A. D. Britain occupied under Claudius

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Timeline for British History to 1688
55, 54 B.C. Julius Caesar invades Britain

6? B.C Jesus of Nazareth born

43 A.D. Britain occupied under Claudius

61 Boudicca’s rebellion in Britain crushed by Suetonius

122 Hadrian’s Wall built in Britain against the Picts

140c. Antonine Wall built in Britain; abandoned c. 163

313 Edict of Milan allows for the liberty for the cult of Christianity

396-8 Roman victories in Britain against Picts, Scots, and Saxons

410 Visigoths, led by Alaric, sack Rome

410 Romans evacuate Britain

476c Saxon settlements in Sussex

500c British victory over Saxons at Badon Hill

590 Gregory the Great elected pope (590-604)

597 (St.) Augustine’s mission to England

664 Synod of Whitby: Roman practice imposed

731 (St.)Bede writes Ecclesiastical History

756 Irish Book of Kells

794 Viking raids on England and Ireland; Jarrow and Iona sacked

812c Beowulf, Anglo-Saxon poem

869 St. Edmund murdered by the Danes

871 Alfred the Great king of Wessex (871-99)

1003 Swein Forkbeard, king of Denmark attacks England and takes London

1017 Cnut becomes king of England and Denmark (1017-35)

1042 Edward the Confessor, king of England (1042-66)

1066 Normans invade England; William I defeats Harold at Hastings

1069 Harrowing of the North by William I

1086 Domesday survey in England

1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII; Gregorian Reforms of the Church

1077 Bayeux Tapestry illustrates the Norman conquest of England

1094 (St.) Anselm writes “Cur Deus Homo?”

1095 Pope Urban II preaches the first crusade

1136 Geoffrey of Monmouth writes “History of the Kings of Britain”

1170 Thomas Becket murdered by king Henry II

1180 The longbow used in Wales

1198 Innocent III pope (1198-1216); height of papal power and prestige

1199 John I king of England (1199-1216)

1209 Cambridge University founded

1215 John I accepts Magna Carta from barons

1258 Provisions of Oxford limit royal power in England

1272 Edward I (1272-1307) begins the conquest of Wales

1290 Jews expelled from England

1297 William Wallace defeat English army at Stirling Bridge

1305 Edward I executes Wallace

1314 Robert Bruce defeats English at Bannockburn

1338 Edward III claims the French throne and the Hundred Years War begins

1340 Battle of Sluys; English gain control of the English Channel

1346 Battle of Crecy, English victory, cannon used, Calais occupied

1348 Black Death arrives in England, one-third of population dies

1351 English “Statute of Labourers” seeks to uphold feudalism

1353 Ottoman Turks enter Europe

1356 Edward the Black Prince wins at Poitiers, French king John II captured

1364 William Langland writes “Piers Plowman”

1381 Peasants’ Revolt in England, Wat Tyler defeated, poll tax withdrawn

1382 Lollards (John Wycliffe) condemned

1387 Geoffrey Chaucer writes “Canterbury Tales”

1396 Truce in Hundred Years War

1399 Richard II deposed and murdered; Bollingbroke Henry IV (1399-1413)

1413 Henry V king of England (1413-22)

1415 Henry V wins at Agincourt, occupies Normandy

1429 Joan of Arc relieves Orleans

1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake in Rouen

1450 Jack Cade’s peasant rebellion suppressed

1453 Hundred Years War ends, English War of the Roses begins, Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks

1456c. Gutenberg Bible: first printed book

1460 Richard of York killed at Wakefield

1461 Edward of York seizes English throne as Edward IV (1461-83)

1471 Lancastrians defeated at Tewksbury, Henry VI killed, Edward IV accepted (1471-83)

1483 Edward V; Richard III king of England (1483-5)

1485 Henry Tudor defeats Richard III at Bosworth, becomes Henry VII

1509 Henry VIII king of England (1509-47)

1517 Martin Luther’s 95 Theses begin the Protestan Reformation in Germany

1529 Fall of English Chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey

1533 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn

1534 English “Act of Supremacy,” break with the papacy

1535 John Calvin in Geneva

1536 Dissolution of English and Welsh monasteries

1540 Henry VIII tries to impose political and religious settlement on Ireland

1543 Nicolaus Copernicus writes “On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres”

1545 Council of Trent convoked to reform the Catholic Church (1545-63)

1547 Edward VI king of England (1547-53)

1553 Mary Tudor queen of England (1553-8), brief Catholic restoration

1558 France recaptures Calais from England, Elizabeth I queen (1558-98)

1559 John Knox active in Scotland

1600c Tobacco enters Europe

1562 French Wars of Religion begin

1563 Religious settlement in England; 39 Articles

1567 Mary Queen of Scots flees to England

1570 Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I

1577 Francis Drake’s voyage around the world begins

1587 Mary Queen of Scots executed

1588 Spanish Armada defeated

1594 Bad harvests in England (1594-7)

1600 Rebellion of Essex against Elizabeth I

1602 William Shakespeare composes “Hamlet”

1605 Gunpowder Plot in English Parliament

1607 Virginia settled by British

1610 Ulster planted with English and Scottish settlers

1618 Thirty Years War begins in Europe

1625 Charles I king of England (1625-49)

1627 Britain and France at war (1627-9)

1629 Charles I governs without Parliament

1633 William Laud elected Bp. of Canterbury; opposes Puritans in Britain

1637 Charles I faces crisis in Scotland over new liturgy

1640 Long Parliament begins

1642 First English Civil War begins

1644 Charles I defeated at Marston Moor

1645 New Model Army formed

1646 Charles I defeated at Naseby, War ends

1647 Leveller influence in the army

1648 Second Civil War, Charles I accepts defeat

1659 Charles I executed

1659 Cromwell’s massacre at Drogheda, Ireland

1652 First Anglo-Dutch War, Cromwell conquers the Scots

1653 Oliver Cromwell “Protector” (1653-8)

1660 Charles II restored as King (1660-85)

1662 Royal Society in London

1664 Second Anglo-Dutch War (1664–7)

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Fire of London

1666-7 Isaac Newton invents differential calculus

1672 Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–4)

1688 English “Glorious Revolution,” William (1689–1702) and

Mary (1689–94) reign

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