"Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through
our Lord Jesus Christ; by whom also we have access by faith into this
grace wherein we stand."--Rom. v. 1, 2
Ver. 1. And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace-offering; if he
offer it of the herd, whether it be a male or female, he shall
offer it without blemish before the Lord
THE PEACE-OFFERING* is introduced to our notice with-
out any formal statement of the connexion between it
and the preceding offerings. That there is a connexion is
taken for granted, and the prophet Amos (v. 22) refers
to this understood order when he says, "Though ye offer
me burnt-offerings, and your meat-offerings, I will not
accept them; neither will I regard the peace-offerings of
your fat beasts." The connexion is simply this: a justi-
fied soul, devoted to the Lord in all things, spontaneously
engages in acts of praise and exercises of fellowship. The
Lord takes for granted that such a soul, having free ac-
cess to him now, will make abundant use of that access.
Often will this now redeemed sinner look up and sing,
* In Hebrew the word is always plural, except in Amos v. 22. It is in every
other place MymilAw;, perhaps equivalent to "things pertaining to peace"--things
that spoke of peace, viz. the divided pieces of the sacrifice, some parts burnt on
the altar, some feasted upon by the priest, some by the offerer. Various sorts
of blessing, included in the word peace, were thus set forth.
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III 51
"0 Lord, truly I am thy servant; I and thy servant,
and the son of thine handmaid: thou hast loosed my
bonds. I will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving,
and will call upon the name of the Lord" (Ps. cxvi. 16).
The animal might be a female. In this offering the
effects of atonement are represented more than the manner
of it; and therefore there is no particular restriction to
males.* Just as we afterwards find that part of the
animal was to be feasted upon, and not all to be burned,
as in the whole burnt-offering; because here the object
principally intended is to shew Christ's offering conveying
blessing to the offerer. It is true, that in the, peace-offering
presented by the priest himself, and in that presented at
the season of first-fruits, there is an injunction that it be
a male that is offered; but the reason in these cases may
be, that on occasions which were more than ordinarily
solemn, there was a special intention to exhibit something
of the manner, as well as the effects, of Christ's sacrifice
--himself, as well as what he accomplished, was to be
It must be "without blemish;" for it represents "the
holy child Jesus;" "altogether lovely;" "who knew no
sin"--the Head of a Church that is to be "without spot,
or wrinkle, or any such thing."
Ver. 2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering,
and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation:
and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall sprinkle the blood upon the
altar round about.
The offerer's hand, resting on the head of the animal,
was equivalent to his pointing to Christ as the source of
his blessings; q. d. "The chastisement of my peace is
* So, a kid might be taken as well as a lamb for the Passover (Exod. xiii. 5)
Attention was directed to the use made of the blood; not to the kind of animal
52 THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III
laid upon him; therefore I am come this day, laden with
benefits, to give thanks while I enjoy the blessing" (see
above, chap. i. 5). And let us again notice the words,
“kill it at the door of the tabernacle." We cannot cross
the threshold of his Father's house, and enter his many
mansions, except by his peace-speaking blood. "Being
justified by faith, we have peace--we have access into his
grace" (Rom. v. 1, 2).
Ver. 3, 4. And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace-offering
an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that covereth
the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, and the
two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks,
and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take
From a comparison of Exod. xxix. 13, it becomes plain
that all the pieces here mentioned were to be removed
from the animal, and burnt by themselves. "It shall he
take" is equivalent to "this--all this shall he take."
They were not to burn the whole animal, but only
these portions. These portions were like "the memorial"
(chap. ii. 2) in the case of the meat-offering. And the
parts chosen for this end are the richest parts, the fat--
the fat within, and the fat that might be said to be without
(ver. 9), in the case of the lamb.
Peculiar care is to be given to take out all the fat that
was within, "the fat that covers the inwards," or intestines;
next, "the kidneys," which are composed of the richest
substance, richer than even fat;* then "the fat in which
the kidneys" are imbedded, and which is "on the loins"
(flanks), i.e. the inner fat muscles of the loins which had
* Hence Deut. xxii. 14, “the fat of the kidneys of wheat," is used to ex-
press the highest degree of richness in the wheat. Patrick quotes Aristotle de
Animal., iii. 9, "e@xousi de nefroi malista tw?n splagxnw?n pimelhn."
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III 53
the collops of fat (Job xv. 27); and "the caul (tr,t,yi)
above the liver and above the kidneys" (see the margin
and the original Hebrew). It is not easy to ascertain the
meaning of "the caul," some making it one of the lobes
of the liver (Gesenius, from the Septuagint); others the
midriff; and others the gall-bladder. It is every way
likely that it was some fat part near the liver and
Now, observe that all these portions of the animal are
the richest; and also deeply seated, near the heart. In
an offering of thanks and fellowship, nothing was more
appropriate than to enjoin that the pieces presented
should be those seated deep within. We approach a
reconciled God, to hold fellowship with him as Adam did
in Eden in the cool of the day; or rather as those before
the throne do in their holy worship. We come to praise,
to glorify, to enjoy our God. What, then, can we bring
but the most inward feelings, all of the richest kind, and-
all, from the depth of the soul. Our reins (Heb. tOylAK;,
same as " kidneys") must yield their desires, in all abund-
ance, to the God that trieth the "heart and reins" (Ps,
vii. 9). Our loins were before "filled with pain" (Isa.
xxi. 3), because sin's "loathsome disease" spread through
them (Ps. xxxviii. 7); therefore now we consecrate their
strength, using it all for him, "the effectual working of
whose power" has set us free. Yea, whatever can be
found anywhere in or about our heart and reins, we yield
it all to him who "poured out his soul unto death." This
is communion with God.
Such was the rich offering of his soul which Jesus made
as our peace-offering, when "by the eternal Spirit he
offered himself to God." Every deep affection, every
emotion, all that love could feel, all that desire could
54 THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III
yearn over, was presented by him to the Father in that
hour when he became "our peace" (Eph. ii. 14).
And all these feelings were at the moment tried and
tested by the fire which blazed around them. The just
wrath of God seemed to spurn and thrust down each
heartfelt emotion; yet all remained unchanged and
undiminished, and were poured into the mould of the
Father's heart by that very heat of wrath.
We, as reconciled, are to pour out these same feelings
in all their fulness, but under the kindly influence of love.
The heat of love, not the fire of wrath, is to melt our
souls and pour forth our feelings.
Ver. 5. And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the
burnt-sacrifice, which is upon the wood that is on the fire: it
is an offering made by fire of a sweet savour unto the Lord.
Here the Septuagint have "o]smh eu]wdiaj Kuri&," the
terms employed by Paul in Eph. v. 2--"qusia ei]j o]smhn
The parts thus prepared, the fat parts, are to be put
on the altar; but not at random, anywhere on the altar.
A particular mode is fixed upon. They are to be put
"on the sacrifice that is upon the wood which feeds the
flame" of the altar. The daily sacrifice is referred to,
which typified the atonement in all its fulness. Upon
this, therefore, must the pieces of the peace-offerings be
laid. Our daily acts of communion with God, our daily
praise, our daily thanksgiving, must be founded afresh on
the work of Jesus. "By him therefore let us offer the
sacrifice of praise to God continually" (Heb. xiii. 15).
Ver. 6. And if his offering, for a sacrifice of peace-offering unto the
Lord, be of the flock, male or female, he shall offer it without
The Father's delight in his Son seems plainly exhibited
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III 55
in the ever-recurring direction--"without blemish." The
eye of God rested with infinite complacency on the spot-
lessness of Jesus. "Behold my servant whom I have
chosen, mine elect (q.d. my chosen Lamb), in whom my
soul delighteth." It is an expression that teaches us by
its frequent repetition, both the holy delight which the
Father had in "the holy child Jesus," and the delight he
will have in his unblemished Church. It is a holy God
that speaks; it is the author of the holy law. The law-
giver is he who prescribes the type of a fulfilled and
satisfied law. We recognise the God and Father of our
Lord and Saviour “just, while he justifies.” It is truly
pleasant, unspeakably precious, to see God's thorough
demand for spotlessness; for thus we are assured, that
beyond all doubt, our reconciliation is solid. It is full
reconciliation to a God who is fully satisfied.
Ver. 7, 8. If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer
if, before the Lord. And he shall lay his hand upon the head
of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congre-
gation: and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof
round about upon the altar.
The lamb is as fully acknowledged as the offering from
the herd--the bullock or heifer; for it is not the thing
itself, but what it represented, that has value in it. One
of the ends answered by permitting a gradation in the
value of the things sacrificed, was this; it turned atten-
tion to the Antitype, instead of the type itself--to the
Lamb of God, instead of the value of the mere animal.
Ver. 9, 10. And he shall offer, of the sacrifice of the peace-
offering, an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat
thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the
back-bone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the
fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys, and the fat
56 THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III
that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above
the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.
The only difference here, from ver. 3; 4, is, that here
we have, in addition to the other pieces already noticed,
"the rump," or tail (hyAl;xA). In Syrian sheep, this was
a part of the animal which the shepherd reckoned very
valuable; it is large,* and, being composed of a substance
between fat and marrow, is not inferior in taste and
quality to marrow. Still the richest portions are claimed
for the altar. Every rich thought, every rich emotion,
every intense feeling, was devoted by Christ for us, and
is to be now sent back by us to him. And it is said,
"the tail he shall remove close by the back-bone," q.d.
take it entire and complete--leaving nothing behind.
Perhaps we are entitled to consider the Psalmist as
referring to this offering in Ps. lxiii. 5, "My soul shall
be satisfied as with marrow and fatness"--here is the
reference to the pieces presented--q.d. My soul shall
be satisfied, as if I had received all that is intimated by
the rich pieces of the peace-offering. And so also, when
Isaiah says (lv. 2), "Eat ye that which is good, and let
your soul delight itself in fatness," q.d. Come to the great
peace-offering, and take the richest portions, even those
selected for God! Enjoy the very love wherewith the
Father loveth the Son!
Ver. 11. And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food
of the offering made by fire unto the Lord.
Instead of saying, "It is a sweet savour," we have
here another expression, equally significant. "It is the
food, the sacrifice made by fire." It is called "food," or
"bread," because God is now regarded as a Father feast-
* This is so well known that writers usually refer us to Aristotle de Animal.,
viii. 28, where he says, "Ou[raj e]xei to platoj phxewj."
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III 57
ing his prodigal children who have returned home, or as
a friend entertaining guests. Hence Ezekiel xliv. 7, "Ye
offer my bread, the fat and the blood;" and hence the
altar is called "the table of the Lord" (Mal. i. 7; also
Lev. xxi. 22). This represents God as one at table
with his people; they feast together. He is no more
their foe. If it was the chief aggravation of Judas's sin,
He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel
against me;" then it is impossible for God to be other-
wise than an eternal friend, "an everlasting Father," to
those whom he invites home. In this view we see the
keenness of the reproach in Mal. i. 7, 12, and in Ezek.
xliv. 7. They treated the privilege of children and
friends with contempt; God, in his most kindly aspect,
was despised and scorned.
Ver. 12, 13. And if his offering be a goat, then he shall offer it
before the Lord. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of
it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and
the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle the blood thereof upon the
altar round about. And he shall offer thereof his offering,
even an offering made by fire unto the Lord.
The goat stands here in the same relation to the
peace-offering from the herd, as did the turtle-dove and
pigeon to the bullock of the whole burnt-sacrifice. The
poorer sort might bring the goat; when he could not
bring the blood of bulls, he brought the blood of goats.
And thus, still, they were prevented from attaching im-
portance to the mere type.
The goat represents Jesus as one taken out of the
flock for the salvation of the rest. Let us suppose we
saw "a flock of goats appearing from Mount Gilead"
(Song vi. 5). The lion from Bashan rushes upon this
flock ; one is seized, and is soon within the jaws of the
58 THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III
lion! This prey is enough; the lion is satisfied, and
retires; the flock is saved by the death of one. This inci-
dental substitution does not, indeed, shew forth the man-
ner of our Substitute's suffering; but it is an illustration
of the fact, that one dying saved the whole flock. The
goat is one of a class that goes in flocks in Palestine, and
so are fitted to represent Christ and his people. And,
perhaps, the fact of an animal like the goat being selected
to be among the types of Christ, was intended to prevent
the error of those who would place the value of Christ's
undertaking in his character alone. They say, "Behold
his meekness--he is the Lamb of God!" Well, all that
is true; it is implied in his being "without blemish."
But that cannot be the true point to which our eye is
intended to be directed by the types; for what, then,
becomes of the goat? They may tell us of the meekness
of the lamb, and patience of the bullock, and tenderness
of the turtle-dove; but the goat, what is to be said of it?
Surely it is not without a special providence that the goat
is inserted, where, if the order of chap. i. had been fol-
lowed, we would have had a turtle-dove? The reason is,
to let us see that the main thing to be noticed in these
types is the atonement which they represented. Observe
the stroke that falls on the victim, the fire that consumes
the victim, the blood that must flow from the victim,
whether it be a bullock, a lamb, a turtle-dove, or a
The Socinian view of Christ's death is thus contra-
dicted by these various types; and our eye is intently
fixed on the atoning character of the animal, more than
on anything in its nature.
While other types do exhibit the character and nature
of the Saviour, it was fitting that one type, such as this
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III 59
of the goat, should thus guard us against the idea that
that in itself was atonement.
Ver, 14-16. The fat that covereth the inwards, and all the
fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys, and the
fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul
above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And
the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the
offering made by fire, for a sweet savour.
This offered goat is as fully accepted, as a peace-
offering, as was the lamb or bullock; for the atoning
aspect of the type is just as complete in this case as in
any other. "It is food--an offering made by fire "--as
Ver. 17. All the fat is the Lord's. It shall be a perpetual
statute for your generations, throughout all your dwellings,
that ye eat neither fat nor blood.
Some think "the fat " is the fat of beasts used in sacri-
fice (chap. vii. 25). But, perhaps, it was the fat of all
beasts used "in their dwellings." Those parts mentioned
as sacrificial must always be set aside. But the fat of
other parts of the animal (the fat that was part of the
flesh) was used, and reckoned a luxury; see Neh. viii. 10
--"Eat the fat." This is the most probable explanation.
There may be a reproof intended in Ezek. xxxiv. 3, "Ye
eat the fat," as if they even took the forbidden portions.
"Blood," because the life--the sign of atonement--must
not be eaten. It is the solemn type of the poured-out
Thus in the dwellings of Israel there was something to
keep them in daily remembrance of the Great Sacrifice.
Their deep and awful reverence must be felt at home as
well as in the sanctuary. Their homes are made a sanc-
tuary thereby, as they set apart the fat and the blood at
60 THE PEACE-OFFERINGS CHAP. III
their tables! And thus they live as redeemed men,
realising their dependence on the blood of Jesus, and
delighting to cast the crown at his feet in every new
remembrance of his work.
Few ordinances were more blessed than these Peace-
offerings. Yet, like the Lord's Supper with us, often
were they turned to sin. The lascivious woman in Prov.
vii. 14, comes forth saying, "I have peace-offerings with
me; this day have I paid my vows." She had actually
gone up among the devoutest class of worshippers to pre-
sent a thank-offering, and had stood at the altar as one
at peace with God. Having now received from the priest
those pieces of the sacrifice that were to be feasted upon,
lo! she hurries to her dwelling, and prepares a banquet
of lewdness. She quiets her conscience by constraining
herself to spend some of her time and some of her sub-
stance in his sanctuary. She deceives her fellow-creatures,
too, and maintains a character for religion; and then she
rushes back to sin without remorse. Is there nothing
of this in our land? What means Christmas-mirth, after
pretended observance of Christ's being born? What
means the sudden worldliness of so many on the day fol-
lowing their approach to the Lord's Table? What means
the worldly talk and levity of a Sabbath afternoon, or
evening, after worship is done?
Contrast with this the true worshipper, as he appears
in Psalm lxvi. He has received mercies, and is truly
thankful. He comes up to the sanctuary with his offer-
"I will go into thy house with burnt-offerings; I will
pay thee my vows, which my lips have uttered, and my
mouth hath spoken, when I was in trouble " (ver. 13, 14).
THE PEACE-OFFERINGS. CHAP. III. 61
In the "burnt-offerings," we see his approach to the
altar with the common and general sacrifice; and next,
in his "paying vows," we see he has brought his peace-
offerings with him. Again, therefore, he says at the
"I will offer unto thee burnt-sacrifices of fatlings "
This is the general offering, brought from the best of
his flock and herd. Then follow the peace-offerings-
"With the incense (treFoq;, fuming smoke) of rams;
I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah."
Having brought his offerings, he is in no haste to de-
part, notwithstanding; for his heart is full. Ere, there-
fore, he leaves the sanctuary, he utters the language of a
soul at peace with God--
“Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will de-
clare what he hath done for my soul. I cried unto him
with my mouth, and he was extolled with my tongue.
If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear
me: but verily God hath heard me; he hath attended
to the voice of my prayer. Blessed be God, which path
not turned away my prayer, nor his mercy from me!"
This, truly, is one whom "the very God of peace" has
sanctified, and whose whole spirit, and body, and soul,
he will preserve blameless unto the coming of the Lord
Jesus Christ (1 Thess. v. 23).