|APES Energy Problems
Energy: The basic unit of energy is a Joule (J). Other units are calorie, kilojoule, British Thermal Unit (BTU), and therm.
1000J = 1 kJ
1000cal = 1kcal
1 cal = 4.184 J
1 BTU = 1.05 kJ
1 therm = 100,000 BTU
Power: Power is the rate at which energy is used. (P = E/t) Unit: Watt
1W = 1J/s (1Watt = 1 Joule per second)
A 100 Watt bulb uses 100 J/sec of electrical energy. If it is 20% efficient, then the bulb converts 20% of the electrical energy into light and 80% is wasted by being transformed into heat (ever felt a hot light bulb?).
What is the example of the First Law of Thermodynamics above?
Electric energy transformed into light and heat energy
This is the law of the conservation of energy. It states that energy can neither be created, nor can it be destroyed. This means that the total amount of energy in the universe always remains conserved, or constant. However, energy can be changed from one form to another.
What is the example of the Second Law of Thermodynamics above?
The 20% efficiency (80% waste) increasing disorder
This is the law of increasing entropy. It states that the entropy of the universe increases with every physical process (change) that occurs. Entropy refers to the level of disorder, randomness, or chaos, of a system, the higher the randomness of a system, the higher its entropy. The more organized a system, the lower its entropy.
1. How much energy, in kJ, does a 75 Watt light bulb use then it is turned on for 25 minutes?
75 W-> 75 J/s (60 sec/min)(25 min)(kJ/1000J)= 112.5 kJ
2. The Kilowatt Hour, or kWh, is not a unit of power but of energy. Notice that kilowatt is a unit of power and hour is a unit of time. E = P x t (rearranged from above). A kilowatt hour is equal to 1 kW delivered continuously for 1 hour (3600 sec). Convert a 1 KWh to KJ’s.
1 kWh = 1000 J x 3600 sec = 3.6 x 106 J = 3600 kJ
3. Assume your electric bill showed you used 1355 kWh over a 30-day period.
a.) Find the energy used, in kJ, for the 30 day period.
1355 kWh (3600kJ/1 kWh)= 4,878,000 kJ
b.) Find the energy used in J/day.
4,878,000 kJ/30 days (1000J/kJ)= 1.626 x 10 8 J/day
c) At the rate of $.0749/kwh, what will your electric bill be for this month?
$.0749/kWh (1355 kWh)= $101.49
4. A 100 Watt light bulb is 20% efficient. 100 W= 100 J/s
a.) How much energy does it use in 12 hours of operation?
12 h (3600 s/h) (100 J/s)= 4,320,000 J = 4.32 x 10 6 J
b.) How much energy does the bulb convert to light during 12 hours?
4.32 x 10 6 J x .2 = 864,000 J light
c.) Convert total energy use to kWh
4.32 x 10 6 J ( 1kWh/ 3.6 x 10 6 J) = 1.2 kWh
5. An electric clothes dryer has a power rating of 4000 W. Assume a family does 5 loads of laundry each week for 4 weeks. Assume each dryer load takes 1 hour.
a.) Find the energy used in J and kWh. 4000 W = 4000 J/s
4000 J/s ( 1h/load)(5 loads/week)(4 weeks)(3600s/h)= 288,000,000 J = 2.88 x 10 8 J
288,000,000 J ( 1 kWh/3,600,000 J ) = 80 kWh
b.) Find the operating cost for 4 weeks. Assume cost is $.0758/kWh
$.0758/kWh (80 kWh) = $ 6.06
6. Refrigeration is costly in terms of energy usage. A single-door, manual defrost refrigerator uses 600 kilowatt hours/year (abbreviated kWh/yr). A large, 20 cu ft two-door automatic defrost refrigerator uses 1880 kWh/yr. How many kcal/yr do each type of refrigerator use? 1kWh = 860kcal.
600 kWh/yr (860 kcal/ kWh) = 516,000 kcal/yr
1880 kWh/yr (860 kcal/ kWh) = 1,616,800 kcal/yr
7. Assume you use an air conditioner for a total of 137 days, 24 hours per day, at a rate of 7.25 kWh per hour. Assume the cost per kWh is $.0825 and 1 kWh = 3400 BTUs.
a.) Calculate the total number of kWh used per year.
137 days/ yr (24 h/day) (7.25 kWh/h) = 23,838 kWh/yr
b.) Determine the cost of air conditioning for one year.
23,838 kWh/yr ( $.0825/ kWh) = $1966.64/yr
c.) How many kcal are used per year?
23,838 kWh/yr (860 kcal/kWh) = 20, 500,680 kcal/yr
d.) How many BTUs are used in one year?
23,838 kWh/yr (3400 BTUs/ 1 kWh) =. 81,049,200 BTUs/yr
8. Suppose your electric lights use 400 watts per hour and average four hours per day, every day for one year.
a.) How many kWh per year does this represent?
400 W= 400 J/s
400 J/s ( 4h/d)(3600 sec/h) (365 d/yr) ( 1kWh/ 3.6 x 10 6 J)= 584 kWh/yr
b.) If replacing the lights with a fluorescent bulb would save 60 w per night, what savings in kWh does this represent in one year?
340 J/s ( 4h/d)(3600 sec/h) (365 d/yr) ( 1kWh/ 3.6 x 10 6 J)= 496.4 kWh/yr
c.) If the fluorescent bulb costs $18 but lasts for 10 years, would you consider it a wise investment over incandescent bulbs? Explain your answer.
$.0825/ kWh (564-496.4 kWh) = $5.58 /yr bulb paid for in a little over 3 yrs
9. Transportation energy is costly.
a.) Calculate the gallons of gas use just for going to the supermarket in one year if you take 5 trips to the store per week, traveling 7.5 miles roundtrip, and your car gets 22 miles per gallon.
5 trips/week ( 7.5 mi/trip) (gal/ 22 mi) ( 52 weeks/yr) = 88.64gal/yr
b.) Convert the gallons to kcal/year if there are 32000 kcal per gallon.
88.64gal/yr (32,000 kcal/gal)= 2,836,363.64 kcal/yr
c.) What are some of the other energy uses associated with getting foodstuffs to the consumer other than transportation costs?
Processing, harvesting, maintaining conditions for livestock
d.) What suggestions would you make to the “average American” to help save energy and money relating to the answers you gave in C?
fewer processed food, less meat, locally grown food
10. (This question is extracted word for word from the 1998 APES exam) The environmental impact of washing a load of dirty dishes in an electric dishwasher differs from that of washing them by hand in a sink. Use the information and data below to answer thee questions that follow. Show your calculations.
The dishes all fit in one load.
The water coming into the water heater for the sink and into the water heater in the dishwasher is at 50o F.
The water heaters for the sink and the dishwasher are both 100% efficient.
In one complete cycle, the electric dishwasher uses 10 gallons of water heated to 140o F and the dishwasher also uses 0.500 kWh of electrical energy for its mechanical operation.
Washing the dishes by hand requires 20 gallons of water heated to 110o F.
1 gallon of water = 8 lb. water
1 BTU = the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1
pound of water by 1o F.
1 kWh = 3400 BTUs.
a. Calculate the total energy (in BTU’s) used both to heat the water and run the electric dishwasher to wash a load of dishes.
140 -50 = 90 oF 0.500 kWh (3400 BTUs/kWh)= 1700 BTUs
10 gal (8#/ 1 gal) (1 BTU/ # oF) (90 oF)= 7200 BTUs total= 8900 BTUs
b. Calculate the energy (in BTU’s) used to heat the water for washing the load of dishes by hand.
110-50= 60 oF
20 gal (8#/ 1 gal) (1 BTU/ # oF) (60 oF)= 9600 BTUs
c. Discuss the economic and environmental costs and benefits of
i. using the electric dishwasher (including its manufacture and disposal)
ii. washing the dishes by hand