Annex 4 C4 Restoration management of non-forest habitats




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Annex 4

C4 Restoration management of non-forest habitats


Prepared by Anna Leskovjanská and Tomáš Dražil


Borzov 2004 – situation before implication of restoration management

Site is located in cadaster area of village Vernár (cadaster number 582-part of). In elevation 1176 m above sea level are located 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates Festuco-Brometalia and priority grasslands 6230* Species-rich Nardus grasslands, on siliceous substrates in mountain areas and submountain areas in continental Europe with occurrence of several rare species like Pseudorchis albida, Poa chaixii, Viola sudetica.




Borzov 2004 – restoration management was realized on are 2.83 ha. Before mowing, trees and shrubs were cutted up to the soil surface. Management was realized by private contractor Ludmila Petrovicova


Borzov 2005 – situation before implication of restoration management

Site is located in cadaster area of village Vernár (cadaster number 1682-part of). In elevation 1176 m above sea level are located 6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates Festuco-Brometalia and priority grasslands 6230* Species-rich Nardus grasslands. Site was overgrown by spruce trees mainly.




Borzov 2005 – local Hunters Association Javor – Vernár, removed spruce trees from area of 7 ha and wood remnants were burned out.

Site location



Javorina 2005 – Site is located in cadaster area of village Vernár (cadaster number 582-part of). In elevation 1185 m above sea level are located grassland following Natura 2000 habitats:

6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates Festuco-Brometalia

6190 Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis, with occurrence of many rare and threatened species as Anacamptis pyramidalis, Hieracium aurantiacum, Gentianella praecox, Crocus discolor, Lilium bulbiferum.



Javorina 2005 – hay removal from the site. Private contractor Ludmila Petrovicova realized mowing on area 5.7 ha



Javorina 2005 – cutting of trees was realized as well and soil surface was aligning on area of 2.5 ha

Site location



Kopanec grasslands 2004 and 2005

The big attention was paid to securing of sustainable management for calcareous species rich grasslands, belonging to hot-spots concerning the species richness in Europe. The Kopanec locality covers an area of 150 ha of semi-natural mountain grasslands with an extremely high number of species. Small-scale species diversity is extremely high in the locality – a maximum of 75 species of vascular plants/m2 and 106 species/25 m2 (Stanová et al. ined.). Grasslands were not managed for 40 years, due to big distance from the settled areas. Following the economic and political upheaval of the 1990s and the subsequent transformation to a free market economy, associated problems appeared. In particular, economic restructuring also led to a significant decline in livestock numbers followed by widespread abandonment of semi-natural grasslands. In spite of mass farmland abandonment, Kopanec grasslands remain rich in biodiversity. Big scale restoration management was introduced, including tree removal, trunk cutting up to the soil surface and restoration mowing of abandoned grasslands.

Complex of Kopanec grasslands is located in cadaster area of village Vernár (cadaster number 582-part of). Following Natura 2000 habitats are located there:

6210* Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates Festuco-Brometalia (important orchid sites)

6210 Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates Festuco-Brometalia

6230*Species-rich Nardus grasslands, on siliceous substrates in mountain areas and submountain areas in continental Europe

7230 Alkaline fens

From nationally important grasslands, location of Eutrophic humid grasslands (Calthion) was recorded. Following rare species were recorded Lilium bulbiferum, Crocus discolor, Dactylorhiza sambucina, Dactylorhiza majalis, Crepis praemorsa.

Kopanec – Hlaváčová dolina (valley) after restoration mowing


Kopanec – grasslands in Kopanec settle are regularly managed from 1998


Kopanec 2004 – restoration mowing after 30-years of abandonment



Kopanec – secondary succession on sites after cutting of trees


Kopanec 2004 – trunk cutting up to the soil surface to allow regular mowing.


Kopanec – Hlaváčová dolina – grasslands were mown on area of 20 ha and biomass was removed. Part covered by trees was cleaned and prepared for mowing.


Kopanec2004 –before restoration mowing with dominance of grass Calamagrostis arundinacea, which is suppressing all flowering species.




Kopanec 2004 –after restoration mowing. Result was visible in 2005 already, when number of flowering species was increased at the expense of grasses (Calamagrostis arundinacea, C. varia)

Kopanec optimum – species rich calcareous grasslands with occurrence of 74 species per m².




Kopanec2005 – collected hay was removed from the site.



Site location


Vernárske lúky 2005 – grasslands were mown by Agricultural farm Hranovnica in years 2004 and 2005 to allow restoration of natural communities.


Vernárske lúky 2005 – grasslands after mowing and hay collection. Works were done by Agricultural farm Hranovnica.





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