Acknowledgements 5 Glossary 6 List of Tables 8 List of Figures 9 List of Boxes 10 Pakistan Fact Sheet 11 Executive Summary 12




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Contents

Acknowledgements 5

Glossary 6

List of Tables 8

List of Figures 9

List of Boxes 10

Pakistan Fact Sheet 11

Executive Summary 12

1. Preparation of this Report 15

1.1 Background 16



1.1.1 What is Biodiversity? 16

1.1.2 The Convention on Biological Diversity 17

1.1.3 Pakistan’s Obligations 17

1.1.4 The Biodiversity Action Plan 18

1.1.5 COP Decisions and Pakistan's Response 18

1.1.6 Indicators of Biodiversity 18

1.1.7 Clearing House Mechanism 20

1.1.8 Financial Mechanisms 20

1.1.9 Biodiversity Related Legislation 20

1.1.10 Biodiversity Related Strategies, Policies and Plans 23

1.1.11 Institutional Co-ordination 23

2.Pakistan’s Ecological Zones 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.1 Ecosystems of Special Biodiversity Significance 25

2.1.1 Balochistan Juniper Forests 25

2.1.2 Chilghoza Forests 26

2.1.3 Balochistan Subtropical Forests 26

2.1.4 Sub-Tropical Deciduous Forests 27

2.1.5 Himalayan Dry and Moist Temperate Forests 27

2.1.6 Trans-Himalayan Plateau 28

2.1.7 Thorn Forest 28

2.1.8 The Balochistan Desert Basin 28

2.1.9 The Thar Desert 28

2.1.10 Indus Delta Mangrove 29

2.2 Threats 29



3.Plant Biodiversity 30

3.1 Introduction 30

3.1 Medicinal Plants 30

3.1.1 Medicinal Plants of Alpine and High Altitude Areas 30

3.1.2 Medicinal Plants of Temperate Montane Forest 30

3.1.3 Medicinal Plants of Sub-Tropical Foothill Forests 30

3.1.4 Medicinal Plants of Arid and Semi-Arid Areas 31

3.2 Present Status 31



3.2.1 Threatened Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Pakistan 32

3.2.2 Conservation 32

3.2.3 Conclusion and Recommendations 33

4. FOREST BIODIVERSITY 34

4.1 Evolution of Forest Management in Pakistan 34

4.2 Forest Management in Practice 34

4.2.1 Hill Forests 35

4.2.2 Riverine Forests 35

4.2.3 Scrub Forests 35

4.2.4 Irrigated Plantations 36

4.2.5 Linear Plantations 36

4.2.6 Farm Forestry 36

4.3 Forest Management and Wildlife 37

4.4 The Biodiversity Convention, Forestry and Threats to Pakistan’s Forests 37

4.5 Strategies, Polices and Legislation 38

4.6 Conservation Projects 38

4.6.1 Environmental Rehabilitation in NWFP and Punjab 39

4.6.2 Kalam Integrated Development Project (KIDP) 39

4.6.3 Social Forestry Project Malakand/Dir 39

4.6.4 Environmental Rehabilitation Project, Swat, Bunir, and Chitral 39

4.6.5 Tarbela-Mangla Watershed Management Project 40

4.6.6 Siren Valley Forestry Development Project 40

4.6.7 Forestry Management Centre (FMC), NWFP 40

4.6.9 Other Projects 40

4.7 Recommendations 40



4.7.1 Sustainable Forestry 40

4.7.2 Promotion of Non-destructive Uses of Trees 41

5Wildlife Biodiversity 42

5.1 Introduction 42

5.1 Existing Wildlife in Pakistan 43

5.2 Areas of Special Concern 47

5.3 Species of Special Concern 47

5.3.1 Extinct 47

5.3.2 Internationally Threatened 48

5.3.3 Species of National Concern 48

5.4 Protected Area Systems 48



6. Insect Biodiversity 52

6.1 Insect Species in Pakistan 52

6.2 Use of Pesticides and Threats to Biodiversity 53

6.3 IPM Projects in Pakistan 53



7. Marine Biodiversity 63

7.1 Pakistan’s Coastline 63



7.1.1 Habitat Types along Pakistan’s Coastline 63

7.2 Important Marine Species and their Status 64

7.3 Major Threats to Marine Ecosystems 65

7.3.1 Economic Value 68

7.3.2Institutional arrangements 68

8. Freshwater Biodiversity 69

8.1 Pakistan’s Freshwater Resources 69

8.2 Important Species and their Status 70

8.2.1 Aquatic Plants 70

8.2.2 Amphibian Fauna 70

8.3 Threats to Freshwater Biodiversity 71

8.4 Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation 72

8.4.1 Strategies and Policies 72

8.4.2 Fish Ladders 72

8.4.3 Additional Research Required 73

9. Agricultural Biodiversity 74

9.1 Agriculture in Pakistan 74

9.2 Production Systems 74

9.3 Crop Genetic Diversity 75

9.4 Crop Biodiversity 77

9.4.1 Cereals 77

9.4.2 Food Legumes 77

9.4.3 Horticultural Crops 78

9.5 Changes in Food Habits and the Effects on Biodiversity 78

9.6 Threats to Crop Biodiversity 79

9.7 The Conservation of Crop Biodiversity 79



9.7.1 Strategies, Policies, and Legislation 79

9.7.2 Ex-situ Collections 79

9.7.3 Documentation 79

9.7.4 Evaluation and Characterisation 80

9.7.5 Policies 80

10.Livestock Biodiversity 81

10.1 Historical Trends in Livestock and Poultry in Pakistan 81

10.2 Important breeds of Cattle (Bos indicus) 82

10.3 Breeds of Goats (Capra hircus) and Sheep (Ovis aries ) 83

10.4 Horses (Equus caballus) 84

10.5 Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 84

10.6 Poultry 84

10.7 Social and Cultural Values 85

10.8 Threats 85

10.9 Conservation projects 85



11.Genetic Biodiversity 89

11.1 Conservation and Institutional Arrangements 89

11.2 Threats 90

11.3 Conservation Projects 90

11.4 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights 91

11.5 Protection of Varieties through Patented Genes 91



12.Equitable Benefit Sharing of Biological Resources 92

12.1 Pakistan’s Responses 92

12.2 Administration of Land, Water, Air, Forests and the Oceans 92

12.3 Religious and Cultural Beliefs 95

12.4 The Haqdari System in the Hill Forests of Murree and Kahuta 97

12.5 Distribution of Benefits in the High Hill Forests of NWFP 98

12.6 Equitable Benefit Sharing among Traditional Grazers of the Cholistan Desert 99

12.5.1 Differences between the Traditional People and the Forest Department 99

12.7 Status of Right Holders in the Scrub Forests of The Salt Range 100

12.8 Conservation Projects Involving Local Communities 101

12.8.1 Protected Areas Management Project 101

12.8.2 Sustainable Resource Use in Bar Valley 101

12.8.3 Torghar Conservation Project (TCP) 102

12.8.4 Palas Area Conservation Project, Kohistan, NWFP 103

12.8.5 Maintaining Biodiversity in Pakistan with Rural Communities 103

12.8.6 Mountain Areas Conservancy Project (MACP) 103

13. Other Biodiversity Related International Conventions 104

13.1 Pakistan’s Compliance with International Treaties and Conventions 104

13.2 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 105

13.1.1 Obligation of the Parties 105

13.3 The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) 107

13.4 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (RAMSAR) 108

13.5 International and National Obligations on Banned Pesticides and Chemicals 109



14. Introduced/ Invasive Species 110

14.1 Introduction 110

14.2 Introduced Eucalyptus Species 110

14.2.1 Allelopathic Affects 111

14.2.2 Ecological Impact 111

14.3 Invasive Mesquite 111



14.3.1 Environmental Impact 112

14.4 Invasive Paper Mulberry 112

14.5 Fauji Khagga as an Invasive Species 112

14.6 Introduced Cats in Islands of the Arabian Sea 113

14.7 Exotic Fish Species 113

14.7.1 Impacts of Exotic Fish 114

15. Arrangements for Cross Boundary Movement of Biological Material 116

15.1 Quarantine Laws and Status of Implementation 116

15.2 Activities of the Quarantine Department 116

15.3 Activities of the Plant Protection Department 117



APPENDICES 119

Appendix A: Internationally Threatened Animals in Pakistan 119

Appendix B: Internationally Threatened Birds in 125

Pakistan 125

Appendix C: Biodiversity Related Research 127

Institutions in Pakistan 127

Appendix D: List of Indicators 129

Appendix E: Fifty Drugs Discovered from Ethnobotanical Leads 132

Appendix F: Breeds of Livestock of Pakistan 134

AppendixG: Biodiversity Related Projects in Pakistan 140

Appendix H: List of Contributors 151

REFERENCES 154



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