And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi




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Mark 8:27-38

27

BGT Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς κώμας Καισαρείας τῆς Φιλίππου·

καὶ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ ἐπηρώτα τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγων αὐτοῖς· τίνα με λέγουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι εἶναι;



NET Then Jesus and his disciples went to the villages of Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?"

NRS Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?"

KJV And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi:

and by the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am?



DRA And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Caesarea Philippi.

And in the way, he asked his disciples, saying to them: Whom do men say that I am?



NAU Jesus went out, along with His disciples, to the villages of Caesarea Philippi;

and on the way He questioned His disciples, saying to them, "Who do people say that I am?"



NIV Jesus and his disciples went on to the villages around Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked them, "Who do people say I am?"

NJB Jesus and his disciples left for the villages round Caesarea Philippi. On the way he put this question to his disciples, 'Who do people say I am?'

NLT Jesus and his disciples left Galilee and went up to the villages near Caesarea Philippi.

As they were walking along, he asked them, "Who do people say I am?"



MSG Jesus and his disciples headed out for the villages around Caesarea Philippi. As they walked, he asked, "Who do the people say I am?"

  • Technically the subject is ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, but it is not unusual in Greek grammar for the verb to singular in an instance like this. (“Jesus went out, and his disciples…”)

  • Be sure to find Caesarea Philippi on a map. Do you notice anything a bit odd about its location?

  • What else in Mark happens ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ? (I.e., do a search for that phrase. Also see Acts 9.2.)



  • Analyze ἐπηρώτα: ________ tense _________ person/number
    Don’t let the word order throw you. “Whom do the people say me to be?” Put that into English remembering that an infinitive following a verb like λέγω often introduces _________ ____________ with the subject of the infinitive in _________ case.


28

BGT οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ λέγοντες [ὅτι] Ἰωάννην τὸν βαπτιστήν, καὶ ἄλλοι Ἠλίαν, ἄλλοι δὲ ὅτι εἷς τῶν προφητῶν.

NET They said, "John the Baptist, others say Elijah, and still others, one of the prophets."

NRS And they answered him, "John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets."

KJV And they answered, John the Baptist: but some say, Elias; and others, One of the prophets.

DRA Who answered him, saying: John the Baptist; but some Elias, and others as one of the prophets.

NAU They told Him, saying, "John the Baptist; and others say Elijah; but others, one of the prophets."

NIV They replied, "Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets."

NJB And they told him, 'John the Baptist, others Elijah, others again, one of the prophets.'

NLT "Well," they replied, "some say John the Baptist, some say Elijah, and others say you are one of the other prophets."

MSG "Some say "John the Baptizer,'" they said. "Others say "Elijah.' Still others say "one of the prophets.'"

  • οἱ is here serving as 3rd plural personal pronoun.

  • What difference does it make whether the bracketed ὅτι is present or not?

29

BGT καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπηρώτα αὐτούς· ὑμεῖς δὲ τίνα με λέγετε εἶναι; ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει αὐτῷ· σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός.

NET He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Christ."

NRS He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah."

KJV And he saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Peter answereth and saith unto him, Thou art the Christ.

DRA Then he saith to them: But whom do you say that I am? Peter answering said to him: Thou art the Christ.

NAU And He continued by questioning them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered and said to Him, "You are the Christ."

NIV "But what about you?" he asked. "Who do you say I am?" Peter answered, "You are the Christ."

NJB 'But you,' he asked them, 'who do you say I am?' Peter spoke up and said to him, 'You are the Christ.'

NLT Then he asked them, "But who do you say I am?" Peter replied, "You are the Messiah. "

MSG He then asked, "And you--what are you saying about me? Who am I?" Peter gave the answer: "You are the Christ, the Messiah."

  • Note that ὑμεῖς is not only redundant, but it is also in an emphatic position: “But YOU, who do you say…”

  • Analyze λέγει: ________ tense – Note the dramatic effect of the switch to this tense following the string of aorists and imperfects.

  • Be sure to read the NET Bible note on the use of the term χριστός.



30

BGT καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μηδενὶ λέγωσιν περὶ αὐτοῦ.

NET Then he warned them not to tell anyone about him.

NRS And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.

KJV And he charged them that they should tell no man of him.

DRA And he strictly charged them that they should not tell any man of him.

NAU And He warned them to tell no one about Him.

NIV Jesus warned them not to tell anyone about him.

NJB And he gave them strict orders not to tell anyone about him.

NLT But Jesus warned them not to tell anyone about him.

MSG Jesus warned them to keep it quiet, not to breathe a word of it to anyone.

  • ἐπιτιμάω occurs in this verse and also verses 32 and 33. (Note that the object of ἐπιτιμάω is in the dative case.) How else is ἐπιτιμάω used in the Gospel of Mark?

  • ἵνα introduces a ___________ clause with the verb λέγωσιν in the __________ mood


31

BGT Καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς ὅτι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι

ὑπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἀναστῆναι·



NET Then Jesus began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected

by the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law, and be killed, and after three days rise again.



NRS Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected

by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.



KJV And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected

of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.



DRA And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected

by the ancients and by the high priests, and the scribes, and be killed: and after three days rise again.



NAU And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected

by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.



NIV He then began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected

by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again.



NJB Then he began to teach them that the Son of man was destined to suffer grievously, and to be rejected

by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and to be put to death, and after three days to rise again;



NLT Then Jesus began to tell them that the Son of Man must suffer many terrible things and be rejected

by the elders, the leading priests, and the teachers of religious law. He would be killed, but three days later he would rise from the dead.



MSG He then began explaining things to them: "It is necessary that the Son of Man proceed to an ordeal of suffering, be tried and found guilty

by the elders, high priests, and religion scholars, be killed, and after three days rise up alive."



  • Note the construction: δεῖ followed by the verbs παθεῖν, ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι, ἀποκτανθῆναι, and ἀναστῆναι in the __________ mood with the subject in the ________________ case

  • Where else does the verb ἀποδοκιμάζω occur in the Gospel of Mark? How does it relate to Jesus’ statement?

  • Who does Jesus say will kill him?

32

BGT καὶ παρρησίᾳ τὸν λόγον ἐλάλει. καὶ προσλαβόμενος ὁ Πέτρος αὐτὸν ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ.

NET He spoke openly about this. So Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.

NRS He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.

KJV And he spake that saying openly. And Peter took him, and began to rebuke him.

DRA And he spoke the word openly. And Peter taking him, began to rebuke him.

NAU And He was stating the matter plainly. And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him.

NIV He spoke plainly about this, and Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him.

NJB and he said all this quite openly. Then, taking him aside, Peter tried to rebuke him.

NLT As he talked about this openly with his disciples, Peter took him aside and began to reprimand him for saying such things.

MSG He said this simply and clearly so they couldn't miss it. But Peter grabbed him in protest.

  • παρρησίᾳ here is a dative of manner = plainly, openly

  • ἐπιτιμᾶν – Recall that Jesus did this very thing to the disciples in v.30. Does the word mean the same in both places?



33

BGT ὁ δὲ ἐπιστραφεὶς καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐπετίμησεν Πέτρῳ καὶ λέγει· ὕπαγε ὀπίσω μου, σατανᾶ, ὅτι οὐ φρονεῖς τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλὰ τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

NET But after turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, "Get behind me, Satan. You are not setting your mind on God's interests, but on man's."

NRS But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, "Get behind me, Satan! For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things."

KJV But when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.

DRA Who turning about and seeing his disciples, threatened Peter, saying: Go behind me, Satan, because thou savorest not the things that are of God, but that are of men.

NAU But turning around and seeing His disciples, He rebuked Peter and said, "Get behind Me, Satan; for you are not setting your mind on God's interests, but man's."

NIV But when Jesus turned and looked at his disciples, he rebuked Peter. "Get behind me, Satan!" he said. "You do not have in mind the things of God, but the things of men."

NJB But, turning and seeing his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said to him, 'Get behind me, Satan! You are thinking not as God thinks, but as human beings do.'

NLT Jesus turned around and looked at his disciples, then reprimanded Peter. "Get away from me, Satan!" he said. "You are seeing things merely from a human point of view, not from God's."

MSG Turning and seeing his disciples wavering, wondering what to believe, Jesus confronted Peter. "Peter, get out of my way! Satan, get lost! You have no idea how God works."

  • Does the phrase ἐπιστραφεὶς καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ seem awkward or unnecessary to you? What is the point of including it?

  • ἐπετίμησεν – Note that this is the third time now this verb is used. (Cf. vv.30, 32.)

  • Note the dramatic effect of the switch to the __________ tense of λέγει

  • σατάν – How might the use of this title here relate to its use in 1.13? To its use in 4.15?

  • Note how the versions render φρονεῖς. What does a lexicon suggest for a range of meanings?

  • How must you translate the phrases τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ and τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων?


34

BGT Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τὸν ὄχλον σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς·

εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἀκολουθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι.



NET Then Jesus called the crowd, along with his disciples, and said to them,

"If anyone wants to become my follower, he must deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me.



NRS He called the crowd with his disciples, and said to them,

"If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me.



KJV And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them,

Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.



DRA And calling the multitude together with his disciples, he said to them:

If any man will follow me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.



NAU And He summoned the crowd with His disciples, and said to them,

"If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me.



NIV Then he called the crowd to him along with his disciples and said:

"If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me.



NJB He called the people and his disciples to him and said,

'If anyone wants to be a follower of mine, let him renounce himself and take up his cross and follow me.



NLT Then, calling the crowd to join his disciples, he said,

"If any of you wants to be my follower, you must turn from your selfish ways, take up your cross, and follow me.



MSG Calling the crowd to join his disciples, he said, "Anyone who intends to come with me has to let me lead. You're not in the driver's seat; I am. Don't run from suffering; embrace it. Follow me and I'll show you how.

  • The addition of σὺν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ is not very smooth, but again, what is the point?

  • ἀπαρνησάσθω, ἀράτω and ἀκολουθείτω are all _______________ mood, _________ person/number.

  • ἀπαρνησάσθω and ἀράτω are ________ tense; ἀκολουθείτω is ________ tense. Why is this significant?

  • Look up ἀπαρνέομαι in a lexicon to get a sense of its meaning. Now check where else it is used in Mark. What do you understand ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν to mean? What would it mean not to “deny oneself”?

  • Is σταυρὸν meant literally here? If not, what do you think is the emphasis of its non-literal meaning?

  • How might you translate this verse using inclusive language?


35

ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν θέλῃ τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ σῶσαι ἀπολέσει αὐτήν· ὃς δ᾽ἂν ἀπολέσει τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ καὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου σώσει αὐτήν.



NET For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake and for the gospel will save it.

NRS For those who want to save their life will lose it, and those who lose their life for my sake, and for the sake of the gospel, will save it.

KJV For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it.

DRA For whosoever will save his life, shall lose it: and whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel, shall save it.

NAU "For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel's will save it.

NIV For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me and for the gospel will save it.

NJB Anyone who wants to save his life will lose it; but anyone who loses his life for my sake, and for the sake of the gospel, will save it.

NLT If you try to hang on to your life, you will lose it. But if you give up your life for my sake and for the sake of the Good News, you will save it.

MSG Self-help is no help at all. Self-sacrifice is the way, my way, to saving yourself, your true self.

  • How are you going to translate ψυχὴ in this and the following verses?

  • Following ὃς δ᾽ ἂν, we would expect, as in the first half of the verse, a verb in the subjunctive, so it is a bit surprising to encounter ἀπολέσει again. The use of the future indicative with ἂν is not entirely unusual. The repetition of ἀπολέσει does connect the two expressions together. (Additionally, ἀπόλλυμι does not appear to be used in the present subjunctive in the NT.)

  • This passage has become something of a cliché. Is the Message translation helpful?


36

BGT τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ;

NET For what benefit is it for a person to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his life?

NRS For what will it profit them to gain the whole world and forfeit their life?

KJV For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?

DRA For what shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and suffer the loss of his soul?

NAU "For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul?

NIV What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul?

NJB What gain, then, is it for anyone to win the whole world and forfeit his life?

NLT And what do you benefit if you gain the whole world but lose your own soul?

MSG What good would it do to get everything you want and lose you, the real you?

  • κερδῆσαι … ζημιωθῆναι – From what domain of life do such terms originate?

  • In this verse and the previous, we are dealing with pairs of opposites. Looking over the translations, which provide the clearest contrasts?


37

BGT τί γὰρ δοῖ ἄνθρωπος ἀντάλλαγμα τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ;

NET What can a person give in exchange for his life?

NRS Indeed, what can they give in return for their life?

KJV Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?

DRA Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?

NAU "For what will a man give in exchange for his soul?

NIV Or what can a man give in exchange for his soul?

NJB And indeed what can anyone offer in exchange for his life?

NLT Is anything worth more than your soul?

MSG What could you ever trade your soul for?

  • ἀντάλλαγμα– From what domain of life does this term originate?

  • How do you read? Is this a ‘real’ question or simply a rhetorical one?


38

BGT ὃς γὰρ ἐὰν ἐπαισχυνθῇ με καὶ τοὺς ἐμοὺς λόγους ἐν τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ τῇ μοιχαλίδι καὶ ἁμαρτωλῷ,

καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐπαισχυνθήσεται αὐτόν, ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων τῶν ἁγίων.



NET For if anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation,

the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."



NRS Those who are ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation,

of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."



KJV Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation;

of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.



DRA For he that shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation:

the Son of man also will be ashamed of him, when he shall come in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.



NAU "For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation,

the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels."



NIV If anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation,

the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his Father's glory with the holy angels."



NJB For if anyone in this sinful and adulterous generation is ashamed of me and of my words,

the Son of man will also be ashamed of him when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.'



NLT If anyone is ashamed of me and my message in these adulterous and sinful days,

the Son of Man will be ashamed of that person when he returns in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."



MSG "If any of you are embarrassed over me and the way I'm leading you when you get around your fickle and unfocused friends, know that you'll be an even greater embarrassment to the Son of Man when he arrives in all the splendor of God, his Father, with an army of the holy angels."

  • If shame / ἐπαισχυνθῇ is one side of the expression, what term in this verse functions as its opposite?

  • Are angels “holy”? Where else in the Greek Bible does it refer to “holy angels”?


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