Ants sow the seeds of global diversification in flowering plants




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Online supporting information

to accompany Lengyel et al. “Ants sow the seeds of global diversification in flowering plants”


Table 1. Myrmecochorous plant lineages, their sister groups and data on seed dispersal mode in the sister-group, biogeographic distribution of lineages (M + N-M) and species number used in the analyses presented in the paper.

No.

Family

Myrmecochorous lineage (M)

Sister group (N-M)

N-M dispersal mode

Biogeogr. distr. a

No. species

Myrmecochory reference

Phylogeny reference

M

N-M

1

Aizoaceae

Gunniopsis

Tetragonia

Wind

HT

15

57

[1]

[2]

2

Aizoaceae

Sesuvium, Trianthema

Tribulocarpus

Water

WW

29

1

[1]

[2]

3

Amaryllidaceae

Leucojum, Galanthus, Narcissus, Sternbergia, Vagaria, Lapiedra, Hannonia, Pancratium

Lycoris, Ungernia

Wind


HA

289

26

[3-5]

[6]

4

Apiaceae

Platysace, Xanthosia, Actinotus

Centella, Micropleura, Mackinlaya, Apiopetalum

Water

PnT

68

58

[3,7]

[8]

5

Aristolochiaceae

Asarum, Saruma

Aristolochia, Lactoris

Wind

WW

86

406

[3,9-11]

[12,13]

6

Asteraceae

Amberboa, Volutaria, Mantisalca, Cyanopsis, Goniocaulon, Plagiobasis, Karvandarina, Russowia, Tricholepis

Klasea, Serratula, Acroptilon, Oligochaeta, Leuzea

Wind

PA

107

99

[14]

[15-17]

7

Asteraceae

Centaurea

Zoegea, Stizolophus

Wind

PA

383

17

[4,14,18-20]

[15]

8

Asteraceae

Chrysogonum

Berlandiera

Wind

NA

18

11

[14]

[21]

9

Asteraceae

Cullumia

Berkheya, Cuspidia, Heterorachis, Didelta

Exozoochory

PT

26

99

[22]

[23]

10

Asteraceae

Dymondia

Arctotis, Arctotheca, Haplocarpha, Cymbonotus

Wind

PT

1

78

[22]

[24]

11

Asteraceae

Euryops

Cineraria, Dendrosenecio

Wind

PT

100

62

[22]

[25]

12

Asteraceae

Galactites

Ptilostemon

Wind

PA

12

23

[14]

[26]

13

Asteraceae

Osmitopsis

Athanasia

Wind

PT

11

54

[22]

[27]

14

Asteraceae

Osteospermum

Calendula

Wind

OW

153

20

[22]

[27]

15

Asteraceae

Wedelia

Elaphandra

Passive

NW

100

16

[22,28]

[29]

16

Berberidaceae

Epimedium, Vancouveria, Bongardia

Podophyllum, Sinopodophyllum, Diphylleia, Dysosma, Achlys

Endozoochory

HA

67

21

[14,30-32]

[33-35]

17

Berberidaceae

Gymnospermium

Leontice

Endozoochory

HA

12

28

[14]

[33-35]

18

Boraginaceae

Nemophila

Pholistoma

Water

NA

11

3

[4,14,30,36]

[37]

19

Bruniaceae

Audouinia capitata

Tittmannia

Passive

PT

1

25

[22]

[38]

20

Bruniaceae

Lonchostoma

Mniothamnea, Raspalia

Passive

PT

10

4

[22]

[38]

21

Buxaceae

Buxus, Notobuxus

Sarcococca, Pachysandra, Styloceras

Endozoochory

WW

90

20

[14,39]

[40]

22

Cactaceae

Aztekium

Echinocactus, Astrophytum

Exozoochory

NW

2

10

[41]

[42]

23

Cactaceae

Gymnocalycium

Browningia, Cereus, Coleocephalocereus, Micranthocereus, Samaipaticereus, Echinopsis, Harrisia, Haageocereus, Matucana, Oreocereus, Rauhocereus

Exozoochory

NW

70

1100

[41]

[42]

24

Caricaceae

Carica

Moringa

Wind

PnT

23

12

[14]

[43]

25

Caryophyllaceae

Moehringia

Arenaria subg. Arenaria, subg. Leiosperma, ‘Pseudomoehringia’ group

Wind

HA

31

172

[4,14,44]

[45]

26

Colchicaceae

Colchicum, Androcymbium, Hexacyrtis, Ornithoglossum, Sandersonia, Gloriosa, Baeometra, Wurmbea, Camptorrhiza, Iphigenia, Schelhammera, Tripladenia, Disporum, Uvularia, Kuntheria,

Burchardia

Passive

WW

245

5

[3,7,10,46-48]

[49]

27

Dasypogonaceae

Dasypogon

Calectasia

Passive

AU

4

11

[47]

[50]

28

Dilleniaceae

Hibbertia, Adrastaea, Pachynema

Dillenia

Endozoochory

PnT

124

60

[3,7]

[51]

29

Dipsacaceae

Knautia

Pterocephalidium

Wind

PA

60

1

[10,32,52]

[53]

30

Dipsacaceae

Scabiosa

Sixalix

Wind

PA

80

10

[14]

[53]

31

Elaeocarpaceae

Tetratheca

Platytheca

Water

AU

39

2

[3,7,54,55]

[54,56]

32

Euphorbiaceae

Astraea

Ophellantha, Acidocroton

Endozoochory

NT

10

12

[57]

[57]

33

Euphorbiaceae

Bertya, Beyeria, Ricinocarpos

Baloghia, Fontainea

Endozoochory

AU

45

29

[3,7,14]

[58]

34

Euphorbiaceae

Claoxylon

Erythrococca

Endozoochory

OW

75

50

[7]

[58,59]

35

Euphorbiaceae

Conceveiba

Gavarretia, Polyandra

Passive

NT

18

2

[60]

[58]

36

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia, Chamaesyce, Synadenium, Monadenium, Pedilanthus, Neoguillauminia, Calycopeplus, Anthosterna, Dichostemma


Spirostachys, Excoecaria, Sebastiana, Colliguaja, Sapium, Stillingia, Adenopeltis, Grimmeodendron, Bonania, Hippomane, Ophthalmoblapton, Tetraplandra, Pachystroma, Hura, Gymnanthes, Mabea, Microstachys, Homalanthus, Neoshirakia, Dalembertia, Triadica, Actinostemon, Pseudosenefeldera, Senefelderopsis, Maprounea

Endozoochory

WW

1846

407

[3,4,61,62]

[58]

37

Euphorbiaceae

Monotaxis, Adriana, Amperea

Cephalomappa, Koilodepas, Cephalocroton, Sumbaviopsis, Melanolepis, Chrozophora, Discocleidion, Ricinus, Speranskia

Passive

OW

31

37

[3,60]

[58]

38

Euphorbiaceae

Pera, Clutia, Chaetocarpus

Pogonophora

Wind

PnT

108

6

[22,58,60]

[58]

39

Euphorbiaceae

Seidelia

Leidesia

Passive

PT

4

1

[60]

[58]

40

Fabaceae

Cytisus

Cytisophyllum, Laburnum

Wind

PA

60

3

[63,64]

[65,66]

41

Fabaceae

Daviesia, Viminaria, Erichsenia, Goodia, Bossiaea, Platylobium, Muelleranthus, Ptychosema, Aenictophyton

Gompholobium, Sphaerolobium

Passive

AU

287

43

[3,7,67]

[68]

42

Fabaceae

Hardenbergia, Kennedia

Mucuna, Desmodium, Lespedeza, Kummerowia, Campylotropis

Water

PnT

59

500

[3,69,70]

[71]

43

Fabaceae

Hovea, Templetonia, Lamprolobium

Brongniartia, Plagiocarpus

Wind

HT

52

57

[3,7]

[72]

44

Fabaceae

Pultenaea (= Mirbelia s. l.)

Isotropis

Passive

AU

470

16

[3,7,70,73]

[68,74]

45

Fabaceae

Ulex, Stauracanthus

Genista sect. Cephalospartum

Passive

HA

21

5

[4,18,52]

[66]

46

Gesneriaceae

Chrysothemis

Nautilocalyx

Endozoochory

NT

12

55

[32,75]

[76]

47

Gesneriaceae

Codonanthe

Nematanthus

Endozoochory

NT

34

48

[14]

[76]

48

Goodeniaceae

Dampiera

Anthotium

Wind

AU

66

5

[3,7]

[77]

49

Goodeniaceae

Goodenia, Scaevola, Verreauxia, Velleia, Coopernookia

Brunonia

Passive

AU

350

3

[3,7,69]

[77]

50

Gyrostemonaceae

Gyrostemon, Codonocarpus, Walteranthus, Tersonia, Reseda

Tovaria

Passive

AU

18

2

[3]

[43,78]

51

Hemerocallidaceae

Caesia, Hensmania, Johnsonia, Arnocrinum

Tricoryne

Exozoochory

AU

58

12

[3,5,7]

[50]

52

Hyacinthaceae

Lachenalia

Polyxena, Periboea

Passive

PT

110

23

[14]

[79]

53

Hyacinthaceae

Scilla, Chionodoxa

Bellevalia

Wind

PA

40

50

[4]

[80]

54

Iridaceae

Witsenia, Klattia

Nivenia

Passive

PT

4

10

[81]

[82,83]

55

Juncaceae

Luzula

Juncus, Distichia, Marsippospermum, Rostkovia

Water

WW

115

249

[3,9,20]

[84]

56

Lamiaceae

Ajuga

Caryopteris, Trichostema

Passive

WW

50

37

[3,85]

[86]

57

Lamiaceae

Lamium

Marrubium

Exozoochory

HA

190

139

[4,14]

[86]

58

Lamiaceae

Rosmarinus

Perovskia

Wind

PA

22

10

[14,85]

[87]

59

Lamiaceae

Teucrium

Teucridium, Oncinocalyx

Exozoochory

WW

250

2

[14]

[86]

60

Liliaceae

Erythronium spp. - Eurasian + Eastern North American lineage

Erythronium spp. - Western North American lineage

Passive

HA

8

17

[5,88,89]

[90]

61

Liliaceae

Gagea

Lloydia

Passive

HA

91

12

[5,88]

[50,88,91]

62

Liliaceae

Scoliopus

Streptopus

Endozoochory

HA

5

30

[14,88,92]

[88]

63

Limeaceae

Macarthuria

Limeum

Endozoochory

OW

12

21

[3,73]

[93]

64

Malvaceae

Gossypium sect. Grandicalyx ('genome K' lineage)

Gossypium sect. Sturtia ('genom C'), sect. Hibiscoidea ('genome G')

Water

AU

12

5

[3,7]

[94,95]

65

Malvaceae

Lasiopetalum, Hannafordia, Maxwellia, Thomasia, Guichenotia, Commersonia, Rulingia, Keraudrenia, Seringia

Hermannia, Waltheria, Melochia

Endozoochory

WW

167

205

[3,7,70]

[96]

66

Melanthiaceae

Trillium

Paris, Daiswa, Kinugasa, Trillidium

Endozoochory

HA

38

27

[5,9,14]

[97]

67

Papaveraceae

Corydalis, Dicentra, Adlumia, Dactylocapnos, Rupicapnos, Pseudofumaria, Cysticapnos

Hypecoum

Exozoochory

HA

384

18

[9,22]

[98]

68

Papaveraceae

Sanguinaria, Chelidonium, Eomecon, Macleaya, Bocconia, Hylomecon, Stylophorum

Dicranostigma

Passive

HA

99

8

[4,9,10,14]

[99]

69

Penaeaceae

Penaea, Brachysiphon, Endonema, Saltera, Stylapterus, Sonderothamnus

Olinia

Endozoochory

PT

23

8

[22]

[100-102]

70

Phyllanthaceae

Breynia

Sauropus

Passive

IM

35

40

[3,7]

[103]

71

Picrodendraceae

Picrodendron, Micrantheum, Oldfieldia, Stachystemon, Aristogeitonia, Scagea, Tetracoccus

Podocalyx, Paradrypetes

Passive

WW

82

3

[3,7,58,62,104]

[105], Wurdack unpubl. from [58]

72

Poaceae

Chionachne

Phacelurus

Wind

IM

9

10

[32]

[106]

73

Poaceae

Melica

Glyceria

Water

HA

80

35

[4,14,30]

[107]

74

Polygalaceae

Polygala, Bredemeyera, Muraltia, Nylandtia, Heterosamara, Salomonia, Comesperma, Monnina, Securidaca

Carpolobia, Atroxima

Endozoochory

WW

910

6

[3,7,14,108]

[108]

75

Portulacaceae

Claytonia, Montia

Lewisia

Wind

NW

41

16

[9,14,32]

[109,110]

76

Primulaceae

Cyclamen

Coris

Exozoochory

PA

20

3

[14,32]

[111]

77

Proteaceae

Grevillea

Buckinghamia, Opisthiolepis

Wind

AU

260

3

[3,7,112]

[113,114]

78

Proteaceae

Mimetes, Orothamnus, Leucospermum, Diastella, Sorocephalus, Spatalla, Paranomus, Vexatorella, Serruria, Leucadendron, Adenanthos

Isopogon

Wind

HT

308

65

[3,115]

[113,114,116]

79

Ranunculaceae

Anemone

Pulsatilla, Knowltonia

Wind

HA

120

48

[4,9,14]

[117]

80

Ranunculaceae

Delphinium

Consolida

Wind

HA

250

40

[14]

[117]

81

Ranunculaceae

Ficaria

Coptidium

Passive

PA

5

2

[118]

[119]

82

Ranunculaceae

Helleborus

Myosurus, Nigella, Actaea, Cimicifuga

Passive

HA

20

54

[4,14,32,120]

[117]

83

Ranunculaceae

Trollius, Adonis

Caltha

Water

HA

55

10

[14]

[117]

84

Restionaceae

Restio

Elegia, Chondropetalum, Dovea

Wind

PT

88

73

[3,7]

[84,121]

85

Rhamnaceae

Phylica, Trichocephalus

Nesiota, Noltea

Endozoochory

PT

151

2

[22]

[122]

86

Rhamnaceae

Pomaderris, Spyridium, Trymalium, Siegfriedia, Cryptandra, Stenanthemum

Colletia, Discaria, Alphitonia, Granitites

Passive

HT

172

50

[3,7,54,69]

[122]

87

Rubiaceae

Opercularia, Pomax

Leptostigma, Durlingtonia, Nertera, Normandia, Coprosma

Endozoochory

HT

19

112

[7]

[123,124]

88

Rutaceae

Asterolasia

Drummondita, Muiriantha

Endozoochory

AU

21

9

[125]

[126]

89

Rutaceae

Phebalium, Microcybe

Nematolepis, Rhadinothamnus, Chorilaena

Passive

AU

31

11

[3,7,125]

[126]

90

Santalaceae

Thesium, Osyridicarpos

Buckleya

Endozoochory

WW

177

7

[52,127]

[128]

91

Sapindaceae

Cardiospermum

Paullinia

Endozoochory

PnT

61

195

[129]

[130]

92

Sapindaceae

Dodonaea

Distichostemon

Passive

HT

70

8

[3,131,132]

[130]

93

Scrophulariaceae

Melampyrum

Bartsia, Lathraea, Rhinanthus, Rhynchocorys, Parentucellia, Odontites, Euphrasia, Tozzia

Wind

HA

35

310

[4,14,30,118,133]

[134,135]

94

Scrophulariaceae

Pedicularis

Agalinis, Esterhazya, Aureolaria, Seymeria, Lamourouxia, Castilleja, Orthocarpus, Cordylanthus, Triphysaria

Wind

HA

350

341

[4,14,30,133]

[134,135]

95

Solanaceae

Datura

Brugmansia

Passive

NW

11

5

[14]

[136]

96

Tecophilaeaceae

Cyanastrum

Walleria

Passive

PT

7

3

[14]

[82]

97

Turneraceae

Turnera

Piriqueta

Passive

NT

100

44

[137,138]

[139]

98

Urticaceae

Parietaria

Boehmeria

Exozoochory

WW

10

80

[10,32]

[140]

99

Valerianaceae

Fedia

Valerianella

Wind

PA

3

50

[14]

[141]

100

Violaceae

Viola

Noisettia

Passive

WW

400

8

[3,4,7,9,10,20]

[142]

101

Zygophyllaceae

Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia

Larrea, Pintoa, Bulnesia, Porlieria, Guaiacum

Wind

WW

120

31

[22]

[143,144]

a Biogeographic distribution types for lineages comprising both M and N-M lineages:

AU – Australian, IM – Indo-Malayan, NA – Nearctic, NT – Neotropical, PA – Palearctic, PT – Paleotropical (mostly Cape Floristic Region); complex distribution types: HA – Holarctic (NA + PA), NW – New World (NA + NT), OW – Old World (AU + IM + PA + PT), PnT – Pan-tropical (AU + IM + NT + PT), HT – Holotropical (AU + NT + PT), WW – Worldwide.



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