And recommended practices aeronautical telecommunications




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INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
ANNEX 10

TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
VOLUME III

(COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS)

Replace Chapter 4 and Attachment A in their entirety with the following:



CHAPTER 4. AERONAUTICAL MOBILE-SATELLITE (ROUTE) SERVICE (AMS(R)S)
Note 1.— This chapter contains Standards and Recommended Practices applicable to the use of Aeronautical Mobile-Satellite (R) Service communications technologies. The Standards and Recommended Practices in this chapter are service- and performance-oriented and are not tied to a specific technology or technique.
Note 2.— Detailed Technical Specifications of AMS(R)S Systems are contained in the manual on AMS(R)S . This document also provides a detailed description of the AMS(R)S, including details on the Standards and Recommended Practices below.

4.1 DEFINITIONS
Connection establishment delay. Connection establishment delay, as defined in ISO 8348, includes a component, attributable to the called subnetwork (SN) service user, which is the time between the SN CONNECT indication and the SN CONNECT response. This user component is due to actions outside the boundaries of the satellite subnetwork and is therefore excluded from the AMS(R)S specifications.
Data transfer delay (95th percentile). The 95th percentile of the statistical distribution of delays for which transit delay is the average.
Data transit delay. In accordance with ISO 8348, the average value of the statistical distribution of data delays. This delay represents the subnetwork delay and does not include the connection establishment delay.
Network (N). The word “network” and its abbreviation “N” in ISO 8348 (first edition) are replaced by the word “subnetwork” and its abbreviation “SN”, respectively, wherever they appear in relation to the subnetwork layer packet data performance.
Residual error rate. The ratio of incorrect, lost and duplicate subnetwork service data units (SNSDUs) to the total number of SNSDUs that were sent.
Spot beam. Satellite antenna directivity whose main lobe encompasses significantly less than the Earth’s surface that is within line-of-sight view of the satellite. May be designed so as to improve system resource efficiency with respect to geographical distribution of user Earth stations.
Subnetwork (SN). See Network (N).
Subnetwork service data unit (SNSDU). An amount of subnetwork user data, the identity of which is preserved from one end of a subnetwork connection to the other.
Total voice transfer delay. The elapsed time commencing at the instant that speech is presented to the AES or GES and concluding at the instant that the speech enters the interconnecting network of the counterpart GES or AES. This delay includes vocoder processing time, physical layer delay, RF propagation delay and any other delays within an AMS(R)S subnetwork.
Note.— The following terms used in this chapter are defined in Annex 10 as follows:
• Aeronautical telecommunication network (ATN): Volume III, Chapter 1.
• Aeronautical mobile-satellite (route) service (AMS(R)S): Volume II, Chapter 1.1.
• Aircraft earth station (AES): Volume III, Chapter 1.
• Ground earth station (GES): Volume III, Chapter 1.
• Subnetwork layer: Volume III, Chapter 6.1.

4.2 GENERAL
4.2.1 Any mobile satellite system intended to provide AMS(R)S shall conform to the requirements of this chapter.
4.2.1.1 An AMS(R)S system shall support packet data service, or voice service, or both.
4.2.2 Requirements for mandatory carriage of AMS(R)S system equipment including the level of system capability shall be made on the basis of regional air navigation agreements which specify the airspace of operation and the implementation timescales for the carriage of equipment. A level of system capability shall include the performance of the AES, the satellite and the GES.
4.2.3 The agreements indicated in 4.2.2 shall provide at least two years’ notice of mandatory carriage of airborne systems.
4.2.4 Recommendation.— Civil aviation authorities should coordinate with national authorities and service providers those implementation aspects of an AMS(R)S system that will permit its worldwide interoperability and optimum use, as appropriate.

4.3 RF CHARACTERISTICS
4.3.1 Frequency Bands
Note.— ITU Radio Regulations permit systems providing mobile-satellite service to use the same spectrum as AMS(R)S without requiring such systems to offer safety services. This situation has the potential to reduce the spectrum available for AMS(R)S. It is critical that States consider this issue in frequency planning and in the establishment of national or regional spectrum requirements.
4.3.1.1 When providing AMS(R)S communications, an AMS(R)S system shall operate only in frequency bands which are appropriately allocated to AMS(R)S and protected by the ITU Radio Regulations.
4.3.2 Emissions
4.3.2.1 The total emissions of the AES necessary to meet designed system performance shall be controlled to avoid harmful interference to other systems necessary to support safety and regularity of air navigation, installed on the same or other aircraft.
Note 1.— Harmful interference can result from radiated and/or conducted emissions that include harmonics, discrete spurious, intermodulation product and noise emissions, and are not necessarily limited to the “transmitter on” state.
Note 2.— Protection requirements for GNSS are contained in Annex 10, Volume I.
4.3.2.2 Interference to other AMS(R)S equipment
4.3.2.2.1 Emissions from an AMS(R)S system AES shall not cause harmful interference to an AES providing AMS(R)S on a different aircraft.
Note.— One method of complying with 4.3.2.2.1 is by limiting emissions in the operating band of other AMS(R)S equipment to a level consistent with the intersystem interference requirements such as contained in RTCA document DO-215. RTCA and EUROCAE may establish new performance standards for future AMS(R)S which may describe methods of compliance with this requirement.

4.3.3 Susceptibility
4.3.3.1 The AES equipment shall operate properly in an interference environment causing a cumulative relative change in its receiver noise temperature (ΔT/T) of 25 per cent.
4.4 PRIORITY AND PRE-EMPTIVE ACCESS
4.4.1 Every aircraft earth station and ground earth station shall be designed to ensure that messages transmitted in accordance with Annex 10, Volume II, 5.1.8, including their order of priority, are not delayed by the transmission and/or reception of other types of messages. If necessary, as a means to comply with the above requirement, message types not defined in Annex 10, Volume II, 5.1.8 shall be terminated even without warning, to allow Annex 10, Volume II, 5.1.8 type messages to be transmitted and received.
4.4.2 All AMS(R)S data packets and all AMS(R)S voice calls shall be identified as to their associated priority.
4.4.3 Within the same message category, the system shall provide voice communications priority over data communications.

4.5 SIGNAL ACQUISITION AND TRACKING
4.5.1 The AES, GES and satellites shall properly acquire and track service link signals when the aircraft is moving at a ground speed of up to 1 500 km/h (800 knots) along any heading.
4.5.1.1 Recommendation.— The AES, GES and satellites should properly acquire and track service link signals when the aircraft is moving at a ground speed of up to 2 800 km/h (1 500 knots) along any heading.
4.5.2 The AES, GES and satellites shall properly acquire and track service link signals when the component of the aircraft acceleration vector in the plane of the satellite orbit is up to 0.6 g.
4.5.2.1 Recommendation.— The AES, GES, and satellites should properly acquire and track service link signals when the component of the aircraft acceleration vector in the plane of the satellite orbit is up to 1.2 g.

4.6 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
4.6.1 Designated operational coverage
4.6.1.1 An AMS(R)S system shall provide AMS(R)S throughout its designated operational coverage.
4.6.2 Failure notification
4.6.2.1 In the event of a service failure, an AMS(R)S system shall provide timely predictions of the time, location and duration of any resultant outages until full service is restored.
Note.— Service outages may, for example, be caused by the failure of a satellite, satellite spot beam, or GES. The geographic areas affected by such outages may be a function of the satellite orbit and system design, and may vary with time.
4.6.2.2 The system shall annunciate a loss of communications capability within 30 seconds of the time when it detects such a loss.
4.6.3 AES requirements
4.6.3.1 The AES shall meet the relevant performance requirements contained in 4.6.4 and 4.6.5 for aircraft in straight and level flight throughout the designated operational coverage of the satellite system.
4.6.3.1.1 Recommendation.— The AES should meet the relevant performance requirements contained in 4.6.4 and 4.6.5 for aircraft attitudes of +20/-5 degrees of pitch and +/-25 degrees of roll throughout the DOC of the satellite system.
4.6.4 Packet data service performance
4.6.4.1 If the system provides AMS(R)S packet data service, it shall meet the standards of the following subparagraphs.
Note.— System performance standards for packet data service may also be found in RTCA Document DO-270.
4.6.4.1.1 An AMS(R)S system providing a packet data service shall be capable of operating as a constituent mobile subnetwork of the ATN.
Note.— In addition, an AMS(R)S may provide non-ATN data functions.

4.6.4.1.2 Delay parameters
Note.— The term “highest priority service” denotes the priority which is reserved for distress, urgency and certain infrequent network system management messages. The term “lowest priority service” denotes the priority used for regularity of flight messages. All delay parameters are under peak-hour traffic loading conditions.
4.6.4.1.2.1 Connection establishment delay. Connection establishment delay shall not be greater than 70 seconds.
4.6.4.1.2.1.1 Recommendation.— Connection establishment delay should not be greater than 50 seconds.
4.6.4.1.2.2 In accordance with ISO 8348, data transit delay values shall be based on a fixed subnetwork service data unit (SNSDU) length of 128 octets. Data transit delays shall be defined as average values.
4.6.4.1.2.3 Data transit delay, from-aircraft, highest priority. From-aircraft data transit delay shall not be greater than 40 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.3.1 Recommendation.— Data transit delay, from-aircraft, highest priority. From-aircraft data transit delay should not be greater than 23 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.3.2 Recommendation.— Data transit delay, from-aircraft, lowest priority. From-aircraft data transit delay should not be greater than 28 seconds for the lowest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.4 Data transit delay, to-aircraft, highest priority. To-aircraft data transit delay shall not be greater than 12 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.4.1 Recommendation.— Data transit delay, to-aircraft, lowest priority. To-aircraft data transit delay should not be greater than 28 seconds for the lowest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.5 Data transfer delay (95th percentile), from-aircraft, highest priority. From-aircraft data transfer delay (95th percentile), shall not be greater than 80 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.5.1 Recommendation.— Data transfer delay (95th percentile), from-aircraft, highest priority. From-aircraft data transfer delay (95th percentile), should not be greater than 40 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.5.2 Recommendation.— Data transfer delay (95th percentile), from-aircraft, lowest priority. From-aircraft data transfer delay (95th percentile), should not be greater than 60 seconds for the lowest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.6 Data transfer delay (95th percentile), to-aircraft, highest priority. To-aircraft data transfer delay (95th percentile) shall not be greater than 15 seconds for the highest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.6.1 Recommendation.— Data transfer delay (95th percentile), to-aircraft, lowest priority. To-aircraft data transfer delay (95th percentile) should not be greater than 30 seconds for the lowest priority data service.
4.6.4.1.2.7 Connection release delay (95th percentile). The connection release delay (95th percentile) shall not be greater than 30 seconds in either direction.
4.6.4.1.2.7.1 Recommendation.— The connection release delay (95th percentile) should not be greater than 25 seconds in either direction.
4.6.4.1.3 Integrity
4.6.4.1.3.1 Residual error rate, from-aircraft. The residual error rate in the from-aircraft direction shall not be greater than 10-4 per SNSDU.
4.6.4.1.3.1.1 Recommendation.— The residual error rate in the from-aircraft direction should not be greater than 10-6 per SNSDU.
4.6.4.1.3.2 Residual error rate, to-aircraft. The residual error rate in the to-aircraft direction shall not be greater than 10-6 per SNSDU.
4.6.4.1.3.3 Connection resilience. The probability of a subnetwork connection (SNC) provider-invoked SNC release shall not be greater than 10-4 over any one-hour interval.
Note.— Connection releases resulting from GES-to-GES handover, AES log-off or virtual circuit pre emption are excluded from this specification.
4.6.4.1.3.4 The probability of an SNC provider-invoked reset shall not be greater 10-1 over any one hour interval.
4.6.5 Voice service performance
4.6.5.1 If the system provides AMS(R)S voice service, it shall meet the requirements of the following subparagraphs.
4.6.5.1.1 Call processing delay
4.6.5.1.1.1 AES origination. The 95th percentile of the time delay for a GES to present a call origination event to the terrestrial network interworking interface after a call origination event has arrived at the AES interface shall not be greater than 20 seconds.
4.6.5.1.1.2 GES origination. The 95th percentile of the time delay for an AES to present a call origination event at its aircraft interface after a call origination event has arrived at the terrestrial network interworking interface shall not be greater than 20 seconds.
4.6.5.1.2 Voice quality
4.6.5.1.2.1 The voice transmission shall provide overall intelligibility performance suitable for the intended operational and ambient noise environment.
4.6.5.1.2.2 The total allowable transfer delay within an AMS(R)S subnetwork shall not be greater than 0.485 second.
4.6.5.1.2.3 Recommendation.— Due account should be taken of the effects of tandem vocoders and/or other analog/digital conversions.
4.6.5.1.3 Voice capacity
4.6.5.1.3.1 The system shall have sufficient available voice traffic channel resources such that an AES- or GES-originated AMS(R)S voice call presented to the system shall experience a probability of blockage of no more than 10-2.
Note.— Available voice traffic channel resources include all pre-emptable resources, including those in use by non-AMS(R)S communications.
4.6.6 Security
4.6.6.1 The system shall provide features for the protection of messages in transit from tampering.
4.6.6.2 The system shall provide features for protection against denial of service, degraded performance characteristics, or reduction of system capacity when subjected to external attacks.
Note.— Possible methods of such attack include intentional flooding with spurious messages, intentional corruption of system software or databases, or physical destruction of the support infrastructure.
4.6.6.3 The system shall provide features for protection against unauthorized entry.
Note.— These features are intended to provide protection against spoofing and “phantom controllers”.
4.7 SYSTEM INTERFACES
4.7.1 An AMS(R)S system shall allow subnetwork users to address AMS(R)S communications to specific aircraft by means of the ICAO 24-bit aircraft address.
Note.— Provisions on the allocation and assignment of ICAO 24-bit addresses are contained in Annex 10, Volume III, Appendix to Chapter 9.

4.7.2 Packet data service interfaces
4.7.2.1 If the system provides AMS(R)S packet data service, it shall provide an interface to the ATN.
Note.— The detailed technical specifications related to provisions of the ATN-compliant subnetwork service are contained in Section 5.2.5 and Section 5.7.2 of Doc 9880 — Manual on Detailed Technical Specifications for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network.
4.7.2.2 If the system provides AMS(R)S packet data service, it shall provide a connectivity notification (CN) function.



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