Card Stacking- In this technique, the advertiser includes in the advertisement only information, opinions, and facts that support the view he or she wishes to communicate. For example, an advertiser might mention that “4 out of 5 dentists” recommend a certain brand of sugarless gum. What they are not saying is that those dentists would actually recommend any sugarless gum.
Glittering Generalities- This is any time a broad, sweeping generalization is used in advertising. For example, “This product promises everything you could ever want in toothpaste,” or “It’s your duty to buy our American flags”, or “It’s the right thing to do” are all examples of glittering generalities.
Transfer- This is an attempt to associate a product with a person or concept to get people to view a product in the same positive fashion as they do the person or concept involved. For example, an advertiser might try to convince you that a product is the choice of a new generation. Or a drink company might advertise that Michael Jordan drinks the product (so you too can be like Mike!).
Testimonial- This is “transfer” of a more direct nature. Generally, a celebrity is used to sell a product by offering a statement of how good or effective the product is. The idea is that you will trust the opinion of a celebrity figure. For example, if you are a fan of Hannah Montana, you might like to buy clothing that she endorses.
Plain Folks- In this approach, the advertiser wants you to feel that the people who use their product are just like you. These ads have housewives selling laundry detergent, handymen selling tools, or just “plain” moms and dads selling food items. For example, middle school students advertising certain backpacks may appeal to your age group.
Bandwagon- In this type of advertising, the sales pitch tells you that “everyone is buying this product.” The never spoken idea is, “so don’t you be left out.” Ads that say “1,000,000,000 sold” or the “most popular jeans in America” are examples of this technique.