A commentary on the book of

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Special Rules for the Priests who minister at

the Altar of God.

"God .. hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to

us the ministry of reconciliation. For he hath made him to be sin for us,

who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in

him."--2 Cor. v. 18, 21
Ver. 8, 9. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Command

Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt-offer-

ing: It is the burnt-offering, because of the burning upon the

altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall

be burning in it.
THE ground traversed over in chapters i., ii., iii., iv., v.,

is now re-traversed, but for a quite different object. Sup-

plemental directions to the priests, in regard to their part

in the offering of the sacrifices, is the object in view.

But this gives opportunity for the typifying of some most

important truths.

"The law of the burnt-offering," or of things to be

observed in offering it, is first stated. Perhaps, in ver. 9,

we should read the parenthesis thus--"As for the burnt
offering, it is to be burning* on the altar all night until

the morning; and the fire of the altar must be kept

burning on it." However, retaining our rendering, we

have the fact, that the fire must be kept burning the whole

night long.

The Holy One speaks again from the Holy Place. He

now tells some of the more awful thoughts of his soul.

His words reveal views of sin and righteousness that ap-

pear overwhelmingly awful to men. His eternal justice,

flaming forth against all iniquity, is declared to Israel in

the fire of the altar. This fire is never to be extinguished;

"for every one of his righteous judgments endureth for

ever" (Ps. cxix. 160). It burns all night long--an em-

blem of the sleeplessness of hell, where "they have no

rest, day nor night"--and of the ever-watchful eye of

righteousness that looks down on this earth.

Perhaps it was intended to exhibit two things:--

1. "The smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever

and ever . . . . tormented with fire and brimstone in

presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the

Lamb" (Rev. xiv. 10, compared with ver. 18). The whole

camp saw this fire, burning in the open court all night

long. "So shall you perish," might an Israelitish father

say to his children, taking them to his tent door, and

pointing them, in the gloom and silence of night, to the

altar, "So shall you perish, and be for ever in the flames,

unless you repent!"

2. It exhibited, also, the way of escape. See, there is

a victim on the altar, on which these flames feed! Here

is Christ in our room. His suffering, seen and accepted

* Horsley renders hdAq;Om lfA, "upon the burning fuel;" and others to the

same effect. See Ainsworth. Hengstenberg, on Ps. cii. 3, understands the word,

"the whole heap of fuel."
by the Father, was held forth continually to the faith of

Israel, night and day. And upon that type, the pledge

and token of the real sacrifice, did the eye of the Father

delight to rest night and day. It pleased him well to see

his justice and his love thus met together there. And

the man of Israel, who understood the type, slept in peace,

sustained by this truth, which the straggling rays from the

altar gleamed into his tent.

Ver. 10. And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his

linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes

which the fire hath consumed with the burnt-offering on the

altar, and he shall put them beside the altar.
The linen* garment is a type of purity, as we see in

the book of Revelation (xix. 8). The priest is the emblem

of the Redeemer in his perfect purity coming to the work

of atonement. The word for garment† means a suit of

clothes. It takes in the linen breeches, as well as all the

other parts of the priest's dress. His whole suit is to be the

garb of purity. It is not glory that is set forth; these are

not the "golden garments." It is holy humanity; it is

Jesus in humiliation, but without one stain of sin. There

is a special reason for the direction as to the linen breeches.

It is meant to denote the completeness of the purity that

clothes him; it clothes him to his very skin, and "covers

the flesh of his nakedness" (Exod. xxvi:ii. 42). It was

not only our unrighteousness, and our corrupt nature, that

Jesus was free from; but also from that other part of our

original sin, which consists in the imputed guilt of Adam.

The linen breeches that "covered the nakedness" of the

priest, lead us back at once to our first parents' sin, when

* The word is dbA not ww,.. The latter is a finer sort, supposed to be silk.

† dma, the O in which, in the opinion of Ewald, is merely the sign of the

Status Constr., as in OtyHi.
they were naked and ashamed in the garden, after the

Fall. Here we see this sin also covered. He who comes

to atone for all our sins has himself freedom from all--

completely pure.

"He shall take up the ashes which the fire has con-

sumed," i.e. the ashes of that which the fire has consumed,

viz. the wood. By the figure which grammarians call

ellipsis, or breviloquence, "ashes" is used for the mate-

rial out of which ashes came; as Isaiah (xlvii. 2) speaks of

grinding "meal."--(Ainsworth.) The wood was under-

neath the burnt-offering.* This being done, the ashes

were to be placed by themselves, for a little time, "beside

the altar." All eyes would thus see them and take notice

of them, before they were carried out into a clean place.

Probably there were two reasons for this action.

1. The fire was thus kept clear and bright, the ashes

being removed. God thereby taught them that he was

not careless as to this matter, but required that the type.

of his justice should be kept full and unobscured.

2. The ashes were shewn for the purpose of making it

manifest that the flame had not spared the victim, but

had turned it into ashes. It was not a mere threatening

when the angels foretold that Sodom and Gomorrah were

to be destroyed for their sin; their doom (2 Pet. ii. 6) is

declared to have come on them, "turning them to ashes."

So here, all that was threatened is fulfilled. There the

ashes lie; any eye may see them. The vengeance has

been accomplished! The sacrifice is turned into ashes.”

Justice has found its object! The lightning has struck
* Another rendering is, “The ashes of the fire that has consumed the burnt-

offering on the altar."--(Horsley.) But this requires a transposition of the words.

May it not be, "He shall take up the ashes when the fire consumes the burnt-

offering on the altar?"

the lightning-rod, and is now passed! View Ps. xx. 4 in -

this light--" Remember all thy offerings, and accept".

turn to ashes--"thy burnt-sacrifice." The Lord's arrows

are not pointless; he performs all his threatenings, for he

is holy. "0 Lord God of hosts, who is a strong Lord like

unto thee ? or to thy faithfulness round about thee" (Ps. lxxxix. 8).

Ver, 11. And he shall put of his garments, and put on other gar-

ments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean

The priest, coming out of the sanctuary, lays aside

these linen garments, and goes forth out of the camp in

another dress. These linen garments are now reckoned

polluted; the sin he carried in with him cleaves to them.

In another linen dress, therefore-another priestly suit*

--he goes on to the spot where the ashes were to be left,

as memorials of the curse having come on the victim.

May this be intended to shew that Christ, specially at his

death, was to be "numbered with the transgressors?" He

seemed to die as one who had no holiness, no righteous-

ness, no innocence--"He made his grave with the wicked".

But, casting off this appearance of being a transgressor, as

he cries, "It is finished," he is carried to a clean spot.

His surety-character appeared--he is buried in Joseph's

* Some think this must have been a dress of meaner materials than the

linen, to represent sin cleaving to him. But where do we ever read of such?

† Some propose to change the rendering of Isa. liii. 9, in order to bring out

explicitly the fact that Christ died among transgressors, but was buried with

the rich. But is there any ground for this proposed change? Whether the ori-

ginal admits of it, is doubtful; for few Jews will be satisfied with the rendering

of his tomb." It is obviously far better to keep the present render-


"He made his grave with the wicked (plural),

And with the rich (singular) in his death," i. e. when he died.

“Unto a clean place," as in chap. iv. 12. In after days

this clean place may have been some spot beyond the

walls of Jerusalem. In Jer. xxxi. 40, "the valley of the

ashes" is mentioned-a place which was used for this

purpose, and may have been at the very Calvary where

the Great Sacrifice was offered, and its ashes laid.

Ver. 12. And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it [i. e.

on the bosom of the altar]; it shall not be put out: and the

priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt-

offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat

of the peace-offerings.

Formerly, the fact was mentioned of the fire never

being allowed to go out. Here there is mention made of

the manner in which it was kept, burning. The wood

At the hour of his death, behold the providence of God! A rich man, one of the

most honourable and esteemed in Jerusalem, a member of Sanhedrim, and a dis-

ciple, unexpectedly appears at Calvary. This was Joseph of Arimathea, without

exception the most singularly noble character introduced to us in the Gospels.

This rich man had been driven into concealment by the plots formed against him

by the Jews, on account of his defending Jesus in the Sanhedrim openly (Luke,

xxiii. 51). This is what John says (chap. six. 38)--"Being a disciple,"

“kekrumme dia> to>n fo

is, not "kekrumme

of Jer. xiii. 17, "in secret places"), but "secreted," or forced to hide by reason

of their plots. He was the very contrast to timid Nicodemus, bold and unre-

served. Behold! then, this man suddenly returns to the city; and finding that

all is over, he boldly seeks the body of Jesus, his beloved Master. And next, he

and Nicodemus--two rich men, but the one all boldness, the other nervously

timid--lay the body in its silent tomb. And where is the tomb? " In the place

where he was crucifed" (John xix. 41); that is, at the very spot where crimi-

nals were put to death, and where they used to be buried. Extraordinary as it

may appear, this very spot was the spot where Joseph's new tomb was hewn out

of a rock! The stony sides of the tomb-the new tomb--"the clean place,"

where Jesus was laid--were part of the malefactor's hill. His dead body is

“with the rich man and with the wicked " in the hour of his death! His grave

is the property of a rich man; and yet the rocks which form the partition be-

tween his tomb and that of the other Calvary Malefactors, are themselves part

of Golgotha. Is there not here a fulfilment of Isaiah's words to the letter, and

that in a way so unlikely, that no eye could have foreseen it but His, who fore-

ordained the whole?

was to be supplied constantly in sufficient measure,

and the sacrifice laid thereon. There is an object for the

Divine justice to seize upon; and this victim must be

shewn every morning, exposed to that intolerable flame.

Christ bears the vehement heat of Jehovah's altar--the

reality of wrath.

There is no "putting out" of this fire.* "The fire is

not quenched," is Christ's own expression; perhaps in

reference to this type (Mark ix. 44). There will be no

putting out of these flames in eternity--no waters to

quench them--no interference of God's mercy to end

them. The company of their ungodly friends will not

“put out” any of the torments of the damned; nor shall

any intellectual efforts "put them out," by diverting

men's thoughts from their deserved doom. Christ's

agony is the proof of this. If ever God would have

“put out” one flame, it would have been in his case.

Yet he withheld no suffering--"all his waves" were

against him; he laid him in "the lowest pit."

Perhaps "burn the fat of the peace-offerings" is intro-

duced here to shew how the flame was to be fed. The

fat must feed it till it blazes bright and strong, casting its

light through the darkness, in view of all the camp. It

was an awful view of Divine justice; it figured out the

tremendous fierceness of almighty wrath. Yet inasmuch

as it is "the fat of peace-offerings," a discerning, believing

worshipper may find the elements of peace even here.
* In Song viii. 6, "vehement flame" is most generally understood to be

“the flame of Jehovah.” The love of Jesus is seen in proportion as we see

the heat of the wrath which he bore for us. "Love is strong as death--like the

flame of Jehovah," i. e. on the altar. How great was the sin of Ahaz (2 Chron.

Xxviii. 24) when lie shut up the temple! There was this ingredient in his guilt

he was attempting to extinguish the perpetual fire on the altar, as if thereby to hide

from his view the type of God's justice and a coming hell--a sin-avenging God.
The peace-offering on which that flame has fed declared

his reconciliation; so that he can read the assurance of

his acceptance even in these flames! Justice fully satis-

fied, and yet the worshipper standing in peace, is the

truth taught us by the blazing flame of this altar. "Our

God is a consuming fire."

Ver. 13. The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall

never go out.
Throughout, we are emphatically shewn that this fire

has no end. We are reminded of John's words, "The

wrath of God abideth on him" (John iii. 36), and Christ's

thrice-repeated declaration, "Where their worm dieth

not, and their fire is not quenched" (Mark ix.) The

word for "go out" is the same that elsewhere is rendered

"quenched" (hB,k;ti). The eternal justice of Jehovah

shall never cease to find fuel in hell; and never shall it

cease to find satisfaction in the Altar of the Great High

Priest. Hence we see that an everlasting righteousness

was what we needed (Dan. ix. 24). "Eternal redemp-

tion" is what has been obtained for us (Heb. ix. 12).

Ver. 14. And this is the law of the meat-offering: The sons of Aaron

shall offer it before the Lord, before the altar.
The duties of the priest are dwelt upon here. The

officiating priest shall take the meat-offering from the

worshipper, and shall present it. He shall do this

solemnly, coming up "before the altar," i. e. in front of

it, in sight of all the people who stand by. For thus the

dedication of all that the man has--body and property,

as well as soul--is publicly declared. All are witnesses

that now he is not his own.

Ver. 15. And he shall take of it his handful, of the four of the meat-

offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which

is upon the meat-offering, and shall burn it upon the altar for

a sweet savour, even the memorial of it, unto the Lord.
When the memorial (see chap. ii. 2) was taken and

burnt, the offerer saw a sight that refreshed his soul. He

saw the altar smoking, and felt the air breathing with his

accepted gift--"a savour of rest." It was on such occa-

sions as these that the priests exhibited salvation and its

results so fully to the comfort of the worshippers, that

“the saints shouted for joy” (Ps. cxxxii, 16).
Ver. 16. And the remainder thereof shall Aaron and his sons

eat: with unleavened bread shall it be eaten in the holy place;

in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation they shall eat

It ought to be rendered, "Unleavened shall it be

eaten;"* that is, the remainder which Aaron and his

sons received as their part, shall be eaten in the form of

unleavened bread. There must not be anything in it that

would intimate sin or corruption; for since the memorial

has been offered, the remainder is reckoned pure, so pure

that it may be put into the hands of the priests as food,

and eaten on holy ground. It may present to us the fact,

that when Jesus was once offered as a "sweet savour of

rest," then what remained, viz. his body the Church, was

pure, and might be freely admitted to holy ground--to

heaven, and to all heavenly employments.

The "holy place" here, is the court of the tabernacle

(ver. 26), where the altar and laver stood. It is "holy" on

the same principle that Peter calls the hill of transfigu-

ration "the holy mount" (2 Pet. i. 18); and because the

same God was present there who made the place "holy
* a]zuma brwqhsetai (Sept.)--Eaten as unleavened. " Comedet absque

fermento" (Vulg.)
ground" to Moses at the bush (Exod. iii. 5). There is a

passage in Numbers (xviii. 10) where the court seems to

be called "most holy"—“In the most holy place shalt

thou eat it"--unless we render the words (as Horsley

proposes), "Among the most holy things thou shalt eat

it." Patrick's explanation of it, by a reference to the

holy chambers in Ezekiel xlii., is altogether out of the

question. It seems to be simply the holiness arising

from the Lord's presence, hallowing the courts where

such offerings were made, that is meant.

In Leviticus xxiv. 9, and elsewhere, it is again called

“the holy place." And no wonder; for it was "at the

door of the tabernacle" (vii. 31)--in other words, oppo-

site the altar, which was the prominent object in the view

of all in the courts, but specially of any at the entrance.

To this, allusion is made in Isa, lxii. 9, when thank-offer-

ings of corn and wine are spoken of as feasted on "in

the courts of my holiness."

Ver. 17. It shall not be baken with leaven. I have given it unto

them for their portion of my offerings made by fire: it is most

holy, as is the sin-offering, and as the trespass-offering.
They are directed not to use it as they might do bread

at their own dwellings: "There must be no leaven in it,

for it is a gift to them from me. Let it, then, derive its

sweetness and relish to their taste from the consideration

that it is my gift to them." This is truly like Hannah,

Samuel's mother: when, rejoicing after her son's birth, she

sings, not of her joy in her first-born, but of her joy in

him who gave her the rich gift--"My heart rejoiceth in

the Lord; mine horn is exalted in the Lord" (1 Sam, ii. 1),

There is here, also, a cheering notice of the full commu-

nion that subsists between God and his people--"I have

given it for THEIR portion, out of my offerings." As if

there was an intercommunity of goods--of blessings--

between God and his people. He and they alike feast

upon the same holiness and purity, found in the Right-

eous One.

Ministers, and indeed all God's people, are here taught

not to consider the smallest service or offering as unim-

portant. Lest these "cakes," and "flour," and "baken

things” should be treated slightly, the Lord as solemnly

declared, “It is most holy, as is the sin--offering, and as

the trespass-offering."

Ver. 18. All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it.

It shall be a statute for ever in your generations concerning the

offerings of the Lord made by fire every one that toucheth them

shall be holy.
While all the males of Aaron's line might eat thereof,

every one must remember in all generations to do so

with deep reverence; for "every one (or everything) that

toucheth them shall be holy." Any person or thing

touching them was to be reckoned as set apart to holy

purposes, to be treated accordingly. Garments, vessels,

or the like, must be then considered as on holy ground;

and, accordingly, must be washed in clean water, as an

emblem of setting apart from common use. Persons, too,

that came in contact, must wash themselves, being, like

Moses at the bush, suddenly drawn into God's presence,

where they must put off the shoe.

What a circle of deep awe was thus drawn round the

altar and its offerings! "God is greatly to be feared in

the assembly of his saints, and to be had in reverence

of all that are about him" (Ps. lxxxix. 7). Nothing is

more blissful than God's presence, yet nothing more solem-

nising. Bethel was "the gate of heaven," and yet " how

dreadful!" This is holy bliss; it is not as the world's joy.
Ver. 19, 20. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, This is the

offering of Aaron, and of his sons, which they shall offer unto

the Lord in the day when he is anointed; the tenth part of an

ephah of fine four, for a meat-offering perpetual, half of it in the

morning, and half thereof at night.
“A meat-offering perpetual” means, that this shall be

in all ages the manner of the priest's meat-offering. The

common priests and Aaron offered it at their first enter-

ing an office, that is, "the day when he is anointed."

They had been already told what to bring, in Exod.

xxix. 2, but they are told how to bring it--what cere-

monies to use in the bringing of it.

The priest's meat-offering was of “fine flour,” in "cakes

and wafers" (Exod. xxix. 2), and "baken in the pan"

(ver. 21). It thus contained a reference to the two most

common sorts of meat-offering mentioned in chap. ii. 1-6.

It was neither the richest nor the poorest,

The omer, or tenth part of the ephah, is fixed on as the

measure. It might remind them of the omer of manna

which they used daily to gather; and the omer of it kept

in the golden pot. When they remembered that manna,

would not their hearts naturally feel their obligations to

devote all their substance to him who gave them bread

from heaven, and was still commanding the blessing on

their fields and dwellings?

Ver. 21. In a pan it shall be made with oil; and when it is baken,

thou shalt bring it in: and the baken pieces of the meat-offer-

ing shalt thou offer for a sweet savour unto the Lord.
They were to bring it ready-baken, that is, prepared

in the form of cakes and wafers, as Exod. xxix. 2 directed,

and as chap. ii. 5 appoints in regard to things baken in

the pan.

The oil, and other particulars, have been noticed above.

The bringing it to the altar, all ready, may have been

meant to teach the need of a fully-prepared offering--

nothing imperfect--if presented to the Lord for acceptance.

Ver. 22, 23. And the priest of his sons, that is anointed in his

stead, shall offer it: it is a statute for ever unto the Lord: it

shall be wholly burnt. For every meat-offering for the priest

shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten.
The ministering high priest already in office presented

this offering of the sons of Aaron on the day of their


It is particularly declared that it must be "wholly

burnt"--"not eaten"--because it was a priest's offering

(see ver. 30 also). This prefigured, no doubt, the truth

that Christ gave Himself, entirely and completely, as the

offering. This type refers to the Saviour alone, not to

his people. It is speaking only of the Head, not of the

members. He who was his people's priest, in giving

himself, gave himself wholly, soul and body, to the con-

suming flame. "Our God is a consuming fire:" and that

fire withered his spirit as he bore the curse. This meat-

offering was wholly burnt, because it is the meat-offering

of the priest, who is the type of Jesus.

Vex. 24, 25. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak un-

to Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law of the sin-

offering: In the place where the burnt-offering is killed shall

the sin-offering be killed before the Lord: it is most holy.

It must be brought solemnly before the Lord, like the

great burnt-offering, and killed on the same spot, on the

north side of the altar (i. 11). It is to one and the same

atonement that all these sacrifices refer.

“It is most holy." All sacrifices were to be regarded

with awful reverence. For it was as if the worshippers
were standing at the cross, where the Marys stood, and

saw the Saviour die. Or like the heavenly host, when

they saw the disembodied soul ("the blood was the life")

of the Redeemer come in before the Father, at the moment

the last mite was paid, and he had cried, "It is finished."

Was there ever such an hour in heaven? or shall there

ever be such an hour in earth or heaven? Even in the

act of accepting the atonement made, how solemnly does

the soul feel that receives it! See Isaiah, when the live

coal touched his lips. What, then, must have been the

hour when atonement itself was spread out complete?

The hour when a lost sheep returns is solemn; but what

is this to the hour when the Shepherd himself returned?
Ver. 26. The priest that offereth* it for sin shall eat it; in the holy

place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the

The Lord, who "by himself purged away sin," holds

communion with the once sinful man. He accepts the

offerer who presents this sacrifice. In Hosea iv. 8, this

rite is referred to--"They eat up the sin-offering of my

people" (txF.AHa); and then "lift up their hearts to their

iniquity." The degenerate priests one moment engaged

in duty, and the next ran back to sin.
Ver. 27, 28. Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy:

and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any

garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the

holy place. But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall

be broken: and if it be sodden in a brasen pot, it shall be both

scoured and rinsed in water.
How awful is atoning blood! Even things without

life, such as garments, are held in dreadful sacredness if

* htAxo xFe.Ham;ha NheKoha. May it be, "Who maketh it sin;" i. e. by thus offer-

ing it, he makes it a mass of sin? See this use of the word in chap. ix. 15.

this blood touch them. No wonder, then, that this earth,

on which fell the blood of the Son of God, has a sacred-

ness in the eye of God. It must be set apart for holy

ends, since the blood of Jesus has wet its soil. And as

the earthen vessel, within which the sacrifice was offered,

must be broken, and not used for any meaner end again;

so must our Earth be decomposed and new-moulded, for

it must be kept for the use of him whose sacrifice was

offered there. And as the brazen vessel must be rinsed

and scoured, so must this earth be freed from all that

dims its beauty, and be set apart for holy ends. It must

be purified and reserved for holy purposes; for the blood

of Jesus has dropt upon it and made it more sacred than

any spot, except where he himself dwells. "My holy

mountain" (Isa. xi. 9), is the name it gets from himself,

when he is telling how he means to cleanse it for his

own use.
Ver. 29, 30. All the males among the priests shall eat thereof

it is most holy. And no sin-offering, whereof any of the blood

is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation, to reconcile

withal in the holy place, shall be eaten; it shall be burnt in

the fire.
Again the sacredness of it is declared. It seems

as if nothing was so fitted to teach us holiness as com-

plete atonement. "He sitteth between the cherubim,"

says Ps. xcix. 1, looking down on the sprinkled blood;

therefore, "Let the earth be moved."

The sin-offerings are the class of sacrifices mentioned

as "those whereof any of the blood is brought into the

tabernacle, to reconcile withal in the holy place." Now,

these will be found to be the same sin-offerings that were

"burnt without the camp" (Heb. xiii. 11). All of which

specially and peculiarly prefigured the entireness of the
Saviour's work (see chap. iv. 12). On this account they

are never to be eaten, but all consumed; as observed in

a similar case (ver. 23). On some occasions the Lord is

pleased to exhibit parts of the truth separately, withdraw-

ing our view, for the sake of deeper impressiveness, from

all but one point at a time. This seems to be done here.

We are here led to notice the entireness and complete-

ness of the offering, apart from the results of restoring

fellowship between the sinner and his God, which "eating"

would have intimated. The transfer of the offerer's guilt

to the victim was so complete that the victim is altogether

polluted--all "made sin." Hence nothing of it what-

soever must be used; the fire must thoroughly consume

it all. Thus we behold the debt and the gold that pays

it, all told down on the floor of the holy place! What a

debt! What a payment! The last mite is there! Behold

the demands of a holy God! And these all met and

satisfied! Behold the sacrifice and the fire!--and then

the sacrifice "wholly consumed!" How fierce the heat of

the flame! How complete the consumption! Thus ter-

-ribly pure is the justice of the Lord in vindicating his

holy law--that jealous God, who is " Holy, holy, holy!"

Ver. 1, 2. Likewise this is the law of the trespass-offering: it is

most holy. In the place where they kill the burnt-offering shall

they kill the trespass-offering: and the blood thereof shall he

sprinkle round about upon the altar.
So much had been said of the blood of the sin-offering,

in chap. iv., that there was no need to call attention to

that matter in giving directions to the priests regarding

it. But there had been little said about the blood of the

trespass-offering; and therefore it is specially noticed

here. The blood must be "sprinkled round about upon

the altar." Surely Israel must have felt that their souls

were reckoned very guilty by their God, since he spoke

to them so continually in the language of blood. None

but a heavy-laden sinner could relish this never-varying

exhibition of blood to the eye of the worshipper. The

pilgrims to Zion, in after days, must often, as they jour-

neyed through the vale of Baca, have wondered what was

to be seen and heard in the courts of the Lord's house,

of which the worshippers sang, "How amiable are thy

tabernacles, 0 Lord of hosts! My soul longeth, yea, even

fainteth, for the courts of the Lord; my heart and my

flesh crieth out for the living God. . . . Blessed are they

that dwell in thy house!" (Ps. lxxxiv. 1, 2, 4.) And

when they arrived, and saw in these courts blood on the

altar, blood in the bowls of the altar, blood on its four

horns, blood on its sides, blood meeting the eye at every

turn, none but a deeply-convicted soul, none but a soul

really alive to the guilt of a broken law, could enter into

the song, and cry with the worshippers, "How amiable!"

Even so with a preached Saviour at this day, and a sin-

convinced soul!

Ver. 3-6. And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump,

and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the two kidneys, and

the fat that is on them,* which is by the flanks, and the caul

that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.

And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering

made by fire unto the Lord: it is a trespass-offering. Every

male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in

the holy place: it is most holy.
* "The fat that is on them," and that, too, which is "on the flanks"--a

construction similar to Ps. cxxxiii. 3, "The dew of Hermon, and also the dew

that descendeth on the mountains of Zion."
These rites had been prescribed, in chaps. iii. and iv.,

in regard to other offerings, but had not been prescribed

as belonging to the trespass-offering; and as the priests

are specially instructed here, the specific directions come

in appropriately here.

The Lord is not weary of repeating these types,

both because of his wondrous love to the sinner, and his

still more unfathomable love to him whom he holds out

to fallen man in each of these figures--his Well-beloved.
Ver. 7. As the sin-offering is, so is the trespass-offering: there is

one law for them: the priest that maketh atonement therewith

shall have it.
"One law," not in regard to all the ceremonies used

therein, but in regard to this special circumstance of the

priest having the pieces left as his portion (see in chap.

vi. 26). The design of this may have been to fix atten-

tion on one special result of atonement, viz. that he who

is the means of making atonement has a claim on all that

the offerer brings; thus shewing forth Christ's claim on

his people for whom he atones--"Ye are not your own;

for ye are bought with a price" (1 Cor. vi. 20).

Ver. 8. And the priest that offereth any man's burnt-offering, even

the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering

which he hath offered.
This general rule seems naturally to follow the special

case just noticed in ver. 7. There we see "the skin"

given to the priest, irresistibly reminding us of the skins

that clothed Adam and Eve. If Jesus, at the gate of

Eden, acting as our Priest, appointed sacrifice to be

offered there, then he had a right to the skins, as priest;

and the use to which he appropriated them was clothing

Adam and Eve. He has clothing for the naked soul--

"fine raiment" (Rev. iii. 18)--obtained from his own

sacrifice. Even at the gate of Eden he began to "counsel

us to buy of him fine raiment, that we might be clothed."

And this is his office still (Rev. iii. I8).

Ver. 9, 10. And all the meat-offering that is oaken in the oven,

and all that is dressed in the frying pan and in the pan, shall

be the priest's that offereth it. And every meat-offering

mingled with oil, and dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have,

one as much as another.
"All the meat-offering"--after the memorial was taken,

of course (see chap. ii. 2, 9). All the kinds of meat-

offering are mentioned here--those prepared in the oven,

frying pan, and pan. Then, in ver. 10, the heap of fine

flour is meant by "every meat-offering mingled with oil,

and dry." It is not baked, but dry; the oil being on it

merely to consecrate it.

The meaning of this part of the type has already been

noticed in chap. ii.
Ver. 11. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace-offerings,

which he shall offer unto the Lord.
The Jews say that the peace-offerings for thanksgiving

were brought on such occasions as Psalm cvii. mentions

--on occasions of deliverance from danger in travelling

the desert, or voyaging the sea, or captivity, or sickness.

The words used in that psalm countenance the idea (ver.

22), "And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving,

and declare his works with rejoicing." Peace-offerings

brought on occasion of a vow were probably very similar,

but with this difference, that in the time of danger--e. g.
a storm at sea, or simoom in the desert--they were pro-

mised or vowed to the Lord. Such vowed peace-offerings

go under the name of "sacrifices of thanksgiving," in

Ps. cxvi. 17, compared with verses 1, 14, 18,

Those called "voluntary " (hbAdAn;) were probably

brought just because the soul of the worshipper was, at

the time, overflowing with gratitude; there was not, in

this case, any peculiar event to call for them. They were

nearly allied to praise, in so far as both these offerings

("free-will offerings") and praise were dictated simply by

the fulness of the worshipper's heart. Hence the phrase-

ology of Ps. cxix. 108, "Accept, I beseech thee, the free-

will offerings of my mouth." And Heb. xiii. 15, "By

him, therefore, let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God

continually, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to

his name."

Ver. 12. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with

the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil,

and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled

with oil, of fine flour, fried.
The last clause means, "the cakes mingled with oil

shall be made of fine flour prepared." The second sort

of meat-offering is fixed upon as the kind to be brought

along with peace-offerings; because, perhaps, it was under-

stood that the offerer was a man able to bring this, if he

could afford to bring a thanksgiving sacrifice. And the

meat-offering naturally accompanies an expression of

gratitude; for it is a binding of the offerer to the Lord,

himself and all he has, body and substance, as well as

soul. So, in Psalm cxvi., where the vows are paid by a

sacrifice of thanksgiving, we hear the offerer saying also,

in ver. 16, "0 Lord, truly I am thy servant." What is

the meaning of the redeemed casting even their crowns
at Christ's feet? Is not this their expression of abounding

gratitude? They would fain have nothing of their own.

Let all be his.
Ver. 13, 14. Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering

leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace-

offerings. And of it he shall offer one out of the whole obla-

tion for an heave-offering unto the Lord, and it shall be the

priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace-offerings.
Here is a remarkable appointment. "Leavened bread"

is to be offered. To understand this, we are to keep in

mind that this is a peace-offering, and therefore the offerer

is in a reconciled state toward God. His sins are all for-

given; there is peace between him and his God; But

this reconciliation does not declare that there is no cor-

ruption left remaining in the worshipper. Perfect pardon

does not imply perfect holiness. There is a remnant of

evil left. But here we see that remnant of evil brought

out before the Lord. The "leavened cakes" intimate the

corruption of the offerer; and God having graciously

accepted him, and delivered him from evils in the world

(for this is an offering of thanksgiving for special mercies),

he testifies his gratitude by bringing out what of corrup-

tion is found in his soul, that it may be removed. "Being

made free from sin, ye have your fruit unto holiness"

(Rom. vi. 22).

And to express yet more fully the intention of bringing

out this "leavened bread," the 14th verse tells that it is to

be "heaved to the Lord."* One cake of this bread that

is leavened is heaved up to the Lord; the priest lifts it up
* The word is hmAUrt;, and the " wave-offering" is hpAUnt;. Both words imply

the same action; but the former is the more comprehensive. The "wave-offer-

ing" is confined to lesser things, that could easily be lifted up. Neither term

implies anything as to a new kind of sacrifice, but only a new mode of present-

ing the sacrifice.
before the Lord, and, in the sight of all the congregation,

waves it to the four quarters of the heavens, as a sign that

he is giving it over to the Lord. Thus the grateful offerer

presents to the Lord all he has, and spreads out his very

corruptions to be dealt with as the Lord sees good. Was

he not saying, while the priest thus waved the leavened

cake to the four winds, "Search me, 0 God, and know

my heart; try me, and know my thoughts; and see if

there be any wicked way in me, and. lead me in the way

everlasting" (Ps. cxxxix. 23, 24). Patrick remarks that

the leavened bread was not put upon the altar. It is held

up in order to be removed.

Ver. 15. And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings for

thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he

shall not leave any of it until the morning.
The priest that sprinkled the blood was to eat the

pieces of this peace-offering the same day that it was

offered. Some say that this rule prevented covetousness

arising in the priests; no one had it in his power to hoard

up. Others say that this rule was fitted to promote brotherly

love; for he must call together his friends, in order to

have it all finished. But these uses are only incidental.

The true uses lie much nearer the surface. Israel might

hereby be taught to offer thanksgiving while the benefit

was still fresh and recent. Besides this, and most

specially, the offerer who saw the priest cut it in pieces,

and feast thereon, knew thereby that God had accepted

his gift, and returned rejoicing to his dwelling, like David

and his people, when their peace-offerings were ended, at

the bringing up of the ark (2 San. vi. 17-19). The

Lord took speciat notice of this free spontaneous thank-

offering, inasmuch as he commanded it to be immediately

eaten, thus speedily assuring the worshipper of peace and

acceptance. The love of our God is too full to be re-

strained from us one moment longer than is needful for

the manifestation of his holiness.
Ver 16, 17. But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a

voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he

offereth his sacrifice; and on the morrow also the remainder

of it shall be eaten. But the remainder of the flesh of the

sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with, fire.
This is the case of a peace-offering offered on occasions

when the man had bound himself by a vow to present it;

and those other occasions when he brought it voluntarily,

that is, of his own thought, although nothing special had

occurred to him to draw it forth. There is one particular

in which this offering is to be dealt with differently from

the first kind. The time within which it must be eaten

is never extended beyond the third day; and if any

portion remained so long as the third day, that part is to

be forthwith brought out and burnt. Every precaution

is taken that none of the portions should suffer the taint

of corruption. The type refers to the incorruption of the

Surety, after he had been offered as a sacrifice. When

the third day came round, God completed his testimony

to the acceptance of his Son's work, by forthwith raising

him from the dead, ere corruption could begin. It seems

to be implied here, that "what remained" was to be

speedily consumed on the third day--perhaps as soon as

morning dawned, in order to be the more exact type of

the resurrection--" early on the first day of the week."

Ver. 18. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offer-

ings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted,

neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be

an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his

How strictly is the type guarded, that so there may be

no misrepresentation of the Antitype! Lest possibly it

should corrupt by the third day, it is never to be eaten

then; for holy fellowship with God must be set forth by

eating it pure. They must make haste, therefore, to

eat it; they might eat it the very same day as it was

offered (ver. 16). Why, then, delay? And to insure

attention to this, the offerer's own interest is bound up

with it; for here it is declared that he loses the whole

comfort of his offering if any part should be left till the

third day--"it shall not be imputed to him," i. e. not

reckoned as a peace-offering at all. And if any one

rashly persist in eating it, or eat it ignorantly, on that

day, he is defiled and unclean.

How careful ought we to be to represent Christ's work

to our people exactly as it is held forth in Scripture!

How jealous ought we to be of any departure from the

pattern shewn to us, since the Father is so jealous over

even the figures and emblems of the doing and suffering

of his beloved Son. We need all wisdom and prudence;

our people need to implore such direction for us; and

they, on their own part, need the Spirit of wisdom and

revelation in the knowledge of Christ, in order to receive

without mistake what is set before them.

Ver. 19. And the flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not

be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire: and as for the flesh, all

that be clean shall eat thereof.
Here it is commanded, first, that the flesh be clean;

next, that they be clean who eat it. The priests must

keep off from the peace-offering the approach of anything

unclean; and having thus guarded the flesh and kept it

pure, they must take care that those who feast thereon

be ceremonially clean. It is an accepted work that must

form our food; and it must be fed upon by accepted per-

sons, Hence the case of the Jews in John xviii. 28--

they wished to eat the peace-offerings that accompanied

the Passover, and therefore kept themselves from cere-

monial defilement.

Here is again brought before us the jealous care of

God. He must shew himself holy, even while he pours

out his love. His unalterable righteousness and purity

must be manifested at the tomb of Jesus, in the very

hour when he is about to declare the Surety's work

accepted, and access open for the sinner to the bosom of

his God.

Ver. 20, 21. But the soul that, eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of

peace-offerings that pertain unto the Lord, having his unclean-

ness upon him, even that soul shall be cut of from his people.

Moreover, the soul that shall touch any unclean thing, as the

uncleanness of man, or any unclean beast, or any abominable

unclean thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-

offerings which pertain unto the Lord, even that soul shall be

cut off from his people.
This "cutting off from his people" seems to be, not

death, but complete expulsion from all ordinances. The

person was excommunicated, and left to the judgment of

God. It seems, from chap. xxii. 4-9, that death was

sometimes sent by God immediately, to ratify the act of

the priests. The act was, in such cases, like breaking

through the fence drawn round Mount Sinai, and coming

in to gaze. The source of the sin, we should observe,

is comparatively immaterial, if the fact of the sin be

established. "Whether from man, beast, or thing," it

mattered not, if uncleanness had been contracted. The

Lord shews us that theories as to the origin of evil, and

apologies drawn from the manner in which we were led

astray, can have no effect in disproving the sin itself. It

seems implied, also, that no man was to be allowed to

plead that it happened accidentally, or was only a trivial

matter; the enumeration of "man, beast, thing," is sweep-

ing and decisive.

And now, we see the reference in Psalm xxii. 27--

"The meek shall eat, and be satisfied." The meek are

they who bow to God's will, and follow his rules. They

may freely eat when complying with his rules. In that

Psalm, the food is Christ, our slain Lamb; of whom we

may freely partake as often as we will, if only we comply

with the rule to come to this feast on the simple warrant,

“All things are ready.” So to come is true meekness.

Ver. 22, 23. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto

the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall eat no manner of fat,

of ox, or of sheep, or of goat.
Probably the frequent occurrence of fat in the peace-

offerings led to the introduction of this rule in this place;

and the prohibition of fat was naturally connected with

that regarding blood in ver. 26.

These three, “ox, sheep, goat,” include all the classes

of animals offered in sacrifice. And "the fat" forbidden

is all those pieces elsewhere mentioned as sacrificial,

devoted to the fire. On feast-days, we read of the people

“eating the fat and drinking the sweet.” In this case,

the fat of sheep and oxen seems meant. But the pieces

were not to be sacrificial pieces. Our rendering conveys

too wide a prohibition; it ought to be rendered, "Ye

shall not eat any fat of ox," &c., viz. any of that spoken

of in iii. 17.

What we give to the Lord must be wholly his. We

must not give it to the Lord, and then again draw it back

for our own use. Holy things must be completely left at

the Lord's disposal, like the money laid at the apostles'

feet by Joses of Cyprus (Acts iv. 36).
Ver. 24. And the fat of the beast that dieth of itself, and the fat of

that which is torn with beasts, may be used in any other use;

but ye shall in no wise eat of it.
They might use the fat of such torn beasts and such

diseased ones, for a blaze on their own hearth, or for

domestic purposes; but they must not use the sacrificial

portions for food, even when the animal cannot be brought

to the altar.

God's claim upon them must be kept ever in view.

These pieces are the Lord's in all cases; and had they

eaten pieces that were to be consumed on the altar, then

the type would be interfered with. These pieces being

set apart to signify the inmost desires given up to God,

man must never feast on them. They are no portion for

him. The strength of our desires and feelings is already

given away; we cannot spend it on any but God himself.
Ver. 25. For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men

offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, even the soul that

eateth it shall be cut of from his people.
The injunction is repeated, because the temptation

might occur very often in common life; and the penalty

is complete excommunication from the holy people. We

are thus taught the awful guilt of transgressing even the

smallest precept that comes from the mouth of the Lord.

It is a case like this, where there is no other reason for

the thing being binding but just this, viz. the Lord has

said it; it is such a case that best shews us the majesty

and glory of the Lord. He is such, that to deviate from

the slightest of his precepts is a sin that deserves cutting

off from the holy people. "0 God, who is like unto thee?"
It is thus, too, that we arrive at a simple but very

awful view of sin itself. The essence of its enormity is,

opposition to the will of the Holy One. And as the

smallest precept given forth by him, discovers the desires

of his heart, so, to oppose this precept, is really to thwart

the purpose and desire of the Lord's heart--the Lord's

nature--his very Godhead.

We should view every precept as proceeding from the

heart of him "who so loved us;" and in this light every

precept will connect us with his love.

Ver. 26, 27. Moreover, ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it

be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. Whatsoever

soul it be that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall

be cut off from his people.
Because the blood was set apart (see iii. 17) to repre-

sent life poured out as an atonement. How often was the

stream of Calvary thus made to flow within their view!

How often were weary Israelites thus refreshed "in their

dwellings" by a sight of blood set apart, leading them to

him who was to come and pour out his soul unto death!



Ver. 28, 29. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto

the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of

his peace-offerings unto the Lord, shall bring his oblation unto

the Lord of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings.
The meaning is, "He that cometh to present a peace-

offering as his sacrifice, shall, in so doing, bring the

requisite parts."

Some new truths are here put before us in the peace-

offering; and these truths are, all of them, comforting to

the priest's heart. It is the priests who are specially

addressed in the directions of this chapter, so that it was

natural to bring in, at this point, what bore upon their

Ver. 30, 31. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord

made by fire; the fat, with the breast, it shall he bring, that the

breast may be waved for a wave-offering before the Lord. And

the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar; but the breast shall

be Aaron's and his sons'.
The offerer himself—“his own hands"--must bring

the offering; for we must come to God in our own person,

each of us for ourselves, and enter into fellowship with

him for our own souls. Each of us, when reconciled,

must bring to God "the fat;" all mentioned in chap. iii.

3, 4, typical of every deep-seated desire, every inward

affection. And we bring, also, the breast, in connexion

with the fat, intimating the heart's affections and sym-

pathies. Aaron and his sons receive the breast as their

portion, as if to declare that the reconciled worshipper,

now at peace with God, had true sympathy with, and love

towards, the priest, by whose instrumentality this blessing

came to him. We are taught, in this manner, the wor-

shipper's affectionate feelings to his officiating priest--

similar, in kind, to the feeling that now subsists between

a pastor whom the Spirit anoints to preach glad tidings

to the meek, and the people who shout for joy at the

voice. At the same time, it also taught the redeemed

sinner's complete devotion of heart and mind to Jesus,

his High Priest, who procures the peace, and gives the

joy, of reconciliation.

The names of the twelve tribes on the precious stones

that were placed both on the shoulder and on the breast

of the high priest, seem to confirm and establish this view.

For we seem to be taught the affection and the power of
the priest, in the engraved stones worn on the breast and

the shoulder.

The waving of it was an action designed to shew

publicly that the thing waved was given over to God.

The priest lifted it up, and probably moved it from east

to west, from north to south, as if to say that all ends of

the earth might be witnesses that this was now given up

to God. The whole heart, open, full, entire, is devoted

to the Lord.
Ver. 32, 33. And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest

for an heave-offering of the sacrifices of your peace-offerings.

He among the sons of Aaron that offereth the blood of the

peace-offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for

his part.
The right shoulder, as well as the breast, is presented;

for there must be hand and heart together in a full dedi-

cation to the Lord. It is the shoulder, as being that

which bore the burden; and the right shoulder, as that

had most strength to support a burden. A true Israelite,

in the enjoyment of reconciliation, felt himself bound to

help the priest with heart and hand, because he was the

Lord's minister to him for good. He would daily make

supplication for him, that his soul might be "satiated

with fatness" as he handled the types, and might never

grow weary in his work; that he might be able, also, to

tell a waiting people somewhat of the wonders he saw.

For, I suppose, the priest often spoke to the worshippers,

and directed their eye to the person of Him who was to

come--to Him whose glorious form was as yet hid amid

the drapery of the earthly sanctuary.

But, besides this, the true worshipper hereby presented

himself to the Great High Priest, saying, in a manner,

"Here is my person, soul and body; pour into my heart
all thy spirit, and put thy yoke upon my willing shoulder,

for thou hast redeemed me."

And yet once more. It shewed forth Christ, our peace-

offering,* presenting himself to the Father, heart and

hand, to do the Father's will. In full sympathy with his

Father's will, and full co-operation with hint in one grand

design of redemption, he presents himself as "our Peace."

And herein is the security of our peace, that he and the

Father are one in counsel, purpose, love, and action.

Once more. These portions are given to the priests

directly by the Lord, because the priests had no lot or

inheritance assigned them in Israel. But this mode of

providing for their wants was well fitted to keep them

ever looking to the Lord alone, in having whom they

could never want. For truly does Augustine say (Ps,

lvi.), "Quantum-libet sis avarus, sufficit tibi Deus."

Ver. 34. For the wave-breast and the heave-shoulder have I taken

of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace-

offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest, and unto

his sons, by a statute for ever, from among the children of Israel.

“A statute for ever.” To mark how reasonable it

appeared in the Lord's eyes, he declares that this statute

shall never be altered. So long as their polity continued,

* Some (see especially Edzardus, in Note 33, in his Latin translation and

comment on the tract of the Gemara, “De Idololatria”) try to find types of

The Cross, in the heaving and the waving of these pieces. They think it is seen

in waving them up and across. And they go to other similar ceremonies, such

as anointing the four corners of the altar with oil--putting blood on the same--

anointing Aaron and his sons with oil on hands, feet, and ears-putting blood

on them in the same manner--the roasting of the Paschal Lamb on the spit

(which the Jews say was always of wood)--the leaven cakes cut in pieces,

i. e. decussatae in formam X"--the position of the priest's hands when lifting

them up to bless--and even the gratework of the inside of the altar. But this is

fancy. The brazen serpent, and the "man hanged on the tree as accursed,"

are the only clear types of the cross. Ps. xxii. 15 is a prophecy, not a

this statute must remain in force. The unalterable and

necessary connexion between reconciliation and self-dedi-

cation may be held forth in this everlasting statute. In-

deed, nothing is so natural to the reconciled soul, enjoying

the fellowship of the Father and the, Son, as this complete

giving up of heart and hand to him that "offered the blood"

(ver. 33); for we should have noticed that these are

the due of “him who offered the blood,” as if to keep our

attention fixed on the fact, that it is the Redeemer's blood

shed for us that has given him this right to all we are

and all we can yield.

"I have taken." The Lord himself specially appoints

this to be done, and speaks of his appointment as one that

should be noticed and observed, as being important in his

Ver. 35, 36. This is the portion* of the anointing of Aaron, and

of the anointing of his sons, out of the offerings of the Lord

made by fire, in the day when he presented them to minister

unto the Lord in the priest's office; which the Lord commanded

to be given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he

anointed them, by a statute for ever throughout their genera-

More literally, "This is the anointing of Aaron;” i. e.

this is what is involved in the anointing. This is the

lot and portion of the sons of Aaron, and of Aaron him-

self, the moment he is anointed. These are the privileges

and duties connected with their anointing. Willett notes
* tHAw;mi. Rosenmuller proposes to adopt for this word the Arabic sense,

"portion-measure;" and another critic finds in Ethiopic the word "myshach,"

a feast, which might give a good sense here. But the word Hwama, "to anoint,"

with its derivatives, is a term belonging to the Tabernacle, and evidently applied

specially to its usages. An "a[pac legomenon" would be out of place here.

† Hexapla on Levit.

that the presenting of Aaron and his sons was on the first

day, and the anointing was on the eighth day.

It is characteristic of the Lord's way thus to state all

the provision made for a duty or an office before the person

actually enters upon that duty or office. Hence he tells

the priests what shall be their work, and what their

comforts under it, before they are consecrated. The

details of consecration are in next chapter. It is like his

way in other things and like his way, in the Gospel,

where he first sets before the sinner the full provision

made for him, in privilege and in duty; and thus, by

exhibiting the easy yoke and the light burden, leads him

to take on all gladly. Everywhere we trace the hand of

the same God--the God and Father of our Lord and

Saviour Jesus Christ.
Ver. 37. This is the law of the burnt-offering, of the meat-offering,

and of the sin-offering, and of the trespass-offering, and of the

consecrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace offerings,--
It may seem out of place to insert “consecrations”

here. But probably the reason is this:--The directions

given above, in regard to sin-offerings (chap. vi. 24) and

trespass-offerings (chap. vii. 1) in general, were to be

observed also in the case of these offerings being pre-

sented by the priests on the day of their consecration.

Hence, by inserting the clause here, “this is the law of

the consecrations;” the priests were made aware that, in

regard to themselves, there was to be no change in any of

the rites observed in sin-offerings and trespass-offerings.

The Lord leaves no one's duty doubtful. His mind

may be ascertained. "If it were not so, I would have

told you" (John xiv. 2), may be held as a general rule.
Ver. 38. Which the Lord commanded Moses in mount Sinai, in
the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer

their oblations unto the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai.
This reminds us, again, that the mode of receiving

atonement is revealed by God to the sinner. The need

of atonement was made known by God on Sinai, when he

so awfully alarmed the camp. Then, that there was for-

giveness with him--atonement--was made known. And

now, the mode of receiving and applying it has been

made known--all by God himself. We, who are in this

wilderness, are taught still by the same God in the same

way. The law from Sinai awakens; then the Mediator's

message to us, from the same Sinai, gives peace. Jesus,

who had the law of God "within his heart" (Psalm xl. 8,

"in the midst of his bowels."), not merely in his hands,

like Moses, comes down from fellowship with the Father,

to lead the sinner to the very communion he enjoyed

himself. He leads us, by his blood, above all the clouds

and thunders of the hill,* to see "the body of heaven in

its clearness, with the pavement of sapphire-stone," and

to the God of Israel himself, who is well pleased, and lays

no hand but the hand of love on these "nobles of Israel"

lifted up from the dunghill to take their place among the

princes of his people. Here, then, let us eat and drink;

on that very spot let us eat "hidden manna," and drink:

“the water of life.”
It may be suitable here to inquire into the meaning

of a phrase occurring not unfrequently, "Sacrifices of

righteousness" (see Ps. iv. 5, and li. 19). The ex-

pression is taken from the book of Deuteronomy (chap.

xxxiii. 19), and means sacrifices presented in a right

way. What Malachi (iii. 3) speaks of as done hqAdAc;bi,

* As typified more fully in Exod. xxiv.


"in righteousness," these other passages express by calling

them "sacrifices of righteousness." The form qd,c, yHeb;zi,

is phraseology quite authorised by qd,c, ynez;xmo (Lev. xix.

36), "balances of righteousness," &c.

The passage in Ps. iv. 5 occurs in beautiful connexion.

The context tells of the godly man set apart by the Lord

as his peculiar treasure; and whenever this treasure is in

peril, the Lord at once hastens to help (ver. 3). The man

thus kept, is one who lives in holy awe--one who searches

out the leaven, and spreads it out before God (ver. 4).

In so doing, he is led to use the appointed sacrifices, and

there he finds repose, resting as a pardoned man (ver. 5).

Not less beautiful is Ps. li. 16, 17, which speaks of

another kind of sacrifice at first view--the sacrifices of

God are a broken spirit." David, newly forgiven, and

wondering at the grace which cleansed him from foul

adultery, and the crimson stains of murder and deceit,

inquires, after all this, "What shall I render unto the

Lord for all, his benefits?" How shall I ever recompense

such free love, such overflowing grace? This is evidently

the secret train of feeling that led to ver. 16--"For thou

desirest not sacrifice," &c. If mere gifts of lambs or oxen

would sufficiently express my gratitude, then I would

give them. There is not a lamb in my flock, an ox in my

stall, that I would spare. But that is not what thou

desirest as a proof of true thankfulness. There is a better

thank-offering still. Let me walk softly all my days.

Let me give thee "a broken heart," i. e. let me cherish,

all my days, that holy, tender frame of spirit that feels

for thy honour, and loveth thee so intensely as to be

broken-hearted when thou art wronged!

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