Added in 1999 – Deleted in 2011
Reasons for deletion:
The pest Iris yellow spot tospovirus has been included in EPPO Alert List for more than 3 years and during this period no particular international action was requested by the EPPO member countries. The economic impact is limited. In 2011, it was therefore considered that sufficient alert has been given and the pest was deleted from the Alert List.
Iris yellow spot tospovirus (a new tospovirus of iris and onions)
Why This newly characterized tospovirus came to our attention as it has been reported in several countries on onion, leek and iris crops.
Where EPPO region: France (on leek, onion, garlic and chives, but no economic damage observed), Germany (found on onion in 2007, under eradication), Greece (found in 2008 in onion crops), Israel, Italy (in 2007 on onion crops in Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, then also found in Piemonte), Netherlands (incidental findings on onion, leek, Eustoma, Iris and Alstroemeria), Serbia (in 2007 in 1 onion seed crop), Slovenia (reported in 2002 on leek, onion and weeds), Spain (on leek and onion), United Kingdom (found on glasshouse Eustoma in 2007, under eradication).
Asia: India, Iran, Japan.
Africa: Egypt, Réunion, South Africa.
North America: Canada (found on onion in Ontario), USA (first in 2001 on onion in Colorado, now also found in Arizona, California, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington).
Central America: Guatemala.
South America: Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay.
Oceania: Australia (New South Wales, Western Australia, Victoria), New Zealand (probably widespread but with low economic impact).
On which plants Allium cepa (onion) and A. porrum (leek). The virus has occasionally been found on Alstroemeria, Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus), Iris hollandica, Lilium hybrids and Hippeastrum. IYSV has also been detected on a weed species, Atriplex micrantha (Chenopodiaceae). The experimental host range is narrow (Nicotiana benthamiana, Datura stramonium).
Damage On iris, symptoms are characterized by chlorotic spots which later developed into yellow and necrotic spots. Affected onion plants show numerous eyelike spots on the leaves and flower stalks resulting in flower abortion. It is noted that the economic impact of Iris yellow spot tospovirus in iris and leek is low in the Netherlands but this is not the case in Brazil on onion, as up to 100% loss has been observed in onion fields. Studies done in 2008 showed that in the Netherlands, latent infections of IYSV were common in onion crops but did not cause economic damage.
Transmission Thrips tabaci can transmit the virus (but Frankliniella schultzei and F. occidentalis are not vectors). Studies recently showed that onion bulbs and seeds did not transmit the virus to progeny. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in the field.
Pathway Plants for planting?, cut flowers ? vegetables? viruliferous thrips
Possible risks Iris are grown in many countries and onions are widely grown in the EPPO region. The thrips vector (Thrips tabaci) is widespread. More data is needed on the epidemiology of the disease and its host range (can other important monocotyledonous crops be infected?).
Source(s) Annual Report 1997, Diagnostic Centre, Plant Protection Service, Wageningen (NL), 118-119.
Anonymous (2007) Incidencia de plagas y enfermedades en las Comunidades Autónomas en 2006. Phytoma-España no. 187, 19-52 and no. 188, 16-56.
Bulajić A., Jović J, Krnjajić S, Petrov M, Djekić I, Krstić B (2008) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion (Allium cepa) in Serbia. Plant Disease 92(8), p 1247.
Bulajić A. Djekić I, Jović J, Krnjajić S, Vučurović A, Krstić B (2009) Incidence and distribution of Iris yellow spot virus on onion in Serbia. Plant Disease 93(10), 976-982.
Chatzivassiliou EK, Giavachtsia V, Orestiada N, Mehraban AH, Hoedjes K, Peters D (2009) Identification and incidence of Iris yellow spot virus, a new pathogen in onion and leek in Greece. Plant Disease 93(7), p 761.
Colnago P, Achigar R, González PH, Peluffo S, González H (2010) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion in Uruguay. Plant Disease 94(6), p 786.
Cortês, I.; Livieratos, I.C.; Derks, A.; Peters, D.; Kormelink, R. (1998) Molecular and serological characterization of iris yellow spot virus, a new and distinct tospovirus species. Phytopathology, 88(12), 1276-1282.
Córdoba-Sellés C, Cebrián-Mico, Alfaro-Fernández A, Muñoz-Yerbes MJ, Jordá-Gutiérrez C (2007) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in commercial leek (Allium porrum) in Spain. Plant Disease 91(10), p 1365.
Córdoba-Sellés C, Martínez-Priego L, Muñoz-Gómez R, Jordá-Guttiérrez C (2005) Iris yellow spot virus: a new onion disease in Spain. Plant Disease 89(11), p 1243.
Cosmi T, Marchesini E, Martini G (2003) [Presence and spread of Tospovirus and thrip vectors in Veneto.] Informatore Agrario 59(20), 69-72 (abst.).
Coutts, B.A. ; McMichael, L.A. ; Tesoriero, L. ; Rodoni, B.C. Wilson, C.R. ; Wilson, A.J. ; Persley, D.M. ; Jones, R.A.C. (2003) Iris yellow spot virus found infecting onions in three Australian states. Australasian Plant Pathology, 32(4), 555-557.
Creamer R, Sanogo S, Moya A, Romero J, Molina-Bravo R, Cramer C (2004) Iris yellow spot virus on onion in New Mexico. Plant Disease, 88(9), p 1049.
du Toit, L.J.; Pappu, H.R. ; Druffel, K.L., Pelter, G.Q. (2004) Iris yellow spot virus in onion bulb and seed crops in Washington. Plant Disease, 8(2), p 222.
du Toit LJ, Burger JT, McLeod A, Engelbrecht M, Viljoen A (2007) Iris yellow spot virus in onion seed crops in South Africa. Plant Disease 91(9), p 1203.
Elnagar S, El-Sheikh MAK, Abdel Wahab AS (2005) Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV): a newly isolated thrips-borne tospovirus in Egypt. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Pests in Agriculture, Montpellier, FR, 2005-10-26/27, 8 pp.
Evans CK, Bag S, Frank E, Reeve JR, Ransom C, Drost D, Pappu HR (2009) Natural infection of Iris yellow spot virus in twoscale saltbush (Atriplex micrantha) growing in Utah. Plant Disease 93(4), p 430.
Gent, D.H.; Schwartz, H.F.; Khosla, R. (2004) Distribution and incidence of Iris yellow spot virus in Colorado and its relation to onion plant population and yield. Plant Disease, 88(5), 446-452.
Gent DH, Martin RR, Ocamb CM (2007) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion and leek in Western Oregon. Plant Disease 91(4), p 468.
Gera, A.; Kritzman, A.; Cohen, J.; Raccah, B.; Antignus, Y. (2000) Tospoviruses infecting vegetable crops in Israel. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 30(2), 289-292.
Gera A, Siti L, Beckelman Y, Tam Y, Kritzman A, Zeidan M (2008) First report of Iris yellow spot tospovirus (IYSV) in lily and impatiens. Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants, Haarlem, NL, 2008-04-20/24, p 51
Hoepting CA, Schwartz HF, Pappu HR (2007) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion in New York. Plant Disease 91(3), p 327.
Hoepting CA, Allen JK, Vanderkooi DK, Hovius MY, Fuchs MF, Pappu HR, McDonald MR (2008) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion in Canada. Plant Disease 92(2), p 318.
Kritzman, A.; Beckleman, H.; Alexandrow, S.; Cohen, J.; Lampel, M.; Zeidan, M.; Raccah, B.; Gera, A. (2000) Lisianthus leaf necrosis: a new disease of lisianthus caused by Iris yellow spot virus. Plant Disease, 84(11), 1185-1189.
Kritzman, A.; Lampel, M.; Raccah, B.; Gera, A. (2001) Distribution and transmission of Iris yellow spot virus. Plant Disease, 85(8), 838-842.
Miller ME, Saldana RR, Black MC, Pappu HR (2006) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on onion (Allium cepa) in Texas. Plant Disease 90(10), p 1359.
Mullis SW, Gitaitis RD, Nischwitz C, Csinos AS, Rafael Mallaupoma ZC, Inguil Rojas EH (2006) First report of onion (Allium cepa) naturally infected with Iris yellow spot virus in Peru. Plant Disease 90(3), p 377.
Mullis SW, Langston Jr DB, Gitaitis RD, Sherwood JL, Csinos AC, Riley DG, Sparks AN, Torrance RL, Cook MJ (2004) First report of Vidalia onion (Allium cepa) naturally infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus and Iris yellow spot virus (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Tospovirus) in Georgia. Plant Disease, 88(11), p 1285.
Mumford RA, Glover R, Daly M, Nixon T, Harju V, Skelton A (2008) Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) infecting Lisanthus (Eutoma grandiflorum) in the UK: first finding and detection by real-time PCR. New Disease Report volume 16 (August 2007-January 2008). http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/jan2008/2007-105.asp
Murai, T. (2004) Current status of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, as pest thrips in Japan. Agrochemicals Japan, no. 84, 7-10.
Nagata, T.; Almeida, A.C.L.; Resende, R. de O.; de Avila, A.C.; (1999) The identification of the vector species of iris yellow spot tospovirus occurring on onion in Brazil. Plant Disease, 83(4), p 399.
Nischwitz C, Pappu HR, Mullis SW, Sparks AN, Langston DR, Csinos AS, Gitaitis RD (2007) Phylogenetic analysis of Iris yellow spot virus isolates from onion (Allium cepa) in Georgia (USA) and Peru. Journal of Phytopathology 155(9), 531-535.
NPPO of Germany, 2008-02.
NPPO of France, 2006-08, 2009-01.
NPPO of Italy (2010-02, 2010-10).
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2007-01, 2008-03, 2008-10.
NPPO of Slovenia, 2002-05.
Regional Plant Protection Service, Emilia-Romagna (IT), 2008-08.
Pappu HR, Hellier BC, Dugan FM (2006) Wild Allium spp. as natural hosts of Iris yellow spot virus. Plant Disease 90(3), p 378.
Personal communication with Dr R. Jones, CSIRO, 2004.
Pozzer, L.; Bezerra, I.C.; Kormelink, R.; Prins, M.; Peters, D.; Resende, R. de O.; de Avila, A.C. (1999) Characterization of a tospovirus isolate of iris yellow spot virus associated with a disease in onion fields, in Brazil. Plant Disease, 83(4), 345-350.
Ravi KS, Kitkaru AS, Winter S (2005) Iris yellow spot virus in onions: a new tospovirus record from India. New Disease Reports, Volume 11: February 2005 - July 2005. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/july2005/2005-32.asp
Robène-Soustrade I, Hostachy B, Roux-Cuvelier M, Minatchy J, Hédont M, Pallas R, Couteau A, Cassam N, Wuster G (2005) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onion bulb and seed production fields in Réunion island. New Disease Reports, Volume 11: February 2005 - July 2005. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/july2005/2005-33.asp
Rosales M, Pappu HR, López L, Mora R, Aljaro A (2005) Iris yellow spot virus in onion in Chile. Plant Disease 89(11), p 1243.
Sether DM, Borth WB, Shimabuku RS, Pappu HR, Melzer MJ, Hu JS (2010) First report of Iris yellow spot virus in onion in Hawaii. Plant Disease 94(12), p 1508.
Shahraeen, N.; Ghotbi, T. (2003) Natural occurrence of different Tospovirus species infecting ornamentals and other agricultural crops in Iran (Abstract 23.26 of a paper presented at the 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology, Christchurch, New Zealand (2003-02-02/07).
Schwartz, H.F.; Brown, W.M. Jr; Blunt, T.; Gent, D.H. (2002) Iris yellow spot virus on onion in Colorado. Plant Disease, 86(5), p 560.
Ward LI, Perez-Egusquiza Z, Fletcher JD, Ochoa Corona FM, Tang JZ, Liefting LW, Martin EJ, Quinn BD, Pappu HR, Clover GRG (2008) First report of Iris yellow spot virus on Allium cepa in New Zealand. New Disease Reports, Volume 17, February 2008 - July 2008. http://www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/july2008/2008-43.asp
INTERNET (last retrieved in 2008-03)
Website of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality. Pest record. Finding of Iris yellow spot virus in the Netherlands in 2007. http://www.minlnv.nl/portal/page?_pageid=116,1640321&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&p_file_id=26184
EPPO RS 99/128, 2001/052, 2001/085, 2001/202, 2002/081, 2002/100, 2003/041, 2004/022, 2004/110, 2004/118, 2004/160, 2005/017, 2005/040, 2005/041, 2005/141, 2005/142, 2006/076, 2006/079, 2006/141, 2007/008, 2007/056, 2007/137, 2007/187, 2007/210, 2008/032, 2008/033, 2008/034, 2008/062, 2008/081, 2008/163, 2008/164, 2008/165, 2008/205, 2009/119, 2009/120, 2009/142, 2010/041, 2010/063, 2010/064, 2011/016, 2011/017, 2011/088
Panel review date 2011-04 Entry date 1999-07