Advisory Circular




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Advisory Circular

U.S. Department


of Transportation

Federal Aviation

Administration


Subject: Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports

Date: 9/30/2009

Initiated by: AAS-100

AC No.: 150/5370-10E

Change:

  1. PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) provides standards for the construction of airports. Items covered in this AC include general provisions, earthwork, flexible base courses, rigid base courses, flexible surface courses, rigid pavement, fencing, drainage, turfing, and lighting installation.

  2. APPLICATION. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends the guidelines and specifications in this AC for materials and methods used in the construction of airports. In general, use of this AC is not mandatory. However, use of this AC is mandatory for all projects funded with federal grant monies through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and with revenue from the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program. See Grant Assurance No. 34, “Policies, Standards, and Specifications,” and PFC Assurance No. 9, “Standards and Specifications.”

  3. CANCELLATION. This AC cancels AC 150/5370-10D, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports, dated September 30, 2008.

  4. PRINCIPAL CHANGES. This AC—

    1. Revises item P-620, Runway and Taxiway Painting, as follows:

  1. Adds new section 620-2.2e, Preformed Thermoplastic Airport Pavement Markings.

  2. Adds new paragraph 620-3.6, Application—Preformed Airport Pavement Markings.

  3. Clarifies that Prohibited Materials cannot exceed permissible limits as specified in relevant Federal Regulations.

  1. Adds item P-621, Saw-Cut Grooves.

  2. Incorporates the errata sheet information for the Table of Contents and General Provision 10.

  1. METRICS. To promote an orderly transition to metric units, this AC contains both English and metric dimensions. The metric conversions may not be exact metric equivalents, and until there is an official changeover to the metric system, the English dimensions will govern.

  2. COMMENTS OR SUGGESTIONS. Send comments or suggestions for improving this AC to—

Manager, Airport Engineering Division

Federal Aviation Administration

ATTN: AAS-100

800 Independence Avenue SW

Washington DC 20591


  1. COPIES OF THIS AC. The Office of Airport Safety and Standards makes its ACs available to the public on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) website at http://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/advisory_circulars/. A printed copy of this and other ACs can be ordered from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Subsequent Business Office, Annmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue, Landover, MD 20785.

Michael J. O’Donnell



Director of Airport Safety and Standards

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Notice to Users v

PART I – GENERAL PROVISIONS GP-1

SECTION 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS GP-1

SECTION 20 PROPOSAL REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS GP-5

SECTION 30 AWARD AND EXECUTION OF CONTRACT GP-9

SECTION 40 SCOPE OF WORK GP-11

SECTION 50 CONTROL OF WORK GP-15

SECTION 60 CONTROL OF MATERIALS GP-23

SECTION 70 LEGAL REGULATIONS AND RESPONSIBILITY TO PUBLIC GP-27

SECTION 80 PROSECUTION AND PROGRESS GP-35

SECTION 90 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT GP-43

SECTION 100 CONTRACTOR QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM GP-49

SECTION 110 METHOD OF ESTIMATING PERCENTAGE OF MATERIAL WITHIN SPECIFICATION LIMITS (PWL) GP-55

SECTION 120 NUCLEAR GAGES GP-61

PART II – EARTHWORK P-101-1

ITEM P-101 SURFACE PREPARATION P-101-1

ITEM P-151 CLEARING AND GRUBBING P-151-1

ITEM P-152 EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT P-152-1

ITEM P-153 CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL (CLSM) P-153-1

ITEM P-154 SUBBASE COURSE P-154-1

ITEM P-155 LIME-TREATED SUBGRADE P-155-1

ITEM P-156 TEMPORARY AIR AND WATER POLLUTION, SOIL EROSION, AND SILTATION CONTROL P-156-1

ITEM P-157 CEMENT KILN DUST (CKD) TREATED SUBGRADE P-157-1

ITEM P-158 FLY ASH TREATED SUBGRADE P-158-1

PART III – FLEXIBLE BASE COURSES P-208-1

ITEM P-208 AGGREGATE BASE COURSE P-208-1

ITEM P-209 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE P-209-1

ITEM P-210 CALICHE BASE COURSE P-210-1

ITEM P-211 LIME ROCK BASE COURSE P-211-1

ITEM P-212 SHELL BASE COURSE P-212-1

ITEM P-213 SAND-CLAY BASE COURSE P-213-1

ITEM P-217 AGGREGATE-TURF PAVEMENT P-217-1

ITEM P-219 RECYCLED CONCRETEAGGREGATE BASE COURSE P-219-1
PART IV – RIGID BASE COURSES P-301-1

ITEM P-301 SOIL-CEMENT BASE COURSE P-301-1

ITEM P-304 CEMENT-TREATED BASE COURSE P-304-1

ITEM P-306 ECONOCRETE BASE COURSE (Lean Mix Concrete Base Course) P-306-1

PART V – FLEXIBLE SURFACE COURSES P-401-1

ITEM P 401 PLANT MIX BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS P-401-1

ITEM P 402 POROUS FRICTION COURSE P-402-1

ITEM P 403 PLANT MIX BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS (Base, Leveling or Surface Course) P-403-1

PART VI – RIGID PAVEMENT P-501-1

ITEM P-501 PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT P-501-1

PART VII – MISCELLANEOUS P-602-1

ITEM P 602  BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT P-602-1

ITEM P-603 BITUMINOUS TACK COAT P-603-1

ITEM P-604 COMPRESSION JOINT SEALS FOR CONCRETE PAVEMENTS P-604-1

ITEM P-605 JOINT SEALING FILLER P-605-1

ITEM P-606 ADHESIVE COMPOUNDS, TWO-COMPONENT FOR SEALING WIRE AND LIGHTS IN PAVEMENT P-606-1

ITEM P-609 SEAL COATS AND BITUMINOUS SURFACE TREATMENTS P-609-1

ITEM P-610 STRUCTURAL PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE P-610-1

ITEM P-620 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY PAINTING P-620-1

ITEM P-621 SAW-CUT GROOVES P-621-1



ITEM P-626 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT SLURRY SEAL SURFACE TREATMENT P-626-1

ITEM P-630 REFINED COAL TAR EMULSION WITHOUT ADDITIVES, SLURRY SEAL SURFACE TREATMENT P-630-1

ITEM P-631 REFINED COAL TAR EMULSION WITH ADDITIVES, SLURRY SEAL SURFACE TREATMENT P-631-1

ITEM P-632 BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT REJUVENATION P-632-1

PART VIII – FENCING F-160-1

ITEM F-160 WIRE FENCE WITH WOOD POSTS (Classes A and B Fences) F-160-1

ITEM F-161 WIRE FENCE WITH STEEL POSTS (Classes C and D Fences) F-161-1

ITEM F-162 CHAIN-LINK FENCES F-162-1

ITEM F-163 WILDLIFE DETERRENT FENCE F-163-1

PART IX – DRAINAGE D-701-1

ITEM D-701 PIPE FOR STORM DRAINS AND CULVERTS D-701-1

ITEM D-702 SLOTTED DRAINS D-702-1

ITEM D-705 PIPE UNDERDRAINS FOR AIRPORTS D-705-1

ITEM D-751 MANHOLES, CATCH BASINS, INLETS AND INSPECTION HOLES D-751-1

ITEM D 752  CONCRETE CULVERTS, HEADWALLS, AND MISCELLANEOUS D-752-1

ITEM D 754  CONCRETE GUTTERS, DITCHES, AND FLUMES D-754-1

PART X – TURFING T-901-1

ITEM T 901  SEEDING T-901-1

ITEM T-903 SPRIGGING T-903-1

ITEM T 904  SODDING T-904-1

ITEM T 905  TOPSOILING T-905-1

ITEM T 907  TILLING T-907-1

ITEM T 908  MULCHING T-908-1

PART XI – LIGHTING INSTALLATION L-101-1

ITEM L 101 AIRPORT ROTATING BEACONS L-101-1

ITEM L-102 HAZARD BEACON L-102-1

ITEM L-103 AIRPORT BEACON TOWERS L-103-1

ITEM L-107 AIRPORT 8-FOOT AND 12-FOOT WIND CONES L-107-1

ITEM L 108 UNDERGROUND POWER CABLE FOR AIRPORTS L-108-1

ITEM L-109 AIRPORT TRANSFORMER VAULT AND VAULT EQUIPMENT L-109-1

ITEM L-110 AIRPORT UNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL DUCT BANKS AND CONDUITS L-110-1

ITEM L-115 ELECTRICAL MANHOLES AND JUNCTION STRUCTURES L-115-1

ITEM L-119 AIRPORT OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS L-119-1

ITEM P-620 RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY PAINTING


DESCRIPTION


620-1.1 This item shall consist of the painting of numbers, markings, and stripes on the surface of runways, taxiways, and aprons, in accordance with these specifications and at the locations shown on the plans, or as directed by the Engineer.
MATERIALS
620-2.1 MATERIALS ACCEPTANCE. The Contractor shall furnish manufacturer's certified test reports for materials shipped to the project.  The certified test reports shall include a statement that the materials meet the specification requirements. The reports can be used for material acceptance or the Engineer may perform verification testing. The reports shall not be interpreted as a basis for payment. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer upon arrival of a shipment of materials to the site.
620-2.2 PAINT. Paint shall be [Waterborne, Epoxy, Methacrylate, Solvent-base, or Preformed Thermoplastic] in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 620-2.2 [ ]. Paint shall be furnished in [ ] in accordance with Federal Standard No. 595.

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The Engineer shall specify paint type(s) and appropriate paragraph number(s). The Engineer shall insert the colors to be used on a project from the following list:

White - 37925 Red - 31136

Yellow - 33538 or 33655 Black - 37038

Pink - 1 part Red - 31136 to 2 parts White - 37925

Waterborne or solvent base black paint should be used to outline a border at least 6 inches (150 mm) wide around markings on all light colored pavements.

For TT-P-1952E and A-A-2886B paints, the Engineer shall specify the type required.

Type I is intended for those locations where slower tracking is not an inconvenience.

Type II is intended for locations where faster curing is desirable.

Type III requires a more durable resin.
When more than one paint type is specified, the plans should clearly indicate paint type for each marking.

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a. WATERBORNE. Paint shall meet the requirements of Federal Specification TT-P-1952E, [Type I, Type II, or Type III].
b. EPOXY. Paint shall be a two component, minimum 99 percent solids type system conforming to the following:
(1) Pigments. Component A. Percent by weight.
(a) White:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 18 percent minimum

(16.5 percent minimum at 100 percent purity).

(b) Yellow and Colors:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 14 to 17 percent.

Organic yellow, other colors, and tinting as required to meet color standard.

Epoxy resin shall be 75 to 79 percent.


(2) Epoxy Content. Component A. The weight per epoxy equivalent, when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1652 shall be the manufacturer's target plus or minus 50.
(3) Amine Number. Component B. When tested in accordance with ASTM D 2074 shall be the manufacturer's target plus or minus 50.

(4) Prohibited Materials. The manufacturer shall certify that the product does not contain mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium, halogenated solvents, nor any carcinogen as defined in 29 CFR 1910.1200 in amounts exceeding permissible limits as specified in relevant Federal Regulations.
(5) Daylight Directional Reflectance.
(a) White: The daylight directional reflectance of the white paint shall not be less than 75 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN, Method 6121.
(b) Yellow: The daylight directional reflectance of the yellow paint shall not be less than 38 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. The x and y values shall be consistent with the Federal Hegman yellow color standard chart for traffic yellow standard 33538, or shall be consistent with the tolerance listed below:
x .462 x .470 x .479 x .501

y .438 y .455 y .428 y .452


(6) Accelerated Weathering.
(a) Sample Preparation. Apply the paint at a wet film thickness of 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) to four 3 by 6 inch (8 by 15 cm) aluminum panels prepared as described in Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN, Method 2013. Air dry the sample 48 hours under standard conditions.
(b) Testing Conditions. Test in accordance with ASTM G 15453 using both Ultra Violet (UV-B) Light and condensate exposure, 72 hours total, alternating 4 hour UV exposure at 60 degree C, and 4 hours condensate exposure at 40 degrees C.
(c) Evaluation. Remove the samples and condition for 24 hours under standard conditions. Determine the directional reflectance and color match using the procedures in paragraph 620-2.2b(5) above. Evaluate for conformance with the color requirements.
(7) Volatile Organic Content. Determine the volatile organic content in accordance with 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A, Method 24.
(8) Dry Opacity. Use Procedure B, Method B of Method 4121 of Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. The wet film thickness shall be 0.015 inch (0.12 mm). The minimum opacity for white and colors shall be 0.92.
(9) Abrasion Resistance. Subject the panels prepared in paragraph 620-2.2b(6) to the abrasion test in accordance with ASTM D 968, Method A, except that the inside diameter of the metal guide tube shall be from 0.747 to 0.750 inch (18.97 to 19.05 mm). Five liters of unused sand shall be used for each test panel. The test shall be run on two test panels. [Note: five liters of sand weighs 17.5 lb. (7.94 kg).] Both baked and weathered paint films shall require not less than 150 liters of sand for the removal of the paint films.

(10) Hardness, Shore. Hardness shall be at least 80 when tested in accordance with ASTM D 2240.
c. METHACRYLATE. Paint shall be a two component, minimum 99 percent solids-type system conforming to the following:
(1) Pigments. Component A. Percent by weight.
(a) White:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 6 percent minimum.

Methacrylate resin shall be 18 percent minimum.
(b) Yellow and Colors:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 6 percent minimum.

Organic yellow, other colors, and tinting as required to meet color standard.

Methacrylate resin shall be 18 percent minimum.


(2) Prohibited Materials. The manufacturer shall certify that the product does not contain mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium, halogenated solvents, nor any carcinogen as defined in 29 CFR 1910.1200 in amounts exceeding permissible limits as specified in relevant Federal Regulations.
(3) Daylight Directional Reflectance:
(a) White: The daylight directional reflectance of the white paint shall not be less than 75 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN, Method 6121.
(b) Yellow: The daylight directional reflectance of the yellow paint shall not be less than 45 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. The x and y values shall be consistent with the Federal Hegman yellow color standard chart for traffic yellow standard 33538, or shall be consistent with the tolerance listed below:
x .462 x .470 x .479 x .501

y .438 y .455 y .428 y .452


(4) Accelerated Weathering.
(a) Sample Preparation. Apply the paint at a wet film thickness of 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) to four 3 by 6 inch (8 by 15 cm) aluminum panels prepared as described in Method 2013 of Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. Air dry the sample 48 hours under standard conditions.
(b) Testing Conditions. Test in accordance with ASTM G 53 154 using both Ultra Violet (UV-B) Light and condensate exposure, 72 hours total, alternating 4 hour UV exposure at 60 degree C, and 4 hours condensate exposure at 40 degrees C.
(c) Evaluation. Remove the samples and condition for 24 hours under standard conditions. Determine the directional reflectance and color match using the procedures in paragraph 620-2.2c(3) above. Evaluate for conformance with the color requirements.
(5) Volatile Organic Content. Determine the volatile organic content in accordance with 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A, Method 24.
(6) Dry Opacity. Use Procedure B, Method B of Method 4121 of Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. The wet film thickness shall be 0.015 inch (0.12 mm). The minimum opacity for white and colors shall be 0.92.
(7) Abrasion Resistance. Subject the panels prepared in paragraph 620-2.2c(4) to the abrasion test in accordance with ASTM D 968, Method A, except that the inside diameter of the metal guide tube shall be from 0.747 to 0.750 inch (18.97 to 19.05 mm). Five liters of unused sand shall be used for each test panel. The test shall be run on two test panels. [Note: 5 liters of sand weighs 17.5 lb. (7.94 kg).] Both baked and weathered paint films shall require not less than 150 liters of sand for the removal of the paint films.
(8) Hardness, Shore. Hardness shall be at least 80 when tested in accordance with ASTM D 2240.


  1. SOLVENT-BASE. Paint shall meet the requirements of Federal Specification [A-A-2886A Type I or Type II].


e. PREFORMED THERMOPLASTIC AIRPORT PAVEMENT MARKINGS. Markings must be composed of ester modified resins in conjunction with aggregates, pigments, and binders that have been factory produced as a finished product. The material must be impervious to degradation by aviation fuels, motor fuels, and lubricants.

(1) The markings must be able to be applied in temperatures down to 35ºF without any special storage, preheating, or treatment of the material before application.

(2) Graded Glass Beads.
(a) The material must contain a minimum of thirty percent (30%) intermixed graded glass beads by weight. The intermixed beads shall conform to [Federal Specification. TT B 1325D, Type I, gradation A] [Federal Specification. TT B 1325D, Type IV].
(b) The material must have factory applied coated surface beads in addition to the intermixed beads at a rate of 1 lb. (± 10%) per 10 sq. ft. These factory applied coated surface beads shall have a minimum of 90% true spheres, minimum refractive index of 1.50, and meet the following gradation.


Size Gradation 

Retained, %

 

Passing, %



US Mesh

μm

12

1700

0 - 2%

98 - 100%

14

1400

0 - 3.5%

96.5 - 100%

16

1180

2 - 25%

75 - 98%

18

1000

28 - 63%

37 - 72%

20

850

63 - 72%

28 - 37%

30

600

67 - 77%

23 - 33%

50

300

89 - 95%

5 - 11%

80

200

97 - 100%

0 - 3%


(3) Heating Indicators. The top surface of the material (same side as the factory applied surface beads) shall have regularly spaced indents. These indents shall act as a visual cue during application that the material has reached a molten state so satisfactory adhesion and proper bead embedment has been achieved and a post-application visual cue that the installation procedures have been followed.
(4) Pigments. Percent by weight.
(a) White:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 10 percent minimum.


(b) Yellow and Colors:

Titanium Dioxide, ASTM D 476, type II shall be 1 percent minimum.

Organic yellow, other colors, and tinting as required to meet color standard.

(5) Prohibited Materials. The manufacturer shall certify that the product does not contain mercury, lead, hexavalent chromium, halogenated solvents, nor any carcinogen as defined in 29 CFR 1910.1200 in amounts exceeding permissible limits as specified in relevant Federal Regulations.
(6) Daylight Directional Reflectance.
(a) White: The daylight directional reflectance of the white paint shall not be less than 75 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN, Method 6121.
(b) Yellow: The daylight directional reflectance of the yellow paint shall not be less than 45 percent (relative to magnesium oxide), when tested in accordance with Federal Test Method Standard No. 141D/GEN. The x and y values shall be consistent with the Federal Hegman yellow color standard chart for traffic yellow standard 33538, or shall be consistent with the tolerance listed below:
x .462 x .470 x .479 x .501

y .438 y .455 y .428 y .452


(7) Skid Resistance. The surface, with properly applied and embedded surface beads, must provide a minimum resistance value of 45 BPN when tested according to ASTM E303.

(8) Thickness. The material must be supplied at a nominal thickness of 65 mils (1.7 mm).

(9) Environmental Resistance. The material must be resistant to deterioration due to exposure to sunlight, water, salt, or adverse weather conditions and impervious to aviation fuels, gasoline, and oil.
(10) Retroreflectivity. The material, when applied in accordance with manufacturer’s guidelines, must demonstrate a uniform level of nighttime retroreflection when tested in accordance to ASTM E1710.
(11) Packaging. A protective film around the box must be applied in order to protect the material from rain or premature aging.
(12) Manufacturing Control and ISO Certification. The manufacturer must be ISO 9001:2000 certified and provide proof of current certification. The scope of the certification shall include manufacture of reflective markings.
a. The markings must be a resilient thermoplastic product with uniformly distributed glass beads throughout the entire cross-sectional area. The markings must be resistant to the detrimental effects of aviation fuels, motor fuels and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, de-icers, anti-icers, protective coatings, etc. Lines, legends, and symbols must be capable of being affixed to bituminous and/or Portland cement concrete pavements by the use of a large radiant heater. Colors shall be available as required.
b. The markings must be capable of conforming to pavement contours, breaks, and faults through the action of airport traffic at normal pavement temperatures. The markings must be capable of fully conforming to grooved pavements, including pavement grooving per FAA AC 150/5320-12, current version. The markings shall have resealing characteristics, such that it is capable of fusing with itself and previously applied thermoplastics when heated with a heat source per manufacturer’s recommendation.
c. Multicolored markings must consist of interconnected individual pieces of preformed thermoplastic pavement marking material, which through a variety of colors and patterns, make up the desired design. The individual pieces in each large marking segment (typically more than 20 ft. long) must be factory assembled with a compatible material and interconnected so that in the field it is not necessary to assemble the individual pieces within a marking segment. Obtaining multicolored effect by overlaying materials of different colors is not acceptable due to resulting inconsistent marking thickness and inconsistent application temperature in the marking/substrate interface.

e. The marking material must set up rapidly, permitting the access route to be re-opened to traffic a maximum of 15 minutes after application.
f. The marking material shall have an integral color throughout the thickness of the marking material.

620 2.3 REFLECTIVE MEDIA. Glass beads shall meet the requirements for [ ]. Glass beads shall be treated with all compatible coupling agents recommended by the manufacturers of the paint and reflective media to ensure adhesion and embedment.

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The Engineer should insert all that will be used in the project. When more than one bead type is specified, the plans should indicate the bead type for each marking.

[Federal Specification. TT B 1325D, Type I, gradation A]

[Federal Specification. TT B 1325D, Type III]

[Federal Specification. TT B 1325D, Type IV]


The Engineer should consult with the paint and bead manufacturer on the use of adhesion, flow promoting, and/or flotation additives.

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CONSTRUCTION METHODS
620 3.1  WEATHER LIMITATIONS.  The painting shall be performed only when the surface is dry and when the surface temperature is at least 45°F (7°C) and rising and the pavement surface temperature is at least 5°F (2.7°C) above the dew point. [Painting operations shall be discontinued when the surface temperature exceeds [ ] degrees F ([ ] degrees C.] Markings shall not be applied when the pavement temperature is greater than 120°F (49°C).

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The Engineer may specify minimum and maximum surface temperatures based on paint manufacturer's recommendations.

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620-3.2 EQUIPMENT.  Equipment shall include the apparatus necessary to properly clean the existing surface, a mechanical marking machine, a bead dispensing machine, and such auxiliary hand painting equipment as may be necessary to satisfactorily complete the job.
The mechanical marker shall be an atomizing spray type or airless-type marking machine suitable for application of traffic paint.  It shall produce an even and uniform film thickness at the required coverage and shall apply markings of uniform cross-sections and clear cut edges without running or spattering and without over spray.
620-3.3 PREPARATION OF SURFACE.  Immediately before application of the paint, the surface shall be dry and free from dirt, grease, oil, laitance, or other foreign material that would reduce the bond between the paint and the pavement. The area to be painted shall be cleaned by sweeping and blowing or by other methods as required to remove all dirt, laitance, and loose materials without damage to the pavement surface. Use of any chemicals or impact abrasives during surface preparation shall be approved in advance by the Engineer. [Paint shall not be applied to Portland cement concrete pavement until the areas to be painted are clean of curing material. Sandblasting or high-pressure water shall be used to remove curing materials.]

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The Engineer should specify any additional surface preparation required and should specify the type of surface preparation to be used when existing markings interfere with or would cause adhesion problems with new markings.

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620 3.4  LAYOUT OF MARKINGS.  The proposed markings shall be laid out in advance of the paint application. The locations of markings to receive glass beads shall be shown on the plans.

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Glass beads improve conspicuity and the friction characteristics of markings. When markings are part of an AIP or PFC funded project, at a minimum, the Engineer shall indicate the following locations to receive glass beads:

1. All runway and taxiway holding position markings.

2. Runway threshold marking.

3. Runway threshold bar.

4. Runway aiming point marking.

5. Runway designation marking.

6. Runway touchdown zone markings.

7. Runway centerline marking.

8. All taxiway centerline markings.

9. Geographical position marking.

10. Surface painted signs.

In addition to the minimum list above, the following locations are recommended to receive glass beads:

11. Runway side stripes.

12. Taxiway edge markings.

13. Non-movement Area boundary markings.

14. Displaced threshold markings.

15. Demarcation bar.

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620-3.5 APPLICATION.  Paint shall be applied at the locations and to the dimensions and spacing shown on the plans. Paint shall not be applied until the layout and condition of the surface has been approved by the Engineer. The edges of the markings shall not vary from a straight line more than 1/2 inch (12 mm) in 50 feet (15 m) and marking dimensions and spacings shall be within the following tolerances:


Dimension and Spacing

Tolerance

36 inches (910 mm) or less

±1/2 inch (12 mm)

greater than 36 inches to 6 feet (910 mm to 1.85 m)

± 1 inch (25 mm)

greater than 6 feet to 60 feet (1.85 m to 18.3 m)

± 2 inches (51 mm)

greater than 60 feet (18.3 m)

± 3 inches (76 mm)

The paint shall be mixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and applied to the pavement with a marking machine at the rate(s) shown in Table 1. The addition of thinner will not be permitted. A period of [ ] shall elapse between placement of a bituminous surface course or seal coat and application of the paint.



TABLE 1. APPLICATION RATES FOR PAINT AND GLASS BEADS

Paint Type

Paint

Square feet per

gallon, ft2/gal.

(Square meters per

liter, m2/l)


Glass Beads, Type I,

Gradation A

Pounds per gallon

of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter

of paint—kg/l)




Glass Beads,

Type III


Pounds per gallon

of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter

of paint—kg/l



Glass Beads,

Type IV


Pounds per gallon of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter of paint—kg/)l




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The Engineer shall specify the application rates for paint and glass beads from the following table.
APPLICATION RATES FOR PAINT AND GLASS BEADS FOR TABLE 1

Paint Type

Paint

Square feet per gallon, ft2/gal.

(Square meters per liter, m2/l)

Glass Beads, Type I,

Gradation A

Pounds per gallon of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter of paint—kg/l)


Glass Beads,

Type III

Pounds per gallon of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter of paint—kg/l

Glass Beads,

Type IV

Pounds per gallon of paint—lb./gal.

(Kilograms per liter of paint—kg/l

Waterborne


115 ft2/gal. maximum

(2.8 m2/l)

7 lb./gal.

minimum

(0.85 kg/l)

10 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.2 kg/l)


--

Waterborne


90 ft2/gal.

maximum

(2.2 m2/l)


--


--

8 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.0 kg/l)

Solvent Base


115 ft2/gal. maximum

(2.8 m2/l)

7 lb./gal. minimum

(0.85  kg/l)

10 lb./gal.

minimum

(1. 2kg/l)


--

Solvent Base


90 ft2/gal. maximum

(2.2 m2/l)


--


--

8 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.0 kg/l)

Epoxy

90 ft2/gal.

maximum

(2.2 m2/l)

14 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.7 kg/l)

20 lb./gal.

minimum

(2.4 kg/l)

15 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.8kg/l)

Methacrylate

45 ft2/gal.

maximum

(1.1 m2/l)

14 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.7 kg/l)

20 lb./gal.

minimum

(2.4 kg/l)

15 lb./gal.

minimum

(1.8 kg/l)


The Engineer shall specify the time period in order to allow adequate curing of the pavement surface. The Engineer should contact the paint manufacturer to determine the wait period.

Due to the increased surface area to cover, the following should be substituted when painting P 402 Porous Friction Course with waterborne or solvent based paints: "The paint shall be mixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and applied to the pavement with a marking machine capable of spraying from two directions simultaneously."

Markings may be required before paving operations are complete.  The Engineer may wish to specify waterborne or solvent-based materials for temporary markings at 30 to 50 percent of the specified application rates (e.g. rate/0.50 ). No glass beads are required for temporary markings. A-A-2886A, Type III may be used for temporary markings when reflectorized temporary markings are desired.

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Glass beads shall be distributed upon the marked areas at the locations shown on the plans to receive glass beads immediately after application of the paint. A dispenser shall be furnished that is properly designed for attachment to the marking machine and suitable for dispensing glass beads. Glass beads shall be applied at the rate(s) shown in Table 1. Glass beads shall not be applied to black paint. Glass beads shall adhere to the cured paint or all marking operations shall cease until corrections are made.
All emptied containers shall be returned to the paint storage area for checking by the Engineer.  The containers shall not be removed from the airport or destroyed until authorized by the Engineer.

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A 24-to-30 day waiting period is recommended for all types of paints to be used for pavement marking. If the airport operations require pavement marking prior to the recommended waiting period, the paint may be applied in a temporary light coat application. Appropriate modifications to paragraph 3.5 should be included to specify a 25% or 33% application rate for temporary markings. Glass beads are not required for temporary markings. The final application should occur after the waiting period has passed. The final marking application must be at full strength in order to adequately set the glass bead. Avoid specifying a 25-33% first application and then a 66-75% second application. This approach will not adequately set the glass bead.

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620-3.6 APPLICATION--PREFORMED AIRPORT PAVEMENT MARKINGS.

a. Asphalt and Portland cement To ensure minimum single-pass application time and optimum bond in the marking/substrate interface, the materials must be applied using a variable speed self-propelled mobile heater with an effective heating width of no less than 16 feet (4.88 m) and a free span between supporting wheels of no less than 18 feet (5.49 m). The heater must emit thermal radiation to the marking material in such a manner that the difference in temperature of 2 inch (5.08 cm) wide linear segments in the direction of heater travel must be within 5 percent of the overall average temperature of the heated thermoplastic material as it exits the heater. The material must be able to be applied at ambient and pavement temperatures down to 35ºF (2°C) without any preheating of the pavement to a specific temperature. The material must be able to be applied without the use of a thermometer. The pavement shall be clean, dry, and free of debris. A non-VOC sealer with a maximum applied viscosity of 250 centi-Poise (ASTM D 2393) must be applied to the pavement shortly before the markings are applied. The supplier must enclose application instructions with each box/package.
620-3.7 PROTECTION AND CLEANUP.  After application of the markings, all markings shall be protected from damage until dry.  All surfaces shall be protected from excess moisture and/or rain and from disfiguration by spatter, splashes, spillage, or drippings. The Contractor shall remove from the work area all debris, waste, loose or unadhered reflective media, and by-products generated by the surface preparation and application operations to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor shall dispose of these wastes in strict compliance with all applicable state, local, and Federal environmental statutes and regulations.
METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
620-4.1  The quantity of runway and taxiway markings to be paid for shall be [the number of square feet (square meters) of painting and the number of pounds (kilograms) of reflective media] [the number of square feet (square meters) of preformed markings] [one complete item in place] performed in accordance with the specifications and accepted by the Engineer.

BASIS OF PAYMENT


620-5.1  Payment shall be made at the respective contract [price per square foot (square meter)] [lump sum price] for runway and taxiway painting [, and [price per pound (kilogram)] [lump sum price] [price per square foot (square meter)] [lump sum price] for preformed markings] for reflective media.  This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials and for all labor, equipment, tools, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
Payment will be made under:
Item P 620 5.1-1 Runway and Taxiway Painting [per square foot (square meter)] [lump sum]
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The Engineer should include a pay item for each paint and bead type material specified.

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Item P 620 5.1-2 Reflective Media [per pound (kilogram)] [lump sum]
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
ASTM C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
ASTM C 146 Chemical Analysis of Glass Sand
ASTM C 371 Wire-Cloth Sieve Analysis of Nonplastic Ceramic Powders

ASTM D 92 Test Method for Flash and Fire Points by Cleveland Open Cup


ASTM D 711 No-Pick-Up Time of Traffic Paint
ASTM D 968 Standard Test Methods for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by Falling Abrasive
ASTM D 1213-54(1975) Test Method for Crushing Resistance of Glass Spheres
ASTM D 1652 Test Method for Epoxy Content of Epoxy Resins
ASTM D 2074 Test Method for Total Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Amine Values of Fatty Amines by Alternative Indicator Method
ASTM D 2240 Test Method for Rubber Products-Durometer Hardness
ASTM G 15453 Operating Light and Water-Exposure Apparatus (Fluorescent Light Apparatus UV-Condensation Type) for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials.
Federal Test Method Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Materials; Methods of Inspection,

Standard No. 141D/GEN Sampling and Testing


MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
ASTM D 476 Specifications for Dry Pigmentary Titanium Dioxide Pigments Products
Code of Federal Regulations 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A – Definition of Traverse Point Number and Location
Code of Federal Regulations 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 – Hazard Communications
FED SPEC TT-B-1325D Beads (Glass Spheres) Retroreflective
AASHTO M 247 Glass Beads Used in Traffic Paints
FED SPEC TT-P-1952E Paint, Traffic and Airfield Marking, Waterborne
Commercial Item

Description (CID) A-A-2886B Paint, Traffic, Solvent Based


FED STD 595 Colors used in Government Procurement

END OF ITEM P-620

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ITEM P-621 saw-cut grooves

DESCRIPTION
621-1.1 This item consists of providing a skid resistant surface that prevents hydroplaning during wet weather in accordance with these specifications and at the locations shown on the plans, or as directed by the Engineer.

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SKID-RESISTANT SURFACES. The method for determining the need for saw-cut grooves can be found in the most recent revision to AC 150/5320-12.
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CONSTRUCTION METHODS
621-2.1 Transverse grooves saw-cut in the pavement must form a 1/4 inch wide by 1/4 inch deep by 1 1/2 inches center-to-center configuration. The grooves must be continuous for the entire runway length. They must be saw-cut transversely in the runway pavement to not less than [10 feet] from the runway pavement edge to allow adequate space for equipment operation. The Contractor must provide a grooving machine of a type equipped with diamond-saw cutting blade groove cutting head capable of making at least 18 inches in width of multiple parallel grooves in one pass of the machine. Thickness of the cutting blades shall be capable of making the required width and depth of grooves in one pass of the machine. The cutting head shall not contain a mixture of new and worn blades or blades of unequal wear or diameter. The wheels on the grooving machine shall be of a design that will not scar or spall the pavement. The machine must be equipped with devices to control depth of groove and alignment within the specified tolerances.
The saw-cut grooves must meet the following tolerances. The tolerances apply to each day’s production and to each piece of grooving equipment used for production. The Contractor is responsible for all controls and process adjustments necessary to meet these tolerances.
Alignment tolerance.

Plus or minus 1-1/2 inches in alignment for 75 feet.


Groove tolerance.

Depth. The standard depth is 1/4 inch. At least 90 percent of the grooves must be at least 3/16 inch, at least 60 percent of the grooves must be at least 1/4 inch, and not more than 10 percent of the grooves may exceed 5/16 inch.


Width. The standard width is 1/4 inch. At least 90 percent of the grooves must be at least 3/16 inch, at least 60 percent of the grooves must be at least 1/4 inch, and not more than 10 percent of the grooves may exceed 5/16 inch.
Center-to -center spacing.

The standard spacing is 1-1/2 inches.

Minimum spacing 1-3/8 inches.

Maximum spacing 1-1/2 inches.


Saw-cut grooves must not be closer than 3 inches or more than 9 inches from transverse paving joints. Grooves must not be closer than 6 inches and no more than 18 inches from in-pavement light fixtures. Grooves may be continued through longitudinal joints. Where neoprene compression seals have been installed and the compression seals are recessed sufficiently to prevent damage from the grooving operation. grooves may be continued through the longitudinal joints. Where neoprene compression seals have been installed and the compression seals are not recessed sufficiently to prevent damage from the grooving operation, grooves must not be closer than 3 inches or more than 5 inches from the longitudinal joints.
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The 10 foot distance from the pavement edge allows adequate space for equipment operation. Grooving to within 1 or 2 feet from the pavement edge may be possible when adequate paved shoulder area is available.
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621-2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS. Grooving operations will not be permitted when freezing conditions prevent the immediate removal of debris and/or drainage of water from the grooved area.
621-2.4 EXISTING PAVEMENTS. Bumps, depressed areas, bad or faulted joints, and badly cracked and/or

spalled areas in the pavement shall not be grooved until such areas are adequately repaired or replaced.


621-2.5 NEW PAVEMENTS. New asphalt concrete pavements shall be allowed to cure for a minimum of [30 days] before grooving, to allow the material to become stable enough to prevent closing of the grooves under normal use. Permit new Portland cement concrete pavements to cure for a minimum of 28 days before grooving. Spalling along or tearing or raveling of the groove edges shall not be allowed.

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If it can be demonstrated that grooves are stable with no spalling along or tearing or raveling of the groove edges then grooving sooner than 30 days can be specified.
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621-2.6 CLEAN-UP.  During and after installation of saw-cut grooves, the Contractor must remove from the pavement all debris, waste, and by-products generated by the operations to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Cleanup of waste material must be continuous during the grooving operation Flush debris produced by the machine to the edge of the grooved area or pick it up as it forms. The dust coating remaining shall be picked up or flushed to the edge of the area if the resultant accumulation is not detrimental to the vegetation or storm drainage system. Accomplish all flushing operations in a manner to prevent erosion on the shoulders Waste material must be disposed of in an approved manner. Waste material must not be allowed to enter the airport storm or sanitary sewer system. The Contractor must dispose of these wastes in strict compliance with all applicable state, local, and Federal environmental statutes and regulations
621-2.7 REPAIR OF DAMAGED PAVEMENT. Grooving must be stopped and damaged pavement repaired at the Contractor's expense when in the opinion of the Engineer the result of the grooving operation will be detrimental to aircraft tires.
[621-2.8 PRODUCTION RATE. The Contractor must furnish sufficient equipment to groove [___square yards] of pavement [per hour][per day].]

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The Engineer may wish to specify a production rate depending on schedule. Delete paragraph if not used.
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ACCEPTANCE
621-3.1 ACCEPTANCE TESTING. Grooves will be accepted based on results of zone testing. All acceptance testing necessary to determine conformance with the groove tolerances specified will be performed by the Engineer.
Instruments for measuring groove width and depth must have a range of at least 0.5 inches and a resolution of at least 0.005 inches. Gage blocks or gages machined to standard grooves width, depth, and spacing may be used.
Instruments for measuring center-to-center spacing must have a range of at least 3 inches and a resolution of at least 0.02 inches.
The Engineer will measure grooves in five zones across the pavement width. Measurements will be made at least THREE times during each day’s production. Measurements in all zones will be made for each cutting head on each piece of grooving equipment used for each day’s production.

The five zones are as follows:




Zone 1

Centerline to 5 feet left or right of the centerline.

Zone 2

5 feet to 25 feet left of the centerline.

Zone 3

5 feet 25 feet right of the centerline.

Zone 4

25 feet to edge of grooving left of the centerline.

Zone 5

25 feet to edge of grooving right of the centerline.

At a random location within each zone, five consecutive grooves sawed by each cutting head on each piece of grooving equipment will be measured for width, depth, and spacing. The five consecutive measurements must be located about the middle blade of each cutting head plus or minus 4 inches. Measurements will be made along a line perpendicular to the grooves.
Width or depth measurements less than 0.170 inches shall be considered less than 3/16 inches.

Width or depth measurements more than 0.330 inches shall be considered more than 5/16 inches.

Width or depth measurements more than 0.235 inches shall be considered more than 1/4 inches.

PRODUCTION MUST BE ADJUSTED WHEN MORE THAN ONE GROOVE ON A CUTTING HEAD FAILS TO MEET THE STANDARD DEPTH, WIDTH, OR SPACING IN MORE THAN ONE ZONE.



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The Engineer may require a written report indicating the percentage of grooves that meet tolerances and may require a report indicating how many times production was adjusted. Blade wear and surface variability may require more testing than the minimum of three per day per equipment. It is expected that the Contractor will routinely spot check for compliance each time the equipment aligns for a grooving pass.
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MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

621-4.1 PAYMENT FOR SAW-CUT GROOVING. Payment for saw-cut grooving will be made at the contract unit price per square yard for saw-cut grooving.

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