In the communication discipline, all references are cited using guidelines established by the American Psychological Association: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). It is available at both the bookstore and Reinert Memorial Library. Listed below are some examples of how to cite your references following APA guidelines. It is your responsibility to provide accurate information regarding your sources, regardless if your sample appears below.
Here are some general guidelines:
1. Double-space between each line as well as each entry. NOTE: DUE TO SPACE CONSIDERATIONS, THE SAMPLE APA CITATIONS PROVIDED IN THIS SYLLABUS ARE SINGLE-SPACED.
2. The entries are listed alphabetically by the first (or sole) author’s last name. If the reference does not have an author, use the title to determine the placement of the reference. If there is more than one author for a particular work, authors must be listed in the order as they are printed on the article/book…
3. The first line is flush left, the second and remaining lines of each entry are indented by a tab.
4. There is one space between each item in an entry.
5. All U.S. cities require a state abbreviation except the following: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco.
6. All foreign cities require a country listing except the following: Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, and Vienna.
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
Matthiesen, E. E. (1997). Teaching presentation in a crazy world. In M. A. Danielson & D. R.
Pawlowski (Eds.), I teach the world--I teach speech: Essays from award-winning teachers
(pp. 34-41). Omaha, NE: Creighton University Press.
BOOK with single author
Kirby, E. L. (1995). The team trainer: Winning tools and tactics for successful workouts. Chicago: Irwin.
BOOK with two to five authors
Itaba, Y. S., Falvo, R. I., Hill, T. M., Falvo, A. R., & Shinozaki, M. T. (2003). An assertiveness-
and argumentativeness training program for Asian college students with high speech
apprehension. Tokyo: Dokkyo University Press.
BOOK with six or more authors
Danielson, M. A., Kirby, E. L., Ford, D. J., Pawlowski, D. R., Birkholt, M. J., Arnsdorff, S. E.,
et al. (2001). Successful communication departments: To do or not to do. Hidden
Valley, CA: Sage Publishing.
Understanding family communication (4th ed.). (1995). Chicago: Irwin.
BROCHURE/PAMPHLET from corporate author
Omaha Tourist Bureau. (1999). Living in the Old Market (3rd ed.). [Brochure]. Omaha, NE: Author.
Arnsdorff, S. E., & Birkholt, M. J. (Eds.). (2000). Successful speech and debate programs.
San Francisco: Wadsworth.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY
Arnsdorff, S. E. (Ed.). (1998). The encyclopedia of slang (4th ed.). New York: Wonder Books.
ENTRY in an encyclopedia
Falvo, R. I. (2001). Tactics of relational endangerment. In The encyclopedia of darkside
communication (Vol. 7, pp. 241-248). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Smith, M. E. (Personal interview, September 21, 1999).
Ford, D. J. (1998). Organizational crisis communication. Communication Research Reports,14, 197-217.
Danielson, M. A., & Loatman, S. E. (1996, November 3). Why Johnny can’t read: The decline of
reading standards in the elementary classroom. Time, 128, 34-36.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE with author
Pawlowski, D. R., & Kirby, E. L. (1998, December 14). Celebrating diversity. Omaha World
Herald, p. A29.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE without author
Celebrating diversity. (1998, December 14). Omaha World Herald, p. A29.
Falvo, R. I. (Producer). (2000). Robert Montgomery Knight: A foul line between love and hate
[Motion Picture]. Bloomington, IN: Cream & Crimson Productions.
Kirby, E. L. (Executive Producer). (1996, January 4). Cooking with style. [Television Broadcast].
Storm Lake, IA: American Broadcasting Company.
McKennitt, L. (1997). The Mummers’ Dance. On The book of secrets. [CD]. Burbank, CA: Warner
Brothers Records, Inc.
ON-LINE without author
Dealing with SARS: Tips for the international traveler. (2003). The SARS Newsletter. Retrieved June
2, 2003 from http://www.sars.com
ON-LINE ARTICLE from journal, retrieved from on-line database, same as print version
Falvo, R. I. (2003). Elements of newscaster competence on cable TV: A meta-analysis [Electronic
version]. Journal of Persuasion, 12, 183-190.
ON-LINE JOURNAL, general access, when format differs from print version
Falvo, R. I. (2003). Elements of newscaster competence on cable TV: A meta-analysis. Journal of
Persuasion, 12, 183-190. Retrieved May 17, 2003, from http://pub/artesian/JOP/articles.html
ON-LINE ARTICLE from internet-only access (no printed version)
Falvo, R. I. (2003, February 10). Elements of newscaster competence on cable TV: A meta-analysis.
Journal of Persuasion, 12, Article 015b. Retrieved May 17, 2003, from http://pub/artesian/JOP/articles/volume6/sect06015b.html
ON-LINE INTERNET DOCUMENT from private organization on organizational website
National Communication Association. (2001, July 21). Reviews of communication history: Past,
present, and future. Retrieved August 9, 2001, from http://www.natcom.org/~research link/history.doc