A commentary on the book of

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"Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through

our Lord Jesus Christ; by whom also we have access by faith into this

grace wherein we stand."--Rom. v. 1, 2

Ver. 1. And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace-offering; if he

offer it of the herd, whether it be a male or female, he shall

offer it without blemish before the Lord
THE PEACE-OFFERING* is introduced to our notice with-

out any formal statement of the connexion between it

and the preceding offerings. That there is a connexion is

taken for granted, and the prophet Amos (v. 22) refers

to this understood order when he says, "Though ye offer

me burnt-offerings, and your meat-offerings, I will not

accept them; neither will I regard the peace-offerings of

your fat beasts." The connexion is simply this: a justi-

fied soul, devoted to the Lord in all things, spontaneously

engages in acts of praise and exercises of fellowship. The

Lord takes for granted that such a soul, having free ac-

cess to him now, will make abundant use of that access.

Often will this now redeemed sinner look up and sing,
* In Hebrew the word is always plural, except in Amos v. 22. It is in every

other place MymilAw;, perhaps equivalent to "things pertaining to peace"--things

that spoke of peace, viz. the divided pieces of the sacrifice, some parts burnt on

the altar, some feasted upon by the priest, some by the offerer. Various sorts

of blessing, included in the word peace, were thus set forth.
"0 Lord, truly I am thy servant; I and thy servant,

and the son of thine handmaid: thou hast loosed my

bonds. I will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving,

and will call upon the name of the Lord" (Ps. cxvi. 16).

The animal might be a female. In this offering the

effects of atonement are represented more than the manner

of it; and therefore there is no particular restriction to

males.* Just as we afterwards find that part of the

animal was to be feasted upon, and not all to be burned,

as in the whole burnt-offering; because here the object

principally intended is to shew Christ's offering conveying

blessing to the offerer. It is true, that in the, peace-offering

presented by the priest himself, and in that presented at

the season of first-fruits, there is an injunction that it be

a male that is offered; but the reason in these cases may

be, that on occasions which were more than ordinarily

solemn, there was a special intention to exhibit something

of the manner, as well as the effects, of Christ's sacrifice

--himself, as well as what he accomplished, was to be


It must be "without blemish;" for it represents "the

holy child Jesus;" "altogether lovely;" "who knew no

sin"--the Head of a Church that is to be "without spot,

or wrinkle, or any such thing."

Ver. 2. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering,

and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation:

and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall sprinkle the blood upon the

altar round about.
The offerer's hand, resting on the head of the animal,

was equivalent to his pointing to Christ as the source of

his blessings; q. d. "The chastisement of my peace is
* So, a kid might be taken as well as a lamb for the Passover (Exod. xiii. 5)

Attention was directed to the use made of the blood; not to the kind of animal

laid upon him; therefore I am come this day, laden with

benefits, to give thanks while I enjoy the blessing" (see

above, chap. i. 5). And let us again notice the words,

“kill it at the door of the tabernacle." We cannot cross

the threshold of his Father's house, and enter his many

mansions, except by his peace-speaking blood. "Being

justified by faith, we have peace--we have access into his

grace" (Rom. v. 1, 2).

Ver. 3, 4. And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace-offering

an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat that covereth

the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, and the

two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the flanks,

and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take

From a comparison of Exod. xxix. 13, it becomes plain

that all the pieces here mentioned were to be removed

from the animal, and burnt by themselves. "It shall he

take" is equivalent to "this--all this shall he take."

They were not to burn the whole animal, but only

these portions. These portions were like "the memorial"

(chap. ii. 2) in the case of the meat-offering. And the

parts chosen for this end are the richest parts, the fat--

the fat within, and the fat that might be said to be without

(ver. 9), in the case of the lamb.

Peculiar care is to be given to take out all the fat that

was within, "the fat that covers the inwards," or intestines;

next, "the kidneys," which are composed of the richest

substance, richer than even fat;* then "the fat in which

the kidneys" are imbedded, and which is "on the loins"

(flanks), i.e. the inner fat muscles of the loins which had

* Hence Deut. xxii. 14, “the fat of the kidneys of wheat," is used to ex-

press the highest degree of richness in the wheat. Patrick quotes Aristotle de

Animal., iii. 9, "e@xousi de nefroi malista tw?n splagxnw?n pimelhn."
the collops of fat (Job xv. 27); and "the caul (tr,t,yi)

above the liver and above the kidneys" (see the margin

and the original Hebrew). It is not easy to ascertain the

meaning of "the caul," some making it one of the lobes

of the liver (Gesenius, from the Septuagint); others the

midriff; and others the gall-bladder. It is every way

likely that it was some fat part near the liver and


Now, observe that all these portions of the animal are

the richest; and also deeply seated, near the heart. In

an offering of thanks and fellowship, nothing was more

appropriate than to enjoin that the pieces presented

should be those seated deep within. We approach a

reconciled God, to hold fellowship with him as Adam did

in Eden in the cool of the day; or rather as those before

the throne do in their holy worship. We come to praise,

to glorify, to enjoy our God. What, then, can we bring

but the most inward feelings, all of the richest kind, and-

all, from the depth of the soul. Our reins (Heb. tOylAK;,

same as " kidneys") must yield their desires, in all abund-

ance, to the God that trieth the "heart and reins" (Ps,

vii. 9). Our loins were before "filled with pain" (Isa.

xxi. 3), because sin's "loathsome disease" spread through

them (Ps. xxxviii. 7); therefore now we consecrate their

strength, using it all for him, "the effectual working of

whose power" has set us free. Yea, whatever can be

found anywhere in or about our heart and reins, we yield

it all to him who "poured out his soul unto death." This

is communion with God.

Such was the rich offering of his soul which Jesus made

as our peace-offering, when "by the eternal Spirit he

offered himself to God." Every deep affection, every

emotion, all that love could feel, all that desire could
yearn over, was presented by him to the Father in that

hour when he became "our peace" (Eph. ii. 14).

And all these feelings were at the moment tried and

tested by the fire which blazed around them. The just

wrath of God seemed to spurn and thrust down each

heartfelt emotion; yet all remained unchanged and

undiminished, and were poured into the mould of the

Father's heart by that very heat of wrath.

We, as reconciled, are to pour out these same feelings

in all their fulness, but under the kindly influence of love.

The heat of love, not the fire of wrath, is to melt our

souls and pour forth our feelings.

Ver. 5. And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the

burnt-sacrifice, which is upon the wood that is on the fire: it

is an offering made by fire of a sweet savour unto the Lord.
Here the Septuagint have "o]smh eu]wdiaj Kuri&," the

terms employed by Paul in Eph. v. 2--"qusia ei]j o]smhn


The parts thus prepared, the fat parts, are to be put

on the altar; but not at random, anywhere on the altar.

A particular mode is fixed upon. They are to be put

"on the sacrifice that is upon the wood which feeds the

flame" of the altar. The daily sacrifice is referred to,

which typified the atonement in all its fulness. Upon

this, therefore, must the pieces of the peace-offerings be

laid. Our daily acts of communion with God, our daily

praise, our daily thanksgiving, must be founded afresh on

the work of Jesus. "By him therefore let us offer the

sacrifice of praise to God continually" (Heb. xiii. 15).

Ver. 6. And if his offering, for a sacrifice of peace-offering unto the

Lord, be of the flock, male or female, he shall offer it without

The Father's delight in his Son seems plainly exhibited
in the ever-recurring direction--"without blemish." The

eye of God rested with infinite complacency on the spot-

lessness of Jesus. "Behold my servant whom I have

chosen, mine elect (q.d. my chosen Lamb), in whom my

soul delighteth." It is an expression that teaches us by

its frequent repetition, both the holy delight which the

Father had in "the holy child Jesus," and the delight he

will have in his unblemished Church. It is a holy God

that speaks; it is the author of the holy law. The law-

giver is he who prescribes the type of a fulfilled and

satisfied law. We recognise the God and Father of our

Lord and Saviour “just, while he justifies.” It is truly

pleasant, unspeakably precious, to see God's thorough

demand for spotlessness; for thus we are assured, that

beyond all doubt, our reconciliation is solid. It is full

reconciliation to a God who is fully satisfied.

Ver. 7, 8. If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer

if, before the Lord. And he shall lay his hand upon the head

of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congre-

gation: and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof

round about upon the altar.
The lamb is as fully acknowledged as the offering from

the herd--the bullock or heifer; for it is not the thing

itself, but what it represented, that has value in it. One

of the ends answered by permitting a gradation in the

value of the things sacrificed, was this; it turned atten-

tion to the Antitype, instead of the type itself--to the

Lamb of God, instead of the value of the mere animal.
Ver. 9, 10. And he shall offer, of the sacrifice of the peace-

offering, an offering made by fire unto the Lord; the fat

thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the

back-bone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the

fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys, and the fat


that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul above

the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away.
The only difference here, from ver. 3; 4, is, that here

we have, in addition to the other pieces already noticed,

"the rump," or tail (hyAl;xA). In Syrian sheep, this was

a part of the animal which the shepherd reckoned very

valuable; it is large,* and, being composed of a substance

between fat and marrow, is not inferior in taste and

quality to marrow. Still the richest portions are claimed

for the altar. Every rich thought, every rich emotion,

every intense feeling, was devoted by Christ for us, and

is to be now sent back by us to him. And it is said,

"the tail he shall remove close by the back-bone," q.d.

take it entire and complete--leaving nothing behind.

Perhaps we are entitled to consider the Psalmist as

referring to this offering in Ps. lxiii. 5, "My soul shall

be satisfied as with marrow and fatness"--here is the

reference to the pieces presented--q.d. My soul shall

be satisfied, as if I had received all that is intimated by

the rich pieces of the peace-offering. And so also, when

Isaiah says (lv. 2), "Eat ye that which is good, and let

your soul delight itself in fatness," q.d. Come to the great

peace-offering, and take the richest portions, even those

selected for God! Enjoy the very love wherewith the

Father loveth the Son!
Ver. 11. And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food

of the offering made by fire unto the Lord.
Instead of saying, "It is a sweet savour," we have

here another expression, equally significant. "It is the

food, the sacrifice made by fire." It is called "food," or

"bread," because God is now regarded as a Father feast-

* This is so well known that writers usually refer us to Aristotle de Animal.,

viii. 28, where he says, "Ou[raj e]xei to platoj phxewj."

ing his prodigal children who have returned home, or as

a friend entertaining guests. Hence Ezekiel xliv. 7, "Ye

offer my bread, the fat and the blood;" and hence the

altar is called "the table of the Lord" (Mal. i. 7; also

Lev. xxi. 22). This represents God as one at table

with his people; they feast together. He is no more

their foe. If it was the chief aggravation of Judas's sin,

He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel

against me;" then it is impossible for God to be other-

wise than an eternal friend, "an everlasting Father," to

those whom he invites home. In this view we see the

keenness of the reproach in Mal. i. 7, 12, and in Ezek.

xliv. 7. They treated the privilege of children and

friends with contempt; God, in his most kindly aspect,

was despised and scorned.
Ver. 12, 13. And if his offering be a goat, then he shall offer it

before the Lord. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of

it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and

the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle the blood thereof upon the

altar round about. And he shall offer thereof his offering,

even an offering made by fire unto the Lord.
The goat stands here in the same relation to the

peace-offering from the herd, as did the turtle-dove and

pigeon to the bullock of the whole burnt-sacrifice. The

poorer sort might bring the goat; when he could not

bring the blood of bulls, he brought the blood of goats.

And thus, still, they were prevented from attaching im-

portance to the mere type.

The goat represents Jesus as one taken out of the

flock for the salvation of the rest. Let us suppose we

saw "a flock of goats appearing from Mount Gilead"

(Song vi. 5). The lion from Bashan rushes upon this

flock ; one is seized, and is soon within the jaws of the

lion! This prey is enough; the lion is satisfied, and

retires; the flock is saved by the death of one. This inci-

dental substitution does not, indeed, shew forth the man-

ner of our Substitute's suffering; but it is an illustration

of the fact, that one dying saved the whole flock. The

goat is one of a class that goes in flocks in Palestine, and

so are fitted to represent Christ and his people. And,

perhaps, the fact of an animal like the goat being selected

to be among the types of Christ, was intended to prevent

the error of those who would place the value of Christ's

undertaking in his character alone. They say, "Behold

his meekness--he is the Lamb of God!" Well, all that

is true; it is implied in his being "without blemish."

But that cannot be the true point to which our eye is

intended to be directed by the types; for what, then,

becomes of the goat? They may tell us of the meekness

of the lamb, and patience of the bullock, and tenderness

of the turtle-dove; but the goat, what is to be said of it?

Surely it is not without a special providence that the goat

is inserted, where, if the order of chap. i. had been fol-

lowed, we would have had a turtle-dove? The reason is,

to let us see that the main thing to be noticed in these

types is the atonement which they represented. Observe

the stroke that falls on the victim, the fire that consumes

the victim, the blood that must flow from the victim,

whether it be a bullock, a lamb, a turtle-dove, or a


The Socinian view of Christ's death is thus contra-

dicted by these various types; and our eye is intently

fixed on the atoning character of the animal, more than

on anything in its nature.

While other types do exhibit the character and nature

of the Saviour, it was fitting that one type, such as this
of the goat, should thus guard us against the idea that

that in itself was atonement.

Ver, 14-16. The fat that covereth the inwards, and all the

fat that is upon the inwards, and the two kidneys, and the

fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the caul

above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away. And

the priest shall burn them upon the altar: it is the food of the

offering made by fire, for a sweet savour.
This offered goat is as fully accepted, as a peace-

offering, as was the lamb or bullock; for the atoning

aspect of the type is just as complete in this case as in

any other. "It is food--an offering made by fire "--as

ver. 11.
Ver. 17. All the fat is the Lord's. It shall be a perpetual

statute for your generations, throughout all your dwellings,

that ye eat neither fat nor blood.
Some think "the fat " is the fat of beasts used in sacri-

fice (chap. vii. 25). But, perhaps, it was the fat of all

beasts used "in their dwellings." Those parts mentioned

as sacrificial must always be set aside. But the fat of

other parts of the animal (the fat that was part of the

flesh) was used, and reckoned a luxury; see Neh. viii. 10

--"Eat the fat." This is the most probable explanation.

There may be a reproof intended in Ezek. xxxiv. 3, "Ye

eat the fat," as if they even took the forbidden portions.

"Blood," because the life--the sign of atonement--must

not be eaten. It is the solemn type of the poured-out


Thus in the dwellings of Israel there was something to

keep them in daily remembrance of the Great Sacrifice.

Their deep and awful reverence must be felt at home as

well as in the sanctuary. Their homes are made a sanc-

tuary thereby, as they set apart the fat and the blood at
their tables! And thus they live as redeemed men,

realising their dependence on the blood of Jesus, and

delighting to cast the crown at his feet in every new

remembrance of his work.

Few ordinances were more blessed than these Peace-

offerings. Yet, like the Lord's Supper with us, often

were they turned to sin. The lascivious woman in Prov.

vii. 14, comes forth saying, "I have peace-offerings with

me; this day have I paid my vows." She had actually

gone up among the devoutest class of worshippers to pre-

sent a thank-offering, and had stood at the altar as one

at peace with God. Having now received from the priest

those pieces of the sacrifice that were to be feasted upon,

lo! she hurries to her dwelling, and prepares a banquet

of lewdness. She quiets her conscience by constraining

herself to spend some of her time and some of her sub-

stance in his sanctuary. She deceives her fellow-creatures,

too, and maintains a character for religion; and then she

rushes back to sin without remorse. Is there nothing

of this in our land? What means Christmas-mirth, after

pretended observance of Christ's being born? What

means the sudden worldliness of so many on the day fol-

lowing their approach to the Lord's Table? What means

the worldly talk and levity of a Sabbath afternoon, or

evening, after worship is done?

Contrast with this the true worshipper, as he appears

in Psalm lxvi. He has received mercies, and is truly

thankful. He comes up to the sanctuary with his offer-

ings, saying--

"I will go into thy house with burnt-offerings; I will

pay thee my vows, which my lips have uttered, and my

mouth hath spoken, when I was in trouble " (ver. 13, 14).

In the "burnt-offerings," we see his approach to the

altar with the common and general sacrifice; and next,

in his "paying vows," we see he has brought his peace-

offerings with him. Again, therefore, he says at the


"I will offer unto thee burnt-sacrifices of fatlings "

(ver. 15).

This is the general offering, brought from the best of

his flock and herd. Then follow the peace-offerings-

"With the incense (treFoq;, fuming smoke) of rams;

I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah."

Having brought his offerings, he is in no haste to de-

part, notwithstanding; for his heart is full. Ere, there-

fore, he leaves the sanctuary, he utters the language of a

soul at peace with God--

“Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will de-

clare what he hath done for my soul. I cried unto him

with my mouth, and he was extolled with my tongue.

If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear

me: but verily God hath heard me; he hath attended

to the voice of my prayer. Blessed be God, which path

not turned away my prayer, nor his mercy from me!"

This, truly, is one whom "the very God of peace" has

sanctified, and whose whole spirit, and body, and soul,

he will preserve blameless unto the coming of the Lord

Jesus Christ (1 Thess. v. 23).

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