, parasitic wasps, small birds and spiders.

  • Check if there is a phosphorus deficiency.

Control:


  • From Kenya good results are reported for the control of Aphids in vegetable gardens. 100 grams of hot chilli peppers are finely crushed, and mixed in water. This should be allowed to stand overnight. The solutions should be filtered through a clot and sprayed onto the plants. If spray is not available, use twigs or grass, or a bottle with holes in the lid.

  • Ingredients: 120 gr chillies, 3 heads garlic, 3 sour oranges small piece of soap

Chop the ingredients without the soap fine and add water. Leave the mixture for at least one night. Filter the solution. Use 2 litres of the solution and add 18 litres of water and the soap before spraying. Spray with this solution every for or five days. Care should be taken to identify the proper concentration.

  • Dissolve 30 cc liquid soap in 5 litres of water. Test the solution on a single plant. When the concentration is too high, burns (spots) will appear on the plant. If this happens dilute more.

  • Stir 2 cups of white flour into 5 – 10 litres of water. Stir the solution well before application. Apply this in the morning so that the sun can dry the mixture. This will result in flour encrusted insects that shrivel and die.

  • Store cow urine in the sun for two weeks. Dilute the urine by 6 times before spraying. Test it first on the leaves and fruit of the plants, and dilute more if necessary. Apply a second spraying after 1 week for better results.

  • Put 3 cow pats in a bucket of water. Sore it for two weeks, while stirring every day. To reduce the small stones and cloth can be added. Dilute the solution 5 times before spraying. Other animal manure can be similarly used. Always test it before applying on a single plant.

  • 1 kg of ginger rhizome are grinded into a paste. Mix this with 15 litres of water and leave it overnight. Filter the mixture. Add liquid soap at a rate of 4 ml/litre. Use about 5 kg of ginger to spray half a hectare with this extract.

  • Seeds from unripe Annona (Annona spp. soursop, custard apple or sweetsop) are ground. Soak the grounded seeds in water, use 40 grams for 1 litre of water. Leave the preparation overnight and filter the next day before spraying. The seeds can also be dried and crushed and spread directly on the affected spots.

  • Remove the flesh of the fallen fruits from Neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds. Wash away any remaining shreds. Dry the seed well to avoid growth of moulds. Seeds are pounded and soaked overnight in water. Use 40 - 50 grams of seed powder per litre of water. Filter the solution and spray on infested plants.

  • Crush large quantities of fresh Marigold (Tagetes spp.) flowers (roots and leaves can be added) and put this in water. Leave this for 5 to 7 days while stirring daily. Filter the mixture using a cloth. Dilute the mixture and add liquid soap (use soft soap used for washing dishes and not washing powders since these can harm plants). This is a effective solution against many insects like ants, aphids and grasshoppers. Preventative this should be applied once a week.


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