"he shall sprinkle on the veil."
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 67
yet to rend that veil; and, as that beautiful veil repre-
sented the Saviour's holy humanity (Heb. x. 20), O
how expressive was the continual repetition of this
blood-sprinkling seven times! As often as the priest
offered a sin-offering, the veil was wet again with blood
which dropt on the floor. Is this Christ bathed in the
blood of atonement? Yes; "through that veil" the way
was opened to us--through the flesh of Jesus--through
the body that for us was drenched in the sweat of blood.
Ver. 7. And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns
of the altar of sweet incense before the Lord, which is in the
tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood
of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt-offering,
which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.
The priest retires a few steps from before the veil.
Having gazed solemnly on the seven times sprinkled
blood, in the light of the golden candlestick, he is
directed to another act. He is to approach the golden
altar-that altar whereon sweet incense was presented.
Incense, being fragrant, represented that which is pleasing,
and which has in it acceptability; and when offered
along with prayer, praise, or any feeling, of the soul,
exhibited a type of the merits of the Surety enveloping
his people's services. The horns of this altar (said to have
been of a pyramidical shape) represented the power and
strength that lay in this mode of approaching Jehovah.
The horn is the recognised symbol of power. Incense
ascending between the four horns was symbolical of
praise, prayer, or any service presented to God, ascend-
ing with all prevailing merit. And blood, placed on
these horns,* exhibited the strong appeal to God made
* There is no incense burnt on this altar on this occasion, "in order to teach
us," says an old writer, “not to confide in our prayers for pardon.”
68 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
by atonement. A strong appeal to God is made by the
blood thus placed on the horns of the golden altar. It
is like the voice in Rev. ix. 13.
We have seen that the priest first of all sprinkled the
blood on the floor, close to the veil, or on the veil, whence
it fell in drops to the ground, so that a cry was heard
ascending from the Holy Place itself. And then he
sprinkled it on the four horns of the altar of intercession,
that an appeal of unbroken strength might go up into the
ears of the Lord from the very place of strong crying.
He knew that it spoke better things than the blood of
Abel. When the anointed priest was thus engaged, was
he not a type of Jesus in the act of expiating his people's
guilt? Probably the priest knelt, and then prostrated
himself on the ground, as he sprinkled the blood before
the veil; and it would be with many tears, and strong
crying from the depths of his soul, that he touched the
altar's horns--a type of Jesus in the garden, when he
fell on his face, and, being in an agony, prayed more
earnestly, and "offered up supplications, with strong
crying and tears, to him that was able to save him from
death" (Heb. v. 7). Although in this case, the priest's
sense of guilt was personal, and therefore was deep and
piercing, yet when Jesus took on him our sins, he, too,
felt them, and felt them as if they had been his own. He
cried, "Mine iniquities have taken hold upon me!" (Ps.
xl. 12.) Identifying himself with us, his soul grieved
immeasurably for the sin he bore, and his tears dropt on
the awful burden which he took up, as sincerely as if it
had been altogether his own.
At length the priest comes from the Holy Place--leaving
it, however, filled with the cry of blood--a cry for pardon!
--and proceeds to the altar of burnt-offering, directly
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 69
opposite the door. There he pours out the rest of the
blood, at the foot of the altar,* his eye locking straight
toward the Holy Place. Within and without the Holy
Place, the voice of atonement was now heard ascending
from the blood. What a sermon was thus preached to
the people! Atonement is the essence of it--atonement
needed for even one sin, and applied as soon as the sin
was known. There is no trifling with God. What a
ransom for the soul is given!--life--the life of the Seed
of the Woman! What care to present it--what earnest-
ness! The Holy Place is filled with its cry, and the courts
without also; and the priest's soul is intently engaged in
this one awful matter! The people, perceiving the whole
transaction, must have felt it singularly powerful, first, for
conviction--Whosoever shall keep the whole law, and
yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all" (James ii. 10);
and, secondly, for invitation—“To-day, if ye will hear
his voice, harden not your hearts."
Ver. 8-10. And he shall take of from it all the fat of the
bullock for the sin-offering; the fat that covereth the inwards,
and all the fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys,
and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the
caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away,
as it was taken of from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace-
offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the
The same ceremonies as were used in the peace-offer-
ings are intentionally introduced here (see iii. 10). The
object seems to be, to shew the offerer that he is now
accepted. It is not in vain that he has sprinkled the
blood on the floor of the Holy Place and its altar of incense,
and poured out what of the blood remained, in sight of
* It is said, that in Jerusalem, there was an underground canal at the altar
in the temple, by which the blood was carried off to the brook Cedron.--Patrick.
70 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
all the people. God gives this sign of reconciliation, viz.
at this stage of his offering, the sacrifice is treated as a
peace-offering. The voice of peace now breathes over the
sacrifice, and through the courts, as much as if a voice had
said, "It is a savour of rest."
Ver. 11, 12. And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with
his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung,
even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp
unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn
him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out
shall he be burnt.
But that the priest, and all present, might go home
with an awful conviction of the heinousness even of for-
given sin, other things remained to be done. We are not
to forget sin, because it has been atoned for; and we are
not to think lightly of sin, because it is washed away.
Our God wishes his people to retain a deep and lively
sense of their guilt, even when forgiven. Hence the con-
cluding ceremonies in the case of the priest's sin.
The very skin of the bullock is to be burnt--thus
expressing more complete destruction than even in the
case of the whole burnt-offering. Here is the holy law
exacting the last mite; for the skin is taken, and the
whole flesh, the head and legs (i. 8), the intestines, and the
very dung--"even the whole bullock!" Unsparing justice,
that is, unspotted justice! And yet more. As if the
altar were too near God's presence to express fully that
part of the sinner's desert which consists in suffering
torment far off from God, all this is to be done "without
the camp"--a distance, it is calculated, of four miles from
the Holy Place. In all sacrifices, indeed, this separation
from God is represented in some degree by the ashes
being carried away out of the camp; but, to call attention
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 71
still more to this special truth, we are here shewn the
bullock burnt on the wood, "without the camp, where the
ashes were wont to be poured out." It was over the very
ashes that lay poured out there; for, in the last clause of
the verse, the preposition lfa is used. "The clean place"
is defined to be this place of ashes. It was clean, because,
when reduced to ashes by consuming fire, all guilt was
away from the victim, as intimated in Ps. xx. 3, "Let him
turn thy burnt-sacrifice to ashes" (hn,w.;day;), the word used
At this part of the ceremonies, there was meant to be
exhibited a type of hell. This burning afar off, away
from the Holy Place, yet seen by the whole congregation,
was a terrible glance at that truth--"They shall be tor-
mented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the
holy angels, and in presence of the Lamb; and the smoke
of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever" (Rev.
It is plain, also, that God took the opportunity which
this offering afforded, or rather shaped this part of the
rites belonging to the offering, in order to shew somewhat
more of Christ's death.
In every sacrifice which was of a public nature, or for
a public person, the animal was carried without the camp,
as we may see in chap. xvi. 27, on the day of atonement.
The reason of this was that, in these cases, Christ's public
sacrifice, as offered to the whole world, and every creature,
and as fulfilling the law's demands to the last mite, was
to be especially prefigured. It is carried "without the
camp," as Jesus was crucified outside of the gates of
Jerusalem (Heb. xiii. 12), that it might be in sight of all
the camp, as Christ's one offering is held up to all the
world, to be used by whosoever will. Next, suffering far
72 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
off from the Holy Place, with his Father's face hidden,
and all the fire of wrath in his soul and on his body, Jesus
farther fulfilled this type in regard to the entire satisfaction
demanded by the law. And, inasmuch as he suffered at
Jerusalem, where the ashes of the sacrifices were poured
out, he may be said to have fulfilled the type of the "clean
place." For we see him, over these remnants of typical
sacrfrice, offering up the one true and perfect offering.
But it was Calvary that was specially a "place of ashes,"
inasmuch as there the demands of justice were wont to
be satisfied, and the bones of victims to human law cast
out. Joseph's new tomb, hewn out of the very rock of
Calvary, is the exact counterpart to the "clean place,"
at the very spot where the ashes of so many dead men
were to be found all around.
What a view of hell does the suffering Saviour
give! The face-covering between him and his Father-
the criminal's veil hung over him for three hours, the
three hours of darkness--away from the Holy Place--
driven from the mercy-seat, and beyond the bounds of
the holy city--an outcast, a forsaken soul, a spectacle to
all that passed by--wrath to the uttermost within, and
his person, even to the eye, more marred than any man,
while his cry, "My God! my God! why hast thou for--
saken me?" ascended up as the smoke of the sacrifice, to
heaven, shewing the heat of the unutterable agony, and
testifying the unswerving exactness of the holy law.
What a contrast to his Coming again without sin, and
entering Jerusalem again with the voice of the archangel,
in all his glory, bringing with him those whom he
redeemed by that death on Calvary!
In one respect his people are to imitate the view of
him shewn in this type. As he went forth to witness for
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 73
God's holy law--went forth without the gate, a spectacle
to all the earth; so they, redeemed by him, are to go
forth to witness of that death and redemption which he
has accomplished (Heb. xiii. 12). We are to "go forth
unto him;" we are to be constantly, as it were, viewing
that spectacle of united love and justice, looking to his
cross; though in so doing we make ourselves objects of
amazement and contempt to the world, who contemn those
whom they see going forth to stand by the side of the
THE CONGREGATION'S SIN
Ver. 13. And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through
ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly,
and they have done somewhat against any of the command-
ments of the Lord, concerning things which should not be done,
and are guilty;--
The moral law was sometimes broken by the nation at
large; as in the matter of the golden calf, and the mur-
muring at the report of the spies. It is thought by Rashi
that a sin like this occurred when "the Sanhedrim did
not instruct, the people in regard to some ceremonial
observance." Admitting that such cases occurred, yet it
is important to notice, that even if the people were led
into sin by their priest, they are not excused: they are
guilty, and suffer the consequences." The prophet Hosea
(iv. 6-9) shews that people are not freed from sin or
punishment in such cases.
This, however, is but one way whereby the congrega-
tion are led into sin. Often it happened that a man made
little use of his knowledge, and so ate holy things, as we
* The proper rendering of "are guilty," UmwexA, is, in this place, "are suffer-
ing the penalty." As in Ps. xxxiv. 21, 22, "shall be desolate;" and Isa.
74 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
find, chap. xxii. 14; and the whole people, in 1 Sam. xiv.
33, ate of the blood. Though they had not despised the
priest, nor refused the law at his lips, yet they might let
the word slip from their mind; as in Heb. ii. 1, we are
told may still occur.
We all know that it is possible for a child of God to be
cherishing unawares some idol, or indulging, like Eli, a
too easy temper. Or he may be rash in his words, and
frowning in his looks, where Jesus would only have looked
on in grief. He may be cherishing pride like Hezekiah
(Isa. xxxix.), or exhibiting blind zeal as the sons of Zebe-
dee. He may be unawares substituting labour for fellow-
ship with God, working without love, and suffering without
faith in exercise. Prejudice against particular doctrines
may be his secret sin; or wrong motives may be in-
fluencing him to do right actions. He may contrive to
retain the look of greenness when the sap is gone. Even
a whole community of believers may be pervaded by some
But more specially, a whole church may be in the state
of the congregation referred to here. It may be deny-
ing some great truth in theory or in practice. Thus, it
may make light of the duty which kings and magistrates
owe to Christ; as is done by some churches. It may be
suffering "that woman Jezebel to teach and to seduce"
(Rev. ii. 20). It may be admitting some civil element
into the management of its spiritual affairs, as is done in
many Protestant Churches. It may be shutting its eyes
to some great truth, or winking at some heresy. It may
teach error in doctrine; or it may have left its first love.
It may have allowed discipline to have become lax and
corrupt, as, alas! is too generally true of all the Churches
of the Reformation.
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 75
These secret sins may be keeping God from blessing
the whole people, though he blesses individuals. Some-
where amid these sources is to be found the origin of much
of our inefficiency and unprofitableness. Ai cannot be
taken because of the accursed thing in the camp. The
mariners cannot make out the voyage to Tarshish with
Jonah on board.
Israel was thus led to constant self-examination and
close attention to the revealed will of God.
Ver. 14. When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known,
then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin,
and bring hint before the tabernacle of the congregation.
Their offering is the same as the priest's, because of
their mutual relation. The people's sin is not overlooked,
but is judged with as much severity as the priest's. Every
man must bear his own burden; and God is jealously
Ver. 15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands
upon the head of the bullock before the Lord; and the bullock
shall be killed before the Lord.
The elders, in the name of the people, convey the guilt
of the people to the head of the victim. It was this class
of men--the elders--that put Jesus to death, with the
priests. Now here we see that their act was a national
act--strictly national--since they were representatives of
all Israel. And their cry, "His blood be on us," joining
with the multitude, was a national rejection of Jesus.
Ah, had they then joined to put their hands on him as
the acknowledged sacrifice, they might have remained to
The guilt of the whole people was thus made to meet
in one point, viz. on the bullock. It is to a scene like
76 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
this that Isaiah (liii. 6) refers--" The Lord made the
iniquity of us all to meet on him" (Ob faygp;hi).
Ver. 16-20. And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the
bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation; and the
priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood, and sprinkle
it seven times before the Lord, even before the veil. And
he shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar
which is before the Lord, that is in the tabernacle of the con-
gregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of
the altar of the burnt-offering, which is at the door of the
tabernacle of the congregation. And he shall take all his
fat from him, and burn it upon the altar. And he shall do
with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin-offering,
so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atone-
ment for them, and it shall be forgiven them.
The expression, ver. 20, is to be understood, "He shall
do in this case as he has done already," in the case of a
bullock for sin-offering, viz. ver. 3. The declaration, "It
shall be forgiven," seems inserted here because otherwise
there is not here, as in the last case, any particular exhi-
bition of peace, as in ver. 8-10. This declaration, there-
fore, is made, that pardon may be assuredly known.
Ver. 21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp,
and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it is a sin-offering
for the congregation.
It is remarkable, that after the declaration of forgive-
ness, these other ceremonies take place. They are in-
tended, no doubt, to impress a horror of sin on the soul,
even after it is forgiven. The forgiven man is most capa-
ble of seeing the horror of sin ; and therefore the people
are first pardoned, and then led out to see the last mite
exacted without the camp. See the same order observed,
and for the same reason, we suppose, at ver. 11, 12.
None but a pardoned man could have uttered Paul's cry,
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 77
“0 wretched man that I am; who shall deliver me from
the body of this death?" (Rom. vii. 24.)
The identity of Christ and his people, also, is taught
by their offering being burnt exactly in all respects as the
priest's, whose offering more especially typified Jesus.
THE RULER'S SIN
Ver. 22, 23. When a ruler hath sinned, and done somewhat
through ignorance against any of the commandments of the
Lord his God, concerning things which should not be done,
and is guilty; or if his sin, wherein he bath sinned, come to
his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats,
a male without blemish.
If a ruler has sinned. . . . and is suffering the penalty,"
as in ver. 13. The ruler may sin ignorantly, and be led
to know his sin by some suffring, like Abimelech, in Gen.
xx. 3-17; or it might be by some friend's reproof, or by
new circumstances occurring. So ver. 27.
The ruler is such a one as those princes (MyxiWin;) of the
tribes in Numb. vii. It includes all civil magistrates. His
high responsibility is here shewn just as in Prov. xxix.
12, "If a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants will be
It is said, "The Lord his God;" as if to call attention
to the duty of publicly recognising the Lord, and of rulers
having the Lord as their own God. A ruler is specially
bound to be a man of God. This is taken for granted
here, "The Lord his God." No casting off of Messiah's
cords here. He that ruleth over men must be as the Just
One, "ruling in the fear of God."
A kid of the goats" is his sin-offering. It is a differ-
ent victim from that offered by the priest or congregation,
in order to shew that God definitely marks sin. And yet
still the essence of atonement is the same, the blood of a
78 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
victim that dies. Priest or prince must alike be atoned
for by blood. The "male without blemish" is the spot-
less Saviour, the Son of man.
Ver. 24, 25. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the
goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering
before the Lord: it is a sin-offering. And the priest shall
take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it
upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and shall pour
out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt-offering.
It seems intentionally twice stated here, that the altar
of burnt-offering was to be the place where his sin-
offering was to be presented;--it is to be killed where
the usual sacrifices for that altar are killed, and its blood
is to be sprinkled there. The reason may be this:--
The altar of incense in the Holy Place was peculiarly the
scene of the priest's intercession, and of the people's
prayers as a congregation. The sins in holy things
pointed inward, toward the Holy Place. On the other
hand, a ruler's sins pointed toward the camp. Hence,
the blood that atones for his sin is sprinkled on the horns
of that altar where it would be publicly observed. The
cry of the blood on the four horns,--the strong cry,
based on all prevailing atonement,--was to ascend within
hearing, as it were, of all his subjects, inasmuch as his
sins affected the welfare of the nation.
Ver. 26. And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the
fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings: and the priest shall
make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall
be forgiven him.
The last clause may be intended to draw attention to
the fact, that in this instance the atonement is because of
this particular sin, and not simply because he is a sinner
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 79
in nature and by common actual transgressions. The
opportunity is here embraced of impressing on us the
need of atonement for particular sins,--for every sin by
itself; and for those little-regarded sins which we apolo-
gise for by saying, "I did not know of it." Jonathan's
sin in taking a little honey (1 Sam. xiv. 39, 43), and
Abimelech's sin (Gen. xx. 6), shew how jealous God is
of even what appears sin, especially in public persons.
SINS OF INDIVIDUALS
Ver. 27, 28. And if any one of the common people sin through
ignorance, while he doeth somewhat against any of the com-
mandments of the Lord, concerning things which ought not to
be done, and be guilty, (see ver. 13); or if his sin, which he
hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his
offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his
sin which he hath sinned.
“A female" is here offered. Each kind of sin is thus
definitely noticed, and each sinner's case treated by itself.
But why is it a female, since Christ is typified by these
offerings?--It is not easy to say. Perhaps it was intended
by God, that by occasionally taking female sacrifices;
Israel should be kept from ever once supposing that atone-
ment was not intended equally for the daughters of Zion.
The circumstance that a female kid is here fixed upon
served to take off the impression that the male intimated
only the atonement of the men of Israel. Though, how-
ever, its being male or female is of use for other lessons,
it is not the chief point to be noticed; the point to be
observed is, that the blood is an atonement. The sub-
sidiary ideas are not to be dwelt upon always; but every-
where the principle of atonement by blood is to be kept in
the sinner's view.
"For his sin which he hath sinned." Lest the man
80 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
should think that the sin was trifling, because he was a
common man, and not a ruler, this emphatic notice is
taken of his sin:--
Ver. 29-31. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of
the sin-offering, and slay the sin-offering in the place of the
burnt-offering. And the priest shall take of the blood thereof,
with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of
burnt-offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the
bottom of the altar. And he shall take away all the fat
thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace-
oferings; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a
sweet savour unto the Lord; and the priest shall make an
atonement for him, and it shall be, forgiven him.
The clause, "for a sweet savour unto the Lord," occurs
here, though omitted in the three preceding cases. The
reason may be to shew the worshipper, that though he
was a common man, and not a ruler, yet still as much
attention is paid to him as to the others. The offering
which he presents is a sweet savour, as much as Noah's.
The full acceptance and full favour shewn to every
believer alike is immeasurably sweet. One family! all
alike accepted! and all alike kept as the apple of his eye!
And thus this sin, that unawares was troubling him, is
away. And when even one sin, and that a sin of igno-
rance, is completely removed, who can tell how much
light may flow into our now cleansed souls? A new
window is opened,--a new eye--when the scale has fallen
Ver. 32-34. And if he bring a lamb for a sin-offering, he
shall bring it a female without blemish. And he shall lay
his hand upon the head of the sin-offering, and slay it for a
sin-offering in the place where they kill the burnt-offering.
And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with
his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-
THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV 81
offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom
of the altar.
It might sometimes not be easy to bring a kid. If so,
let a lamb be taken. Only, blood must be shed. The
poor man's lamb is specially noticed and fully received as
the richer man's offering. "Like precious faith" is the
common property of all God's family--"One Lord, one
Ver. 35. And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat
of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace-offer-
ings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according
to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord: and the priest
shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed,
and it shall be forgiven him.
The expression, "according to the offerings made by
fire," should be "in addition to (lfa) the offerings,"--the
daily sacrifice, morning and evening,--or, "upon the
offerings," i.e. over the very, remnants of the daily
sacrifice. It is exactly like chap. iii. 5. We are there
taught that particular sins must be cast upon the one
great Atonement; and the cases that occur in this chapter
of special guilt are just specific applications of the great
truth taught in the daily sacrifice.
Israel was taught that their different offerings were
all of one nature in the main with the general burnt-
offering;--one Saviour only was prefigured, and one
atonement. These sin-offerings, presented "upon the
daily sacrifice," resemble tributary streams pouring in
their waters into one great ocean. "Christ once suffered
for sins, the Just for the unjust, to bring us unto God"
(1 Pet. iii. 18).* 0 how anxious is our God to purge
* In Numb. xxii. 26, another direction is given, viz. in a case where the
nation had for a time forsaken the law of Moses. This happened under several
82 THE SIN-OFFERING CHAP. IV
us from every stain! The priest's hyssop is introduced
into every corner of the building, that we may be alto-
gether pure. Well may we join the seraphim in their
song, "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts."
Some have regarded the offences for which satisfaction
is made in this chapter as offences of a national kind-
offences against the Theocracy, by which an Israelite for-
feited the favour of Jehovah as his Theocratic Ruler, and
was for a time cut off from his protection. Even when
taken in this limited view, how significant are the sacri-
feces! The offender comes confessing his sin, and bringing
a victim to suffer in his stead. The animal is slain in his
room; the man is forgiven, and retains his standing as a
protected Israelite--remaining under the shadow of the
Guardian Cloud. The sacrifice never failed to produce
this effect; but nothing else than the sacrifice ever did--
"Without shedding of blood there is no remission." This
principle of the Divine government was engraven on the
hearts of Israel, viz. whosoever is pardoned any offence
must be pardoned by means of another's death. "The
great multitude" of the saved are all pardoned by one
of infinite worth having died for them all (see 2 Cor.
idolatrous kings, such as Manasseh. Ignorance became the sin of the next
generation. Perhaps, Josiah's alarm at the hearing of the law found in the
temple is the kind of case there intended. In ver. 27-29, individuals are taught
to seek personal pardon besides.