A commentary on the book of

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he thinks they have made themselves acceptable to God by their manner of life."

The same remark replies to the writings of Thomas-a-Kempis.

typical meaning of the meat-offering--these persons are

the meat-offering. Perhaps, also, in 1 Samuel xxvi. 19,

"If the Lord have stirred thee up against me, let him

accept a meat-ofering" (HHAn;mi), there may be reference

to this species of offering, representing the person and all

he possessed. At the same time, the word when

not contrasted or conjoined with the sacrifice, is often

used as a generic term for any offering.*

But we have still to call attention to the chief applica-

tion of this type. It shews forth Christ himself. And

indeed, this should have been noticed first of all, had it

not been for the sake of first establishing the precise

point of view in which this type sets forth its object.

We are to consider it as representing Christ himself, in

all his work of obedience--soul and body. He is the

"fine wheat," pure, unspotted; yet also "baked," &c.,

because subjected to every various suffering. The burnt-

offering being presented and consumed, Christ's glorious

obedience in his human nature, and all that belonged to

him, was accepted, as well as his sacrifice; for he and

all that is his was ever set apart for, and accepted by

the Father. "Lord, truly I am thy servant" (Ps. cxvi.

16). And if it represent Christ, it includes his Church.

Christ, and his body the Church, are presented to the

Father, and accepted. Christ, and all his possessions in

heaven and earth, whether possessions of dominion or

possessions in the souls of men and angels, were all pre-

sented to, and accepted by the Father. And Christ

delights thus to honour the Father. He will delight to
* And so the Septuagint sometimes render it by qusi

prosfora<. In Ezek. xlv. 15, where it occurs, the meaning would have been

brought out more exactly by rendering the clause thus:--"One lamb out of the

flock, from the pastures of Israel, for an offering (a Mincha, as in Gen. iv. 4),

even for burnt-offerings and for peace-offerings."


deliver up even the kingdom to the Father (1 Cor. xv.

24). What an example for each of his people! Let us

behold our pattern, and give up ourselves, body and soul

and substance, to the glory of our God.

Let us now examine the chapter in detail.

The meat-offering must be of fine flour,--the fine

wheat of Palestine, not the coarser Hmaq,, "meal," but the

fine tl,so, bolted and sifted well. It must in all cases be

not less than the tenth of an ephah (chap. v. 11); in

most cases far more (see Numb. vii. 13). It was taken

from the best of their fields, and cleansed from the bran

by passing through the sieve. The rich seem to have

offered it in the shape of pure fine flour, white as snow,

heaping it up, probably, as in Numb. vii. 13, on a silver

charger, or in a silver bowl, in princely manner. It thus

formed a type, beautiful and pleasant to the eye, of the

man's self and substance dedicated to God, when now

made pure by the blood of sacrifice that had removed his

sin. For if forgiven, then a blessing rested upon his

basket and his store, on the fruit of his body, and the

fruit of his ground, the fruit of his cattle, and the in-

crease of his kine (see Deut. xxviii. 3-6). Even as

Jesus, when raised from the tomb, was henceforth no

more under the curse of sin, but was blessed in body,

for his body was no longer weary or feeble; and blessed

in company, for no longer was he numbered among trans-

gressors; and blessed in all his inheritance, for "all

power was given him in heaven and in earth."

The oil poured on the fine flour denoted setting apart.

It was oil that was used by Jacob at Bethel in setting

apart his stone pillow to commemorate his vision; and

every priest and king was thus set apart for his office.

Oil, used on these occasions, is elsewhere appropriated to


mean the Spirit's operation--the Spirit setting apart

whom he pleases for any office.

The frankincense, fragrant in its smell, denoted the

acceptableness of the offering. As a flower or plant--

the rose of Sharon or the balm of Gilead--would induce

any passing traveller to stoop down over them, and regale

himself with their fragrance, so the testimony borne by

Christ's work to the character of Godhead brings the

Father to bend over any to whom it is imparted, and to

rest over him in his love. The Lord Jesus says to his

Church, in Song iv. 6, "Until the day break, and the

shadows flee away, I will get me to the mountain of

myrrh, and the hill of frankincense." This spot must be

the Father's right hand. In like manner, then, it ought

to be the holy purpose of believing souls who are look-

ing for Christ, to dwell so entirely amid the Redeemer's

merits, that, like the maidens of king Ahasuerus (Esther

ii. 12), they shall be fragrant with the sweet odours,

and with these alone, when the Bridegroom comes.

When Christ presented his human person and all he

had, he was indeed fragrant to the Father, and the oil

of the Spirit was on him above his fellows (see Isa. lxi. 1;

Ps. xlv. 7 ; Heb. ix. 14).

And equally complete in him is every believer also.

Like Jesus, each believer is God's wheat--his fine flour.

He is clothed in the fine linen, white and clean, and

stands by Christ's side, in the likeness of Christ. Even

now is he able to say, "As he is (at the Father's right

hand), so are we in this world"--as completely righteous,

as really accepted (1 John iv. 17).

Ver. 2. And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests: and

he shall take thereout his handful of the flour thereof, and of

the oil thereof; with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest


shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, to be an offering

made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord.
One of Aaron's sons was to take a handful out of what

was brought, a handful of flour, and a proportional quan-

tity of the oil. Along with this he was to take “all

the frankincense," because all was needed to express the

complete acceptance. This is "the memorial of the

meat-offering"*--a part for the whole. In dedication

of our body and property, we need not go through every

article in detail, but we take some part as a specimen

and an earnest of all the rest.

In Acts x. 4, Cornelius's "prayers and alms" are called

a memorial." These alms and prayers were a specimen

of the whole man's dedication. He was a believer, like

old Simeon, already accepted, and this meat-offering of

his, the dedication of self and substance, expressed by

prayers and alms, was acknowledged on the part of God

by the gift of more light and liberty.

Ver. 3. And the remnant of the meat-offering shall be Aaron's

and his sons'; it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the

Lord made by fire.
The offering is declared "most holy." And to shew

that the mass was so, as well as the handful, the remnant

is given to Aaron's sons to feast upon. Even Aaron, who

bore on his mitre " Holiness to the Lord," could safely

eat of it.
* Isaiah (1xvi. 3) refers first to the burnt-offering, speaking of slaying the

lamb and the ox; and then in the next clause, to the meat-offering, speaking of

him that "offers a hHAn;mi and maketh a frankincense-memorial" hnAbol; ryKiz;ma.

Milton has, without authority, blended these two together in his description of

Abel's offering, Paradise Lost, xi.

“* * * * * A shepherd next,

More meek, came with the firstlings of his flock

Choicest and best; then, sacrificing laid

The inwards and the fat, with incense strew'd,

on the cleft wood."

In this manner we are assured of the true and thorough

acceptance of our dedicated things, when once we are

forgiven. How complete is the assurance we have of the

acceptance of Christ and all that are his! Nay, even of

their substance. There is a blessing "on their basket

and on their store." So completely is its curse removed,

that under the tree in the plains of Mamre, angels,

and the Lord of angels, eat of Abraham's bread and his

fatted calf!

But the declaration, "It is a thing most holy," teaches

us how we should regard every member of our body as

belonging to God; and everything we possess." Ye are

not your own." "It is most holy." How little do we feel

it to be so!

Ver. 4. And if thou bring an oblation of a meat-offering baken in

the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with

oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil.
A part of the type of the fine flour, already noticed,

may be that Christ was ground by sore agony, and

endured unutterable anguish when bruised for us. And

so the wine of the drink-offering, afterwards noticed,

would imply a reference to the wine-press, out of which

he came. And in like manner, the oven here mentioned,

and the other articles exposed to the fire, would contain

a reference to his enduring the fierce flame of wrath.*

But admitting this use of the emblems to be doubtful,

we find a certain and obvious meaning in the diversities of

form in which the meat-of Bring appears. As in chap. i.

we saw that God, for the sake of the less wealthy, took

a lamb or a dove, when a more costly sacrifice would have
* Willet quotes Pellicanus, who applies these varieties in the preparation of

the meat-offering to the manifold nature of afflictions " Nunc Clibanus, nunc

Patilla, nunc Craticula dici possunt:" a true remark, whether contained here or


been beyond the reach of the offerer; so it is here: for

the sake of different ranks in society, the meat-offering

has a form in which any one may be able to present it.

If he is rich, let him bring his fine flour from the finest of

the wheat. If he is not able to do this, let him bring "a

meat-offering baleen in the oven." If he cannot afford

this, having no oven, then let him bring somewhat "baken

in the fire plate," or pan. If even this is not in his power,

he will at least possess a frying pan, and. let him bring

what it prepares. God excuses none, of whatever rank,

from dedicating themselves and their substance to him.

The widow has two mites to cast into the Lord's treasury.

In 1 Chron. xxiii. 29, this gradation seems referred to

when it is said, "For that which is baked in the pan,

and for that which is fried, and for all manner of measure

and size."

The oven was a utensil which was generally possessed

by all in the middle ranks of life. If they have this, let

them prepare in it "cakes" (tOL.Ha), of a larger size, and

wafers" (Myqyqir; cakes of a smaller size, and bring

these as their meat-offering. The larger cakes must have

"oil mingled through them;" the smaller and thinner must

have oil on them. In both cases, the oil that sets apart

must not be wanting. Nay, where it is possible, it must

form part, as it were, of the substance, by being mingled

with it.

And there must be no leaven; for leaven indicates

corruption at work. If we give grudgingly, with restless,

impatient, tumultuous, anxious feelings, we are offering

with leaven. We must dedicate self and substance in

Christ's spirit--"Not my will, but thine be done."
Ver. 5. And if thy oblation be a meat-offering, baken in a pan, it

shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil.


This is another form in which it may be presented, if

the man be yet poorer than the last mentioned; if he use

the "fire plate" in his house, and not "the oven." The

only article of furniture absolutely necessary for prepar-

ing food seems to have been the "frying-pan" of verse 7.

Anything more than that indicated comfort and ease.

The "cakes" and "wafers" of last verse evidently inti-

mated a moderate degree of luxury. And this man also

possessed some degree of independence in his circum-

stances. Perhaps he occupied the station of a tradesman,

if not somewhat above that. He, too, must dedicate all

to the Lord.

Ver. 6. Thou shalt part it in pieces, and pour oil thereon: it is

a meat-offering.
This division into pieces may shew that every part of

our substance is to be given up. We must allow God to

divide and choose and appropriate as he pleases. And

then, each part must be "anointed with oil;" set apart by

the priest's hand. Both the whole, as a whole, and every

part of it, must be given up to the Lord.

Ver. 7. And if thy oblation be a meat-offering baken in the frying-

pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil.
The shallow frying-pan (a shallow vessel, of earth, used

to this day by the Arabs, and called Tagen) indicated

poverty, if the man had this and no other culinary utensil.

It was used in boiling, and therefore was indispensable.

He, too, must offer what he has. God is willing to have

him and his; he does not despise the poor. Nay, by

attending to different classes of men; he finds out op-

portunities of some new exhibition of his wisdom and


Here the opportunity is afforded of enforcing the lesson,

that whatever is wanting, oil must not be wanting: the

Spirit must set apart whatever is really dedicated.

Ver. 8. And thou shalt bring the meat-offering that is made of

these things unto the Lord: and when it is presented unto the

priest, he shall bring it unto the altar.
A poor worshipper might be apt to be discouraged

when he witnessed the more costly gifts of others: there-

fore the Lord kindly condescends to assure; his heart by

specially inserting here these directions to the priest, viz.

that he must take the humblest meat-offering, and present

it on the altar. The priest might be ready to neglect so

poor an offering; but here he is warned., "When the

offerer presents it, the priest shall bring it." Our Master

was ever more tender-hearted than his disciples. The

disciples rebuked those who brought little children to

him; but Jesus said, "Suffer them to come." Jehovah,

God of Israel, is Jesus, the Son of man!

Ver. 9. And the priest shall take from the meat-offering a memorial

thereof, and shall burn it upon the altar: it is an offering

made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord.
The memorial is what was directed to be taken, ver. 2.

And this is to be done as much in this poorer offering as

when it was fine flour. There is no virtue in the size or

in the quality of the thing.

The "sweet savour" reminds us of Paul's words to the

Philippians, when they had, though poor, given him what

they could spare of their substance: "I have received of

Epaphroditus the things which were sent from you, an

odour of a sweet smell" (Phil. iv. 18). Jesus in heaven

smells this sweet savour, and will reward it at the day of

his appearing.

Ver, 10. And that which is left of the meat-offering shall be

Aaron's and his sons'; it is a thing most holy of the offerings

of the Lord made by fire.
It is most holy (see ver. 3 again), and it is taken from

the fire-offerings of the Lord, expressing complete appro-

priation by the Lord, of the things offered to him. He

takes what we offer; it is not a mere compliment. We

may not say, "I give myself to the Lord," and then do as

we please. The Lord takes us at our word. We are no

more our own, nor is our body ours, nor our members,

nor our money, nor our health, nor our talents, nor our

reputation, nor our affections, nor our relations, nor our

very life itself. All is the Lord's--in his treasury--

"among the offerings made by fire," that ascend up to

heaven in the smoke of the altar.

Then follow some general rules in regard to the general

subject of meat-offerings.

Ver. 11. No meat-offering, which ye shall bring unto the Lord,

shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor

any honey, in any offering of the Lord made by fire.
Leaven indicates corruption, and is the very opposite

of salt, which preserves (ver. 13), and which must never

be wanting. Honey includes all that is sweet, like the

honey* of grapes, figs, and the reed or calanus (which grew

on the banks of the waters of Merom), and it is forbidden

both because it turns to sourness, and leads to fermen-

tation, and perhaps also because it is a luxury; and the

Lord desires nothing of earthly sweetness. His offerings

must have neither corruption nor carnal sweetness. We

must, like Christ, be the Lord's; holy and separate from the

world, not pleasing ourselves. In chap. xxiii. 17, there is
* Jarchi says, yrp qytm lk–“all sweetness of fruit,"--sweet things

obtained from any fruit. Honey was reckoned corrupting, because it ferments. The

Chaldee uses in the sense of fermenting, a word derived from wbAd;,


a special lesson taught by the presence of leaven in the two

loaves of the first-fruits; it is altogether unlike this case.

Ver. 12. As for the oblation of the first fruits, ye shall offer them

unto the Lord; but they shall not be burnt on the altar for a

sweet savour.
The first ripe fruits of any sort are meant. These,

when offered, were typical of presenting the person's self

and substance, and hence are included in the subject of

meat-offering. But they are not to be brought to the

altar, because they shew us Christ in a peculiar aspect;

and that aspect seems to be Christ glorified, or raised up,

after suffering. Hence there is no burning of any part

of them, for the suffering is done. The Holy Spirit takes

truth in portions, and seems sometimes to turn our eye

away from one portion of truth on purpose to let us see

better some other portion, by keeping our attention for a

time fixed on that alone.

Ver. 13. And every oblation of thy meat-offering shalt thou season

with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of

thy God to be lacking from thy meat-offering: with all thine

offerings thou shalt offer salt.
This salt indicates corruption removed and prevented;

and in the case of the meat-offering, it is as if to say, Thy

body and thy substance are become healthy now; they

shall not rot. They are not like those of the ungodly in

James v. 2, "Your riches are corrupted." There is a

blessing on thy body and thy estate. And next it in-

timates the friendship (of which salt was a well-known

emblem) now existing between God and the man. God

can sup with man, and man with God (Rev. iii. 18).

There is a covenant between him and God, even in re-

gard to the beasts of the field (Job v. 23), and fowls of

heaven (Hos. ii, 18). The friendship of God extends to

his people's property; and to assure us of this he appoints

the salt in the meat-offering--the offering that especially

typified their substance. How comforting to labouring

men! how cheering to care-worn merchants--if they dedi-

cate themselves to God, he is interested in their property

as much as they themselves are! "Who is a God like

unto thee!" But more; "with all thine offerings thou shalt

offer salt," declared that the sweet savour of these sacri-

fices was not momentary and passing, but enduring and

eternal. By this declaration he sprinkles every sacrifice

with the salt of his unchanging satisfaction. And "the

covenant by sacrifice" (Ps. 1. 5) is thus confirmed on the

part of God: he declares that he on his part will be


Ver. 14. And if thou offer a meat-offering of thy first fruits unto

the Lord, thou shalt offer, for the meat-offering of thy first-

fruits, green ears of corn dried by the fire, even corn beaten

out of full ears.
These are voluntary meat-offerings, and they differ

from those of verse 12. The sense is, "If thou wishest

to make a common meat-offering out of these first-fruits,

it shall be done in the following manner." A peculiar

typical circumstance attends these. These are "ears of

corn," a figure of Christ (John xii. 24); and "ears of the

best kind," for so the Hebrew intimates. They

are "dried by the fire," to represent Jesus feeling the

wrath of his Father, as when he said, "My strength is

dried up," i.e. the whole force of my being is dried up

(Ps. xxii. 15); "I am withered like grass" (Ps. cii. 4).

0 how affecting a picture of the Man of sorrows! How

like the very life! The best ears of the finest corn in

the plains of Israel are plucked while yet green; and

instead of being left to ripen in the cool breeze, and
under a genial sun, are withered up by the scorching fire.

It was thus that the only pure humanity that ever walked

on the plains of earth was wasted away in three-and-

thirty years by the heat of wrath he had never deserved.

While obeying night and day, with all his soul and

strength, the burning wrath of God was drying up his

frame. "Beaten out of full ears," represents the bruises

and strokes whereby he was prepared for the altar.

“Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the

things which he suffered" (Heb. ii. 10). It is after this

preparation that he is a perfect meat-offering, fully de-

voted, body and substance, to the Lord.

In all this he is "First fruits," intimating that many

more shall follow. He the first-fruits, then all that are

his in like manner. We must be conformed to Jesus in

all things; and here it is taught us that we must be con-

formed to him in self-dedication--self-renunciation. We

must please the Father; as he left us an example, saying,

"I do always those things that please him" (John viii.

29), even under the blackest sky.

Ver. 15. And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense

thereon: it is a meat-offering.

Ver. 16. And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, part of the

beaten corn thereof, and part of the oil thereof,* with all the

frankincense thereof: it is an offering made, by fire unto the

The smoke and the fragrance ascend to heaven. All is

accepted--Christ first, then each of his people. He

passed through suffering, fire, and flame--then was

accepted. They, being reckoned one with him, are

treated as if they had done so too. Whatever sufferings

are left to them are not atoning, but only sanctifying.

* lfa, “una cum," says Rosenmuller.


Some one might here ask, Why is there no mention of

the wine-offering or drink-offering? It is rather remark-

able that the drink-offering should be omitted in the

midst of so full a setting forth of tabernacle rites. It is,

often joined with burnt-offerings and meat-offerings, as in

Ezek. xlv. 17. But properly speaking, the drink-offering

was not a part of any sacrifice; though it was never

offered by itself alone. It was a rite superadded, to ex-

press the worshipper's hearty concurrence in all that he

saw done at the altar. Hence, it could be deferred till

a convenient time arrived. It appears from Numbers

xv. 2, 4, that it was not to be observed till they came to

Canaan, and had reached the plentiful vineyards of Sorek

and Engedi.

But we may notice, in passing, the object and meaning

of this ordinance. It was "strong wine poured unto the

Lord" (Numb. xxviii. 7). Wine is the representation of

joy, and hence it was an expression, on the offerer's part,

of his cheerful and hearty acquiescence in all that was

done at the altar. He saw the lamb slain--a type of

atoning blood for his guilty soul; he saw the meat-offer-

ing presented--a type of entire dedication to the Lord;

and, therefore, when he lifted up the cup of wine, and

poured it forth before the Lord at the altar, over the

ashes of the sacrifice, and the memorial of the meat-

offering, offering, his so doing was equivalent to his saying, "In

all this I do heartily acquiesce. I welcome atoning blood

to my guilty soul, and I give up my redeemed soul to him

that has atoned for me. Amen, Amen!"

It is to this drink-offering that reference is made in

Judges ix. 13, where wine is said to "cheer God and
man." It is not to wine used at table for convivial pur-

poses that allusion is there made, but to wine used at the

altar. There it did truly gladden God and man. Like

the water of the well of Bethlehem poured out by David,

it expressed the heart poured out. The Lord rejoiceth to

see a sinner accept the offered atonement. Is not the

shepherd's heart glad when he finds the lost Sheep? Does

not the father weep for very joy as he sees his prodigal

return, and fall upon his neck? And likewise the Lord

rejoiced to see a ransomed sinner giving himself up to his

God, as he rejoiced over Abraham when he did not with-

hold even Isaac. "He taketh pleasure in them that fear

him." On the other hand, the sinner himself was glad

as he poured out the wine; for there is "joy and peace

in believing," in accepting the offered Saviour. Nor less

so in giving up all to the Lord; for he that giveth up

“houses and lands" for Christ's sake, receives a hundred-

fold more in this present life. Is it not, then, true, that

“wine made glad the heart of God and man?" Might

not the vine that grew in Israel's land say, "Should I

leave my wine, that cheereth God and man?” The olive,

in, the same manner, could say, "Should I leave my

fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man?"

(Judges ix. 9;) because olive-oil supplied the tabernacle

lamps, as well as lighted up the halls of princes; and

some part of a hin of oil--the special symbol of conse-

cration--must accompany every meat-offering (Numb.

xv. 5, 6).

If it be here asked, Did our Lord fulfil the type of

the drink-offering? We say, Yes; by the entire willing-

ness he ever felt, to suffer, and to obey for us. Even on

the night wherein he was betrayed, he sang, and gave

God praise that he must die. And perhaps there is
more meaning in the words of Luke xxii. 20 than is

generally noticed. “This cup is the New Testament in

my blood." This wine-cup not only exhibits the blood

that seals the New Covenant, but exhibits it as the wine

that may cheer our souls. The blood of the grape of the

True Vine gladdens God and man.

But returning to the immediate subject of the chapter

before us, let us sum it up by briefly quoting Hannah's

offering (1 Sam. i. 24) when Samuel was weaned. We

find there three bullocks. This is the burnt-offering-a

bullock for herself, and for her husband, and for her

child; and as if to express her belief that her child

needed atoning blood, she offers a bullock for him as

well as for herself, nay (ver. 25), expressly offers it at

the moment of presenting him. Next, we find the ephah

of flour. This is the meat-offering. It expressed the

dedication of themselves, and all they had, to God. An

ephah contained ten omers or ten deals, and three of

these was the usual quantity that went to each meat-

offering (Numb. xv. 9, 12) on such an occasion as this.

But here, no doubt, their meat-offering had more than

three omers, just in order to skew overflowing love.

The bottle of wine, last of all, was intended for the

drink-offering; and as an ephah of flour was far more

than was required by law, even for so many persons

(Numb. xv. 9), so no doubt this bottle of wine was more

than full measure, and was poured out before the Lord

to express the entire cheerfulness wherewith all this was

done by the parties concerned. It was after all this

(1 Sam. i. 28, and ii. 1) that they filled the tabernacle

with the voice of adoration and praise, and then returned

rejoicing to Ramah.

That this mode of worshipping the Lord was not
infrequent in Israel may appear, further, from 1 Sam. x. 3.

The three worshippers whom Saul met "going up to God

to Bethel," along Tabor plain, were carrying, 1. A kid;

one for each, to be a burnt-offering; 2. A loaf of bread,

or large cake; one for each, to be a meat-offering; 3. As

bottle of wine; one for all, as in Samuel's case.

"Happy are the people that are in such a case; yea,

happy the people whose God is the Lord!" Happy the

people where again and again some thankful worshipper

is saying, "What shall I render to the Lord for all his

benefits towards me? I will take the cup of salvation,

and call upon the name of the Lord" (Ps. cxvi. 13).

The drink-offering of wine, poured out before the Lord

over the peace-offering that some Israelite had brought

in the way of thanks for benefits received (as Numb.

xv. 3 directs), this is "the cup of salvation." And from

time to time the courts of the Lord's house are enlivened

by the happy countenance of some grateful worshipper,

who smiles with delight as the priest pours out for him

the sparkling wine of Lebanon or Sorek. Nor is it

less true that the Lord himself rejoices--his heart is

"cheered;" he rests in his love, making his love the very

canopy over all.

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