|Abstracts and Visual Files
A SUCCESSFUL NATIONAL PROGRAM: THE JOINTED GOATGRASS PROGRAM
Presented at the 2009 Western Society of Weed Science Annual Meeting
March 11, 2009
Albuquerque New Mexico
 National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program: History, Politics and Administration. Darrell L. Hanavan*, Executive Director, Colorado Wheat Administrative Committee, Centennial, CO and Alex Ogg, National Jointed Goatgrass Program, Ten Sleep, WY.
 Climatic Variability as a Driving Force For Integrated Weed Management. Doug Schmale*, National Jointed Goatgrass Program, Lodgepole, NE and Randy Anderson, ARS-USDA, Brookings, SD.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (237 KB)
 Integrated Management of Jointed goatgrass in the Pacific Northwest. Frank Young*, ARS-USDA, Pullman, WA; Joe Yenish, Washington State University, Pullman; Dan Ball, Oregon State University, Pendleton; and Donn Thill, University of Idaho, Moscow.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (2.3 MB)
 Integrated Jointed Goatgrass Management Systems in the Central and Southern Great Plains. Phillip W. Stahlman* and Patrick W. Geier, Kansas State University, Hays; and Thomas F. Peeper, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (273 KB)
 Impact of Weed Genetics on Weed Management: Jointed Goatgrass in Wheat--A Case Study. Carol Mallory-Smith*, Oregon State University, Corvallis and Robert Zemetra*, University of Idaho, Moscow.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (567 KB)
 How the Principles Developed in This National Program Can Be Applied to Other Invasive Weed Problems: A Brainstorming Session. Phil Westra*, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins and Drew Lyon, University of Nebraska, Scottsbluff, NE.
 Jointed Goatgrass Research from Wyoming and Nebraska. Stephen D. Miller*, Andrew R. Kniss, David W. Wilson, University of Wyoming, Laramie, and Drew J. Lyon, University of Nebraska, Scottsbluff.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (4.2 MB)
 Jointed Goatgrass Research in Colorado Over Eleven Years. Philip Westra*, Todd Gaines, Pat Byrne, Sarah Ward, and Scott Nissen, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins; and Dale Shaner, USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins, CO.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (2.34 MB)
 Controlling Jointed Goatgrass In The Central Great Plains. Robert N. Klein* and Gordon E. Hanson, University of Nebraska, North Platte.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (549 KB)
 Jointed Goatgrass Management Strategies in Oklahoma Winter Wheat. Thomas F. Peeper*, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (241 KB)
 Developing a Jointed Goatgrass Management Program for the Intermountain West. Ralph E. Whitesides*, Corey V. Ransom, Utah State University, Logan; and Don W. Morishita, University of Idaho, Twin Falls.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (389 KB)
 Influence of Fallow Tillage on Jointed Goatgrass Emergence and Competition in Winter Wheat. Daniel A. Ball*, Oregon State University, Pendleton; Jack O. Evans, Utah State University, Logan; Gail A. Wicks, University of Nebraska, North Platte.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (731 KB)
 Competitive Wheat: A Key Component in Integrated Weed Management. Steven Seefeldt, USDA-ARS, Fairbanks, AK and Alex Ogg*, USDA-ARS (retired), Ten Sleep, WY.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (339 MB)
 Jointed Goatgrass Best Management Practices and Clearfield Wheat Risk Assessment. Phillip W. Stahlman*, Patrick W. Geier, John C. Frihauf, and Anthony D. White. Kansas State University, Hays; Monsanto Co., Hannibal, MO.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (312 MB)
 Pacific Northwest Extension Activities on Jointed Goatgrass. Joseph P. Yenish*, Roland Schirman, Doug Schmale, and Eric Zakarison, Washington State University, Pullman.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (654 MB)
 Pacific Northwest USDA-ARS Research and Extension Activities. Frank L. Young*, USDA-ARS, Pullman; Joseph P. Yenish, Laylah S. Sullivan, Washington State University, Pullman; Daniel A. Ball, Oregon State University, Pendleton; Donn C. Thill, and Richard S. Zemetra, University of Idaho, Moscow.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (1.6 MB)
 WERA-077 Managing Invasive Weeds in Wheat. Joe Yenish*, Washington State University, Pullman; Andy Hulting, Oregon State University, Corvallis; Andrew Kniss, University of Wyoming, Laramie; Drew Lyon, University of Nebraska, Scottsbluff; and Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (1.15 MB)
 Prediction and Prevention of Seed Production in Jointed Goatgrass. Daniel A. Ball*, Oregon State University, Pendleton; and Alex G. Ogg Jr., USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA (retired).
[Abstract] [Slide file] (402 KB)
 Seed Dormancy and Germination Characteristics of Jointed Goatgrass. Lynn Fandrich* and Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (726 KB)
 Seed Shattering In Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops Cylindrica) Populations From Cropping And Not Cropping Environments. Elena Sanchez-Olguin*, Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (20.09 MB)
 Ecotype Response Of Jointed Goatgrass Caryopses To Vernalization Duration. Michael Quinn*, Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR; And Lynn Fandrich, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (1.8 MB)
 Size of Jointed Goatgrass Seed Varies by Floret Position. Lynn Fandrich* and Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (755 KB)
 Determining Physiological Maturation Of Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops Cylindrica) Caryopses. Michael P. Quinn* and Don W. Morishita, University of Idaho, Twin Falls; William I. Price, University of Idaho, Moscow.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (3.3 MB)
 Molecular Evidence For Genetic Structure In Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops Cylindrica). Bethany F. Econopouly*, John K. McKay, Harald Meimberg, Scott Reid, and Philip Westra, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (2.5 MB)
 Assessing the Risk of Gene Flow Between Wheat and Jointed Goatgrass. Z. Wang, M. Rehman, J. Hansen, and R.S. Zemetra, University of Idaho; A. Perez-Jones, L. Kroiss, H. Gandi, C. Watson, O. Riera-Lizarazu, M.I. Vales, and C. Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University.
[Abstract] [Slide file] (377 KB)
 Where the Money Was Spent. Alex Ogg*, USDA-ARS (retired), Ten Sleep, WY
[Abstract] [Slide file] (164 KB)
Oral Presentation Abstracts
 History, Politics and Administration of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program Darrell Hanavan, Presenter
The National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program was founded in 1994 when a special grant of $350,000 was received from the US Congress through CSREES-USDA. Washington State University was designated as the lead agency for this grant. The purpose of this grant was to provide funding to develop improved integrated management systems for jointed goatgrass in 10 western states where the weed was causing significant losses in wheat yields and farm profitability. Key factors in getting this program established was involving wheat producers in the planning of the Program and its oversight through a national steering committee, having producer support at the local, state and national levels, and identifying a US Congressman who would support the appropriation of funds during the life of the Program. Another important factor to the success of this Program was the seven regional workshops that were held in the early years in all major areas in the western US where jointed goatgrass occurred in wheat. These workshops helped increase producer awareness of the problem and helped to identify data gaps for new research projects. During the 13-year life of the Program, a total of $4.15 million was awarded to projects in 10 western states. Typically, there were 15 to 20 proposals funded each year. About 32% of the funds were spent on developing integrated management systems. About 30% was spent on developing systems to manage herbicide-resistant wheat and gene flow between wheat and jointed goatgrass, and another 18% was spent on technology transfer activities and publications. Only 6% of the funds were spent administrating the Program. A Research Coordinator was hired to oversee the Program, to arrange an annual review of all projects each year and to arrange for the publication of an annual progress report each year. A national Extension Coordinator was hired to transfer the latest research findings to producers. Early in the life of the Program, a web site www.jointedgoatgrass.org was established to provide easy access to all progress reports, scientific publications, and technology transfer publications and activities. Plans are in place to support and maintain the web site through 2012. In 2000, a 5-year plan was developed to bring the Program to an orderly conclusion. Included in this plan were plans to publish four national bulletins on the state of the science of jointed goatgrass and four regional bulletins that provide guidelines to wheat producers to develop integrated management systems for this weed. This Program will conclude in August 2009 when the final research projects are completed, but the benefits to agriculture and science will continue for many years. Because of the success of this national program, it will serve as a model for future national programs.
 CLIMATIC VARIABILITY AS A DRIVING FORCE FOR INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT. Douglas L. Schmale - Presenter
The climate in many regions of the western U.S. is characterized by low average annual precipitation, high variability in precipitation between different years, and high variability in precipitation for any specific period when compared to the same period in different years. In addition, some regions exhibit a summer dry season or temperatures incompatible with many crops. Extreme weather events such as destructive hail also occur. Producers of dryland crops have adjusted to this climate with practices such as fallow and crop selection; winter wheat is the major crop. Jointed goatgrass management for these producers has also been influenced by climate, with the climatic variability requiring a multi-practice approach for successful jointed goatgrass control. In numerous studies conducted during the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program, when only one practice was used to control jointed goatgrass, effectiveness was often reduced by drought or other variability in weather. When several practices were combined, jointed goatgrass control was improved. This was especially true if multi-year practices were used. Although not studied, it is reasonable to hypothesize that combining multiple practices would also enhance rangeland or other non-crop weed control in the same regions or in other regions with high variability in climatic conditions.
 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF JOINTED GOATGRASS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. Frank L. Young - Presenter
Jointed goatgrass (JGG) was first discovered in Washington near Hay in 1917. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) JGG decreases soil health, grain quantity and quality, and increases marketing expenses. Since the initiation of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program in the western United States, funds have been available for scientists to conduct biology, ecology, production, genetics, and integrated management studies to reduce the economic impact of JGG on winter wheat-based production systems. Numerous single-component studies have been conducted in the past 10 to 15 years and many of the strategies from these studies have been integrated into three PNW long-term integrated weed management (IWM) field experiments to control JGG. Strategies that have been integrated include: plant competitive wheat varieties, increase wheat seeding rate and seed size, delay spring wheat seeding, burn wheat stubble (once), fertilize wheat at the time of planting, till fields lightly (annually), include broadleaf crop and/or reduce the frequency of planting winter wheat in rotations, and plant herbicide-resistant winter wheat varieties. In the 3-state IWM study, the best combination of treatments for crop yield and reduced JGG population was a one-time stubble burn, 3-years out of winter wheat, and integrated practices for planting winter wheat. In the IWM tillage study, a treatment of one-time deep-plowing followed by annual reduced tillage crops decreased JGG spikelets more than a one-time deep plow, followed by annual no-till crops. These studies indicate that integrating several management strategies into wheat-based cropping systems reduce the impact of JGG.
 INTEGRATED JOINTED GOATGRASS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS . Phillip W. Stahlman - Presenter
Weed scientists from five central and southern Great Plains states (CO, KS, NE, OK, WY) have completed several cooperative, regional studies that were funded in part by the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Some studies investigated the impact of single practices on jointed goatgrass growth and competitiveness as a component of more complex systems that integrate various cultural and chemical practices into conventional and imazamox-tolerant (Clearfield) winter wheat production systems. Several studies from Wyoming to Oklahoma assessed the effectiveness of multi-practice integrated systems. Generally, extended crop rotations that included one or more summer crops and lengthened the interval between winter wheat crops were more effective in reducing jointed goatgrass populations than most other practices. When crop rotations are not feasible, use of imazamox-tolerant wheat has proven an effective alternative, especially when coupled with other practices know to enhance crop competitiveness. Jointed goatgrass densities in wheat the year following spraying with imazamox typically remained low, indicating the benefits of using Clearfield technology extend beyond the year of use. Infrequent deep plowing of fields with low risk of erosion was effective in reducing dense infestations as long as complete soil inversion was achieved. Reduced row spacing, increased wheat seeding rates, and placement of nitrogen fertilizer in the soil below or adjacent to wheat rows were found to reduce jointed goatgrass competitiveness, reproductive capacity, and dockage in harvested grain. Broadcasting nitrogen fertilizer benefited jointed goatgrass as much or more than wheat. Competitive winter wheat cultivars are an important component of integrated weed management systems. Wheat cultivars with characteristics of rapid emergence and growth, early canopy closure, and tall stature generally are more competitive with jointed goatgrass than cultivars without many of those characteristics. Although several studies demonstrated the benefits of using multiple practices to manage jointed goatgrass compared to one or two practices, no one combination of practices proved consistently better than other combinations in all years.
 IMPACT OF WEED GENETICS ON WEED MANAGEMENT: JOINTED GOATGRASS IN WHEAT--A CASE STUDY. Carol Mallory-Smith - Presenter
Jointed goatgrass is a noxious weed in most states where wheat is grown. Both species are polyploid with the D genome in common which allows successful hybridization. Hybrids between the two species were collected that had produced viable seed raising the question of gene flow from wheat to jointed goatgrass. This question became more important with the development of herbicide resistant wheat and the potential of transfer of resistance to jointed goatgrass. This concern lead to a series of cooperative projects between the University of Idaho and Oregon State University to address the question of gene flow from wheat to jointed goatgrass. Findings from this collaboration included: seed set on hybrids was due to partial female fertility of the hybrid with seed production due to backcrossing, the female parent of the hybrid was usually jointed goatgrass, partial self fertility could be restored in the BC2 generation with jointed goatgrass as the recurrent parent indicating it was critical to prevent the BC1 generation to prevent gene flow, backcrossing and restoration of self fertility could occur in the field, the majority of backcross seed produced in the field had wheat as the recurrent parent reducing the risk of gene flow, genes on the shared D genome could move between the two species, and that placement of a herbicide resistance gene on an unshared genome did not prevent movement of a gene from wheat to jointed goatgrass. Based on this body of work methods of management tools were developed to minimize the potential of gene movement between the two species and maintain the use of herbicide resistance as an option to control this noxious weed.
 HOW THE PRINCIPLES DEVELOPED IN THIS NATIONAL PROGRAM CAN BE APPLIED TO OTHER INVASIVE WEED PROBLEMS: A BRAINSTORMING SESSION. PHIL WESTRA - MODERATOR
The following points were offered by attendees as their evaluation for the key principles leading to the success of the National Jointed Goatgrass program and points for future programs include or pitfalls to avoid.
Common problem: The target species had significant economic impact over a large geographic area.
Documented range: Define the known distribution, its impact and the potential to invade/expand to other areas.
Started w/ limited knowledge: Outline what is known and data gaps or missing research information needed for management decisions.
Importance of long term studies: Seasonal variation as well as shifts in the micro ecology of a site have major impacts on weed management systems so that there is a requirement for extended duration of projects to develop a sustainable approach. This must be emphasized in research project design and development/evaluation of grant funding.
Integrated approaches needed – may vary by region: A holistic view of the problem must be maintained with integration of multiple factors. If factors are area specific, note them.
Be open to wide range approaches: Since there is a problem, what changes in conventional thinking /management can be attempted? Be open to evaluate all management options.
Don’t forget what we learned: Make sure knowledge gained is well documented in scientific and Extension publications.
Involve producers and industry from start through completion: Involving the end user at all stages from problem description to on site evaluation is a must. In this project the regional workshops at beginning built a strong user/scientist relationship.
Collaboration among scientists: Design program that will develop teamwork across disciplines and geographic regions.
Involve graduate students: Students can be a source of enthusiasm, non-conventional approaches and focused study.
Avoid internal politics: Internal politics has been the downfall of many well intentioned programs and playing political games should be avoided..
Avoid hijacking of project: Monitor to assure individual funding/study is applied to problem, not administrative hot topic.
Know the politics: When seeking funding, know who are the key leaders and fully inform them when seeking their support.
Are earmarks dead? A question in 2009 that was felt there would be a name change in future funding cycles.
Land-grant collaborative on increased ag funding: There needs to be a strong national effort to secure greater federal funding for agricultural research, similar to what has happened in recent years for NIH.
Working with multiple ag interest groups/commissions: A broad base of support is desired to demonstrate need of project. Encourage groups to support an ecosystem approach to the problem. Look for opportunities to work w/ environmental as well as commodity groups.
Work with other disciplines for integrated systems: Weed problems require integrated approaches and greater federal funding is being directed to multidisciplinary research efforts.
Dryland cropping systems: The importance of integrated systems for the rain fed crop production areas of the western US has been demonstrated, therefore many of our most important weed species will rely on improved integrated dryland cropping systems for successful management.
Weed resistance a growing issue: Herbicide resistance in weeds is an issue of growing concern and has been highlighted as an area in need of greater research by the EPA and APHIS.
Stewardship: Land stewardship has been gaining increasing importance to US citizens and the governmental agencies. Weed control is an important aspect of this concept.
AFRI Planning grants: There is potential funding through the AFRI program to support symposia and workshops to help lay the groundwork for future research efforts.
 JOINTED GOATGRASS RESEARCH FROM WYOMING AND NEBRASKA. Stephen D. Miller*, Andrew R. Kniss, David W. Wilson, University of Wyoming, Laramie, and Drew J. Lyon, University of Nebraska, Scottsbluff.
More than ten years of research on the biology, ecology, and management of jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) has been conducted at the University of Wyoming and University of Nebraska thanks to financial support from the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. Funded projects include: the effect of site and year variation on economic thresholds; the influence of cultural control practices such as fertilizer placement and wheat seeding density on jointed goatgrass competitive ability; technologies for studying jointed goatgrass seed viability and survival; jointed goatgrass seed survival across a range of environments; predation of jointed goatgrass seeds; and the effect of imidazolinone-resistant wheat technology in a winter wheat - fallow rotation. Four peer-reviewed research articles and three thesis/dissertation projects have resulted from this research. Many findings from these projects have direct relevance to management of this troublesome weed. For example, deep-banding of fertilizer near the wheat seed increases wheat competitiveness with jointed goatgrass. Increased wheat seeding rates can reduce jointed goatgrass biomass and reproductive tillers. Use of imazamox in imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat can reduce jointed goatgrass densities in the current year as well as subsequent crop years. These results, along with findings of other researchers, have elucidated cultural and chemical management practices that form the basis of an integrated jointed goatgrass management program.
 Jointed Goatgrass Research In Colorado Over Eleven Years. Philip Westra*, Todd Gaines, Pat Byrne, Sarah Ward, and Scott Nissen, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins; and Dale Shaner, USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins, CO.
Colorado wheat growers and weed scientists were heavily involved from the beginning in the process required to obtain special funding for 11 years of National Jointed Goatgrass funding. Over the lifetime of this project, multiple research and extension projects were conducted in Colorado. Mack Thompson at Colorado State University served as the second National Jointed Goatgrass extension coordinator, picking up where Brian Jenks finished his tenure in that position. Early project research focused on use of diverse cultural practices such as wheat variety, time of seeding, seeding rate, and fertilizer placement to manage jointed goatgrass in winter wheat. No combination of cultural practices provided sustainable reduction in jointed goatgrass density while optimizing wheat yields. For example, delayed wheat seeding allowed for fall control of jointed goatgrass, but it produced a wheat yield penalty due to known seeding time effects on wheat yields. Use of Clearfield wheat in crop rotations provided the most rapid and effective jointed goatgrass control, but jointed goatgrass densities in untreated areas were highly responsive to favorable growing conditions. We were able to identify jointed goatgrass-wheat hybrids that carried the Clearfield gene from winter wheat. Over a nearly 10 year time frame, improved molecular techniques have regularly been used to assess the genetic diversity in jointed goatgrass populations. The National Jointed Goatgrass funding received at Colorado State University helped support excellent PhD graduate student projects as well as a Post Doc and a visiting scientist. These projects contributed much new fundamental knowledge to our understanding of jointed goatgrass and its impacts in wheat production systems.