KHP IV Monograph
초오, 토부자, Korean Aconite Root
Aconiti Ciliare Tuber is the tuber of Aconitum ciliare Decaisne (Ranunculaceae), and other species of the same genus.
Description Aconiti Ciliare Tuber is spindle-shaped, irregular in size, 2 ~ 7 cm long, 6 ~ 18 mm in diameter, and remained with scars of the stem or stems on the upper part. The outer surface is grayish brown ~ blackish brown, and crumpled with longitudinal wrinkles. The cut surface is grayish white ~ dark gray with layers of polygonal striations. The texture is hard.
It is odourless, and tastes very hot, paralyzing the tongue.
Identification Take 0.5 g of the pulverized Aconiti Ciliare Tuber, add 10 mL of dilute acetic acid, heat in a water bath with intermittently shakings, and filter off. To 5 mL of the filtrate, add one drop of the Meyer's reagent; the yellowish white precipitation is produced.
Purity Foreign matter No more than 3.0 % of stems should be obtained.
Loss on drying Not more than 12.0 %.
Ash Not more than 6.0 %.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.0 %.
Grade Good Aconiti Ciliare Tuber of good grade is fully-dried with strongly paralyzing taste on the tongue, and is of no stems and rootlets.
ACONITI KOREANI TUBER
Aconiti Koreani Tuber is the tuber of Acotinitum koreanum Raymond (Ranunculaceae).
Description Aconiti Koreani Tuber is conical shaped, left with scars of roots and buds, 2 ~ 4 cm long, and 1 ~ 2 cm in diameter. The outer surface is pale brown, and the cut surface is pale grayish white.
It is odourless, and tastes bitter, paralyzing the tongue tip.
Identification Take 0.5 g of the pulverized Aconiti Koreani Tuber, add 10 mL of dilute acetic acid, heat in a water bath with shaking, and filter off. To 5 mL of the filtrate, add the Meyer's reagent; the white precipitation forms.
Loss on drying Not more than 14.0 %.
Ash Not more than 4.0 %.
Grade Good Aconiti Koreani Tuber of good grade is of the large, substantial tubers.
Aconiti Tuber is the tuberous mother root of Aconitum carmichaeli Debeaux (Ranunculaceae).
Description Aconiti Tuber is spindle ~ fusiform, irregular in size, 2 ~ 6 cm long, and 1 ~ 3 cm in diameter. The outer surface is grayish brown ~ blackish brown, observed with the shoot scars, the secondary root scars, and the root scars at the top, and wrinkled with the transverse striations. The texture is hard, difficult to snap off. The cross-section is farinaceous. The phloem is brown, and the xylem is milky white ~ grayish white.
It is odourless, and tastes slightly hot, paralyzing the tongue tip.
Identification Take 0.5 g of the pulverized Aconiti Tuber, add 10 mL of 2 % acetic acid, heat in a water bath for 3 minutes with intermittently shaking, and filter off. To 5 mL of the filtrate, add 3 drops of the Meyer's reagent; the pale yellow precipitation is produced.
Loss on drying Not more than 11.0 %.
Ash Not more than 5.0 %.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.5 %.
Grade Good Aconiti Tuber of good grade is large, regular, and substantial without rootlets and secondary roots.
ACORI GRAMINERI RHIZOMA
Acori Gramineri Rhizoma is the rhizome of Acorus gramineus Solander (Araceae).
Description Acori Gramineri Rhizoma is cylindrical, slightly compressed, often branched, 10 ~ 20 cm long, and 3 ~ 10 mm in diameter. The outer surface is yellowish brown ~ grayish brown with many internodes apart by 3 ~ 8 mm. The upper part of the rhizome is left with scars of leaf stalks, and the lower part is remained with scars of root hairs in a linear form. The texture is hard. The cross-sectional surface is pale yellow ~ white, and coarse with the distinct endodermis that separates the stele and the cortex layer. Under a microscope, on the cross-section, vascular bundles are scattered in the xylem and the cortex. In the stele, concentric vascular bundles are scattered, and in the cortex, collateral ones. The schizogenous intercellular space is developed well in the stele and the xylem. Starch particles are in the parenchyma cells.
It smells characteristic and tastes slightly bitter.
Purity Foreign matter No more than 5.0 % of the leaf stalks, the root hairs, sand and soil, and others should be obtained.
Loss on drying Not more than 13.0 %.
Ash Not more than 10.0 %.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.5 %.
Extract content Dilute ethanol-soluble extract: more than 5.0 %.
Grade Good Acori Gramineri Rhizoma of good grade is pale yellow on the outer surface and white on the cross-section. It should have strong aroma
목천료, 천료, 등천료, 천료목, 목천료자
Actinidiae Fructus is the branch, leaf, or wormy fruit of Actinidia polygama Miquel (Actinidiaceae).
Description Actinidiae Fructus is hairy in the young branches. The leaf is ovate with the alternative arrangement, 10 cm long, acuminate at tips. The base has circular lamina, and is marginally serrate, and partly white. The fruit is berry, and yellow when ripen. The outer surface of pericarp is flat, oblong, acuminate at tip, and 3 cm long. The wormy fruit is elliptic, crumpled.
It is odourless, and tastes slightly hot.
Grade Good Actinidiae Fructus of good grade is of fulfilled endocarp of the branch with hot taste, and of large wormy fruits with the crumpled surface.